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«FIRST EDITION ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ©Copyright 2015 by Marsha Stewart All rights reserved. No part of this book may be stored in a retrieval system, ...»

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As for the Black people of Melanesia, such as the Fijians, New Caledonia and others, they also began settling Asia and the Pacific in proto-historic times back to about 100,000 years ago, most lived in China, SE Asia and the landmass before the Mongoloids began expanding southwards and pushing the Blacks out of Asia. Yet, according to some Fijians (the President of the Fijian community in Los Angeles (California), some of their people were still migrating from Africa about 2000 years before Christ, While Ben Tangghamma, the former Foreign Minister of Papua New Guinea pointed in the book, The Black Untouchables of India, that all the Blacks of 15 Asia have African roots and connections going back to protohistoric times about 100,000 years ago.

The boomerang was a common weapon for hunting small game in Africa about 10,000 to 20,000 years ago [a fact that may mean Australian Aborigines and Native Africans interacted]. Cave paintings in the Sahara which was wet during that time show hunters with boomerangs as well as bows and arrows. Do the Australian Aborigines use the bow and arrow? If no, then they may have left Africa before its invention. Another cultural trait is skin scarification. This is common in Africa as well as Melanesia and perhaps Australian as well. [Definitely in Australia].

The language spoken by Australian Aborigines have characteristics in the suffix and prefix forms that are identical to African languages [all 200 Australian Aboriginal languages?] particularly the Mende Language family, which was once widespread throughout the Sahara and was spread to India by Blacks who migrated to India in proto-historic times.

The Aborigines are related to a number of ethnic groups in Africa. Among them are the Tibbou, who have characteristics identical to Aborigines, others are the Nagas, who are spread from West Africa to Sudan to South Arabia all the way east to Indo China. The Nagas are Black/Negro.

Explanation for the origins of the Aborigines in the Americas were actually from Australia--The Negritoes: "The origins of the Australian Aborigines has never been a mystery to 16 Africans. As far as Africans are concerned, the Australian Aborigines, Trobian Islanders and Melasesians are all part of the proto-historic African Diaspora. However, what we have is not a mere migration of people to Australia but a wide 'Black belt' that circled the tropical, subtropical and temperate zones even before the 'evolution' of African migrants to Europe and Asia and the gradual change due to climatic adaptation into Caucasoid and Mongoloid (sic) 'races'. The point that the Aborigines currently were a part of a much larger and wider group of people spread around the world and are the same as African Negro types is important. It clearly shows that although Aboriginals migrated to Australia about 100,000 years ago were among the very first groups of people to migrate out of the African continent. (See The Black Untouchables of India by V.T. Rajsher, Runoko Rashidi www.saxakali.com and Y.N. Kly, Clarity Press, Atlanta, Georgia, USA) The Negrito--Aborigines have been referenced because their history traces to 60,000 years ago. Many history books and scientific journals refer to the Australian Aborigines as 'Archaic White', however from the African perspective, it was the Blacks who moved into Europe and Asia who gradually adapted to the temperature and differentiated to suit the climate. Thus, Whites should be called 'archaic black' rather than saying Aborigines are 'archaic white' unless they mean that the present day 'white' population of Europe once looked like the Black Aborigines...that has been a common belief.

However, they also migrated to Europe, the Americas, East Asia and other places during the same period. According to 17 many scientists and anthropologists who have done work on this issue, they were along with other Blacks the first people on this planet and were to be found on every continent. In fact Blacks were also in the Americas as early as 75,000 BC according to C. S. Gladwin (The Gladwin Thesis, McGraw Hill Books, 1947).

The very first Blacks who went to Europe, went there about the same time Aborigines migrated to Asia, Europe and Australia. These Blacks are called 'Grimaldi Negroid'. They were homo-sapiens similar to modern humans and they were basically hunters, however their social organization and culture was quite advanced.

The Blacks from whom the Australian Aborigines most likely came from still live in Africa and the migration of the cousins of the Aborigines did not stop about 60,000 years ago, nor did they migrate only to India, SE Asia and Australia in protohistoric times. There is evidence that a group of Black African people called the 'Anu' who lived in northern Africa / Egypt and followed the Bear cult (5000 BC and back to proto-historic times, see the book, African Presence in Early Asia, by Ivan Van Sertima, Transaction Publications, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA) they made a series of migrations to Asia. That is documented in ancient Egyptian texts. They were related to Aboriginals and were of a 'Negro' type in color, features and origins. Many went to northern Asia and China, others went to Japan.

Well, there are people called 'Ainu' in Japan, who seem to have affinities close to Australian Aborigines and Africans and 18 Melanesians. Anu is also a common African name and both the prefix and suffix. Today many are mixed, but a strong 'Negroid' racial characteristics can still be seen, although there is also a strong Mongoloid set of features as well. They have been said to have 'Caucasian' blood, however some experts believe they are among these Blacks who once lived throughout Eastern Asia, and who later mixed with the Mongoloid to create the Polynesians, some Filipino and other groups in Asia today. (See the text. Susu Economics The History of Pan-African Trade, Commerce, Money and Wealth, ISB# 1-58721-454-7, 1st Books Library, 2511 West Third Street, Suite 1, Bloomington, Indiana 47404 www1stbooks.com 19

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Some “card-carrying” Cherokees currently have NO ASIATIC DNA. The level of Haplogroup T in the Cherokee (26.9%) approximates the same percentage of 25% or what is found in Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Yemen. Egypt is one of the only lands where T attains a major position among the various mitochondrial lineages. Skin color and facial features are primarily like people who live in these countries.

The phylogenetic profile of R-M173 supports an ancient migration of Kushites from Africa to Eurasia. This expansion of an African Kushite population probably took place during the Neolithic period. Seventy-six out of 79 Native Americans have R lineage chromosomes belonging to R-P25 representing 73% of the Naïve American population.

Although European/African admixture is less likely to have occurred in the same period, this was the most frequent haplogroup (22.7%) in the Siberian study (Karafet et al. 2002) and may represent a very rare additional founding haplogroup of Asian admixture.

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researchers claim that NA must have European heritage because some populations carry haplogroup R-M269.

The DNA does not deny the possibility that 20% of African ancestry is of Native American origin. When Europeans got to what is considered North America, there were already Black Native Americans. The Nanticoke who were Algonquian migrated from Labrador, Canada and some through the Great Lakes. Both groups used Mande numerals. The Nanticoke and Yamasse were sold into slavery along with most coastal tribes.

The earliest settlers on the American continents came from Africa before the Ice melted at the Bering Strait and moved northward as the ice melted. The earliest dates for habitation of the American continent occur below Canada and in South America. Numerous sites in North and South America are over 35,000 years old. These sites are the Old Crow Basin (c.38,000 B.C.) in Canada; Orogrande Cave (c.36,000 B.C.) in the United States; and Pedra Furada (c.45,000 B.C.) in Brazil.

Some examples are the appearance of pebble tools at Monte Verde, Chile (c.32,000 B.C.), and rock paintings at Pedra Furada in Brazil (c.22,000 B.C.) and mastodon hunting in Venezuela and Colombia (c.13,000 B.C.), have led some researchers to believe that the Americas was first settled from South America.

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haplogroup A2i is represented by the T3308A has a transversion with an insertion of T3308C. This parallels the T3308C transition in the African haplogroup L1b.

Moreover, the majority of Native America (NA) haplogroup R is M-173, not M269. The Khoisan, Pygmy, Fula and etc. carry M269. In Equatorial Guinea, 17% of Africans carry R1b1-P25.

This indicates the Y-chromosome was widespread in Africa easily transferring to NA by Pre-Columbian Blacks, Black Europeans or African slaves who were mainly shipped to the U.S. from the Senegambia and Guinea region of West Africa.

As a result, the presence of between 19-22% AA males carrying R1, is probably evidence of their Native American heritage.

Never was there extensive intermarriage between Northeastern Native Americans and Europeans. Therefore, Europeans cannot account for the spread of R-M173 among Native Americans. The presence of R1 among NA probably accounts for a high percentage of the 22% of AA that carry this haplogroup. You add these AAs to the 10% that carry the Native American mtDNA, and there are 20% or more of AAs that have a NA heritage.

Creek and Seminole descendants carry identifiable African DNA markers from Mexico, Central America and South America. The Cherokees, for example, test with high levels of DNA markers associated with the Berbers, Native Egyptians (Remember, Egypt is a Greek word meaning BLACK), Turks, Lebanese, Hebrews, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and Mesopotamian.

22 The original English colony of Carolina (South Carolina) established in 1670, estimates that between 1650 and 1730 at least 50,000 Indigenous people (and likely more due to transactions hidden to avoid paying government tariffs and taxes) were exported by the English alone to their Caribbean outposts. Between 1670 and 1717 far more Indigenous Americans (Natives) were exported than Africans were imported. In southern coastal regions entire tribes were exterminated through slavery rather than disease or war. In a law passed in 1704, Indian slaves were conscripted to fight in wars for the colony long before the American Revolution. Six hundred thousand (600,000) American Indigenous Natives were enslaved between 1521 and 1776 which amounts to more than the number of Africans brought to the Americas by

Europeans. Examples are shown below:

Natchez people sold by French into slavery in West Indies.

The Creek of Georgia were slaves in Central, South, and across North America

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Slavery was part of the larger strategy to depopulate the land to make way for European settlers. As early as 1636 after the Pequot War in which 300 Pequot’s were massacred, those who remained were sold into slavery and sent to Bermuda.

Major slaving ports included Boston, Salem, Mobile, and New Orleans. From those ports Indians were shipped to Barbados by the English, Martinique and Guadalupe by the French and the Antilles by the Dutch. Indian slaves were also sent to the Bahamas as the "breaking grounds" where they might've been transported back to New York or Antigua.

At least 3,000 Americans (so-called Indians) are known to have been shipped to Europe between 1493 and 1501 (Columbus Expeditions). Most were sent to the Seville area, where they show up in the slave markets as Negroes. These are major contradictions to the whole slave trade myth. Blacks were always in America! The "Missing Indians" were Negroes!

The slaves sold on the slave markets in the South were initially the Black people from right here in this Hemisphere.

As they took the lands here, they enslaved the inhabitants of those lands who were Black.

The tens of millions of Americans (so-called Indians) who disappeared after 1492 did not all die in the 'holocaust' inflicted within America. Many thousand were sent to Europe and Africa as slaves. The whole slave trade myth was the story was given in reverse. A mass colony of Africans were not shipped from Africa to America, but the truth is that Black Indians were shipped from America to Europe! They were then shipped from Spain to Africa as commodity for African resources. These Black Indians (now mistaken as Africans) 24 were shipped back to America and classified as "African Slaves." This part of our history is what the school systems fail to mention in history programs!

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Indigenous peoples of the Eastern and Southeastern woodlands today have extensive African descent, such as the Narragansett, Pequot, Lumbee, and other tribes. The Muscogee are descendants of the Mississippian culture peoples, who built earthwork mounds at their regional chiefdoms located throughout the Mississippi River valley and its tributaries. Africans were the only ones who built pyramids.

Indian Freedmen guaranteed 1866 Treaty Rights within the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole Nations, found themselves excluded from benefiting in the 1983 Reagan-era Native American Reservation Economy Initiatives, because the birth certificates of subsequent generations of Ethnic Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks and Seminoles indicated that they were “Negro”, “Black”, “Colored” and “African Americans,” therefore, “they were not Indians.” At a Native American Burial Ground in Little Rock, Arkansas, African American graves were found among prehistoric Indian mounds Members of the Quapaw Tribe. The Quapaw Tribe members were taken into slavery by Europeans. While news reporters try to explain how this happened, logic prevails to say maybe both groups were the same people who were the Mound Builders. The burial sites were discovered on land 25 purchased by the tribe in 2013, which was part of the historic Thiboult Plantation near the Little Rock Port Authority, and, before that, part of the tribe’s historic Arkansas reservation.



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