FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

«Abstract: The new hypothesis about the building mechanism of hail showers is made under atmosphere conditions. It is suggested, contrary to other ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


Ismailov Sokhrab Akhmedovic

Doctor. chem. Sciences, Senior Researcher, Institute of Petrochemical Processes,

Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Baku, E-mail: sokhrab@yahoo.com

Abstract: The new hypothesis about the building mechanism of hail showers is made

under atmosphere conditions. It is suggested, contrary to other famous theories that hail

showers building is stipulated by the generation of high temperature in lightning strike in atmosphere. Quick water evaporation along and around the discharge channel leads to its rough freezing with the advent of hail showers of different size. The transition of zero- degree isotherm is not necessary for the building of hail showers; they are formed in the lower atmosphere. Storm is accompanied by hail showers. Hailstorm is observed only in case of severe thunderstorm.

Keywords: hailstone, zero temperature, evaporation, cold, lightning, storm.

People are often confronted with terrible natural phenomena of nature and constantly fight against them. Natural disasters and the consequences of catastrophic natural events (earthquakes, landslides, lightning, tsunamis, floods, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, hurricanes, hail) attracted the attention of scientists from all over the world. It is no accident that when UNESCO had established a Special Commission on account of natural disasters-UNDRO (United Nations Disaster Relief Organization-disaster response by the United Nations). Knowing the objective world, and acting in accordance with it, the man subdues nature forces them to serve its purposes and turns from a slave nature in the Lord of nature and ceases to be powerless before nature, becomes free. One of those scourges is hail.

The fall of the hail, first of all, destroys cultural combines of plants, kills livestock, as well as the man himself. The fact of the matter is that a sudden and large influx of offensive hail eliminates protection against it. Sometimes the surface is covered with minute read barrage with a thickness of 5-7 cm. In the area of Kislovodsk in the 1965 year was hail, covering the ground layer in 75 cm. Normally hail covers the 10-100 km distance. Let us remember some terrible events of the past.

In 1593, in one of the provinces of France due to the raging winds and lightning knocked out the sparkling castle with a huge weight of 18-20 pound! This has caused great damage to crops and destroyed many churches, castles, houses and other 1 structures. The victims of this terrible event began and the people themselves. (Here it is necessary to consider that in those days the pound as a unit of weight has several meanings). It was a terrible natural disaster, one of the most disastrous hailstones that hit France. In the eastern part of the State of Colorado (United States) annually about six hailstones, each of them brings great losses. Hail most frequently occur in the North Caucasus, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, in the mountains of Central Asia. With 9 on June 10, 1939, in the city of Nalchik fell hail size about an egg, accompanied by strong rain. The result was destroyed over 60 thousand hectares of wheat and about 4 thousand hectares of other crops; 2 were killed thousands of sheep.

When it comes to hail, first of all, note the size of it. Hailstones, as usual, are different in size. Meteorologists and other researchers draw attention to themselves the largest. Curious to know about absolutely fantastic hailstone. In India and China it was found falling from heaven ice blocks weighing 2-3 kg. Even say that in the year 1961 in North India heavy hailstone killed the elephant. In 14.04.1984 year in the small town of Gopalganj district of Bangladesh dropped hailstones weighing 1 kg, resulting in the deaths of 92 people and several dozen elephants. Even the hail entered into the Guinness Book of records. In 1988, the 250 people in Bangladesh were victims of hail.

And in 1939, hailstone was found with a weight of 3.5 kg. More recently (20.05.2014) in the city of Sao Paulo of Brazil has such a large dimension of hailstone, a bunch of which were extracted from the streets of heavy equipment.

All these data suggest that the damage to human life with hail is important, other than the extraordinary natural phenomenon. Based on this, a comprehensive study and finding reasons for the formation of its using modern physic-chemical methods of research, as well as the fight against this terrible phenomenon are current challenges before mankind around the world.

What is the mechanism of hail formation?

In advance, I note that there is still no proper and positive response to this question.

Despite the creation of the first hypothesis about this back in the first half of the 17th century, Descartes, however, scientific theory hail processes and practices impact on Physics and meteorologists have developed only in the middle of the last century. It should be noted that even in the middle ages and in the first half of the 19th century there have been several assumptions of different researchers, such as, Bussengo, Swedes, Klossovskij, Volta, Rayee, Ferrell, Gan, Faraday, Zonke, Reynold, etc.

2 Unfortunately, their theory did not receive their confirmation. It should be noted that recent views thereon do not constitute scientific validity, and there is still no comprehensive views on the mechanism of hail formation. The presence of numerous experimental data and a set of literary materials, dedicated to this topic were given the opportunity to assume the next formation mechanism of hail, which was recognized by the World Meteorological Organization and continues to operate so far (to avoid

controversy, we literally give these arguments) [1, 6, 21]:

"Rising from the Earth's surface on a hot summer day, the warm air cools with height, and the moisture is condensed, formed a cloud. Cooled liquid droplets in the clouds are found even when the temperature is 40 °C at a height of about 8-10 km).

But these drops are very unstable. Raised from the Earth's surface the smallest particles of sand, salt, combustion products and even bacteria with super cooled drops disturb the fragile balance. Cooled liquid drops that came into contact with solid particles, turn into an ice embryo of hailstones.

Small hailstones are in the top half of almost every cumulonimbus clouds rain, but most often such hailstones when approaching the Earth's surface are melting. So, if the speed of the upward flow in a cumulonimbus cloud rain reaches 40 km/h, they cannot keep the hailstones formed, therefore, passing through a warm layer of air at a height of

2.4 to 3.6 km, they fall out of the clouds in the form of small soft hail or rain at all.

Otherwise, the updrafts lift the small hailstones up to layers of air with temperature from° c to-40° c (height between 3 and 9 miles), a diameter of hailstones begins to grow, reaching sometimes several centimeters. It should be noted that in exceptional cases the speed of ascending and descending cloud flows can reach 300 km/h! And the higher the speed the upward flow in a rain cloud, cumulonimbus, the larger the hail.

For the formation of hailstones the size of a golf ball more than 10 billion needed super cooled water drops, and hailstone cloud must remain at least 5-10 minutes to reach such a large size. It should be noted that a single drop of rain is about a million such small super cooled droplets. Hailstones with a diameter of more than 5 cm in cumulonimbus clouds, which are very powerful rising air currents. It is thunderstorms produce tornadoes, heavy downpours and gusts.

Hail usually falls when severe thunderstorms in the warm season, when the temperature at the Earth's surface is below 20 °C ".

It must be stressed that even in the middle of the last century, or rather, in 1962; p.

By Ludlam also proposed a similar theory [16] provides the education prerequisite 3 hailstones. They also discussed the formation of hailstones in the super cooled part of the cloud of small water droplets and ice crystals by coagulation. Last operation must be strong lifting and lowering of the hailstones several kilometers, passing a null isotherm.

On the type and size of hailstones and modern scholars say that the hailstones during his life repeatedly to get up and down the strong convection currents. As a result of the collision with the super cooled drops of hailstones increase their size. The World Meteorological Organization in 1956 gave a definition of what a hail: "Hail-precipitation in the form of spherical particles or pieces of ice (hailstones) with a diameter ranging from 5 to 50 mm, sometimes more, falling separately or in the form of incorrect complexes. Hailstones consist only of transparent ice or of a number of layers with a minimum thickness of 1 mm, alternating with translucent layers. Hail is observed usually in strong thunderstorms ".

Almost all of the former and contemporary sources on the subject indicate that the hail is formed by a powerful concentrate the cloud at strong upward air flows. This is true. Unfortunately, most forgotten about lightning and thunderstorms. And the subsequent interpretation of the formation of hailstones, in our view, It is not logical and pointless.

Professor Klossovskij carefully reviewed the appearances of hailstones and discovered that they also have a number of spherical form other geometric forms of existence [8]. These data indicate the formation of hailstones in the troposphere on a mechanism. After reading all of these theoretical perspectives, caught our attention

several intriguing questions:

1. Composition of the clouds, found at the top of the troposphere, where temperature is approximately ― 40 oC operating system already contains a mixture of super cooled of water droplets, ice crystals and sand particles, salts, bacteria. Why not disturbed the fragile power balance?

2. With the recognized modern general theory [1, 6, 21], hailstone could emerge and no lightning or thunder storm. For the formation of hailstones with a larger size, small ice must climb a few kilometers up (at least 3-5 km), and fall down, passing a null isotherm.

While this should be repeated until it was formed in a sufficiently large amount of hail.

Still the same, the greater the upward flow velocity in the cloud should get, the bigger the hailstone (from 1 kg to several kg) and for the consolidation of it should remain in the air for 5-10 minutes. Interesting!


3. In general, it is difficult to imagine that in the upper atmosphere will focus as huge ice blocks weighing 2-3 kg? It turns out that the hailstones were still large in cumulonimbus cloud rain than seen on earth because of it melted when falling through the warm layer of the troposphere.

4. Because meteorologists often confirm: ".... hail usually falls when severe thunderstorms during summer, when the temperature at the Earth's surface is below 20 oC ", however, does not indicate the cause of the phenomenon. Of course, the question is: what is the effect of a lightning storm? Hail almost always falls to the shower or at the same time with him and never after. He falls for the most part in the summer and during the day. Hail at night - a very rare phenomenon. The average duration of hail from 5 to 20 minutes. Hail as usual, going to the place where there is a strong bolt of lightning, and is always associated with a thunderstorm. Without Rain hail does not happen! Hence, the reason for the formation of hail, you need to look for in it. The main drawback of all existing mechanisms for the formation of hail, in our opinion, is the lack of recognition of the dominant role of the lightning discharge.

Studies of the distribution of hail and thunderstorms in Russia, produced A.V.

Klossowski [8] confirm the existence of a particularly close link between these two phenomena: hail with thunderstorms usually happens in the south-eastern part of the cyclone; he often where most thunderstorms. North of Russia is poor cases of hail, in other words, hail, the cause of which is explained by the lack of strong lightning. And what role is played by lightning? No explanation several attempts to find a connection between the hail and the storm still were in the middle of the 18th century. [9]. Guyton de Morvo Chemist, rejecting all the existing ideas, offered his theory: electrified the cloud better conduct electricity [20]. But Nolle [23] put forward the idea that water evaporates faster when she electrified and reasoned that it must amplify the chill and the fantasized that couples can become the best conductor of heat, if you put electricity on them. Guyton criticized Jean Andre Monsey and wrote, [22]: it is correct that electricity increases evaporation, but electrified drops must mutually repel and not merge into large hailstones. The electrical theory of hail was offered another famous physicist Alexander Volta [25]. In his view, the electricity was used as the root causes of the cold, and to explain why hailstones remain suspended for so long, that manage to grow. Cold is the result of very rapid evaporation of clouds, which contributed to the strong sunlight, rarefied dry air, lightness of volatilization of bubbles, which are made of clouds, and the estimated effect of electricity, which helps evaporation. But as the 5 hailstones are kept in the air for sufficient time? For this reason Volta to look only for electricity. Well, how?

Anyway, to the 20 years of the 19th century there was a general belief that the combination of hail and lightning simply means that both of these effects occur when the same weather conditions. This was clearly expressed in 1814; the view of von Bush [17] and in 1830 it was strongly asserted Olmsted of Denison Ielâ [24]. Since then, the theory of hailstones was mechanical and based more or less steadily on perceptions of ascending air flows. On the theory of Ferrell [18], each hailstone may repeatedly fall and rise. The number of layers in the hailstone, which are sometimes up to 13, Ferrell′ judged the speed of hailstone. Circulation occurs until the hailstones do not become very large. By his calculation, rising current speeds of 20 m/s is unable to hail in 1 cm in diameter, and the speed for tornadoes is quite moderate. There are a number of relatively new scientific research [11, 13, 14], devoted to the issues of formation of hail.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 |

Similar works:

«Behaviour 152 (2015) 335–357 brill.com/beh Non-reciprocal but peaceful fruit sharing in wild bonobos in Wamba Shinya Yamamoto a,b,∗ a Graduate School of Intercultural Studies, Kobe University, 1-2-1 Tsurukabuto, Nada-ku, 657-8501 Kobe, Japan b Wildlife Research Center, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, 606-8501 Kyoto, Japan * Author’s e-mail address: shinyayamamoto1981@gmail.com Accepted 30 December 2014; published online 29 January 2015 Abstract Food sharing is considered to...»

«Web Site: www.parallax.com Office: (916) 624-8333 Forums: forums.parallax.com Fax: (916) 624-8003 Sales: sales@parallax.com Sales: (888) 512-1024 Technical: support@parallax.com Tech Support: (888) 997-8267 Hackable Electronic Badge Guest (blue, #20000); Staff (white, #20100); Speaker (black, #20200) Energize your events by using the Badges to store and distribute schedules, identify participants, share contact info, and play interactive games. In educational environments, Badges encourage...»

«UMTRI-2001-3 FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF DIRECT A N D REARVIEW-MIRROR GLARE FROM LOW-BEAM HEADLAMPS Michael Sivak Michael J. Flannagan Brandon Schoettle Yoshihiro Nakata January 2001 FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF DIRECT AND REARVIEW-MIRROR GLARE FROM LOW-BEAM HEADLAMPS Michael Sivak Michael J. Flannagan Brandon Schoettle Yoshihiro Nakata The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2150 U.S.A. Report No. UMTRI-2001-3 January 2001 Technical Report Documentation Page...»

«3 Whose Apple Is It Anyway! Copyright © 2014 Linda F. Williams. All rights reserved. No portion of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means — electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, scanning, or other — except for brief quotations in critical reviews or articles, or as specifically allowed by the U. S. Copyright Act of 1976, as amended, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Published by Whose Apple Press...»

«2001 SPIE International Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Advanced Manufacturing, Newton, MA, 28-31 October Dexterity optimization by port placement in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery Shaun Selha1, Pierre Dupont1, Robert Howe2, David Torchiana3 1 Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston MA, USA; 2 Division of Engineering and Applied Science, Harvard University, Cambridge MA, USA; 3 Division of Cardiac Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston MA, USA...»


«Istation's Indicators of Progress (ISIP) Advanced Reading Technical Report Version 4 Computer Adaptive Testing System for Continuous Progress Monitoring of Reading Growth for Students Grade 4 through Grade 8 Patricia Mathes, Ph.D. 2000 Campbell Centre II 8150 North Central Expressway Dallas, Texas 75206 866.883.7323 www.istation.com Copyright ©2016 Istation. All rights reserved. Istation's Indicators of Progress (ISIP) Advanced Reading Technical Manual (2016) by Patricia Mathes, Ph.D....»

«INDUSTRIAL DYNAMICS AND THE EVOLUTION OF FIRMS= AND NATIONS= COMPETITIVE CAPABILITIES IN THE WORLD COMPUTER INDUSTRY Timothy Bresnahan* and Franco Malerba** * Stanford University, USA ** University of Brescia and CESPRI, Bocconi University, Italy April 1997 We would like to thank Salvatore Torrisi for sharing with us his knowledge about the U.K. industry; Simona Heidemperger, Lu-Leng Chua, and Victoria Danilchouk for much assistance, and David Mowery, Richard Nelson, Richard Rosenbloom,...»

«Chapter 3 Glaucoma The Eyes Have It by Tim Root Is that one Due to budget cuts in mine? the ophtho department, all our white coats will No, be marked with sorry. corporate logos. I’m afraid Nike, Would you prefer Reebok, and Adidas Viagra, Valtrex, have already been or Monistat-7? claimed by the senior doctors. Crud! What’s left? Introduction to Glaucoma by Tim Root, M.D. Glaucoma is a disease where the optic nerve dies. We are not sure why or how this happens (there are many mechanical,...»

«Solar Glare Hazard Analysis Tool (SGHAT) Technical Reference Manual Clifford K. Ho, Cianan A. Sims, Julius Yellowhair, and Evan Bush Sandia National Laboratories (505) 844-2384, ckho@sandia.gov SAND2014-18360 O September 2014 Contents 1. Requirements 2. Introduction 3. Assumptions and Limitations 4. Determination of Glare Occurrence 4.1 Sun Position 4.2 Reflected Sun Vector 4.3 Scattering and Subtended Beam Angle 4.4 Beam Projection onto PV Array Plane 4.5 PV Single-Axis Tracking 4.6 PV...»

«HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF BLAST FURNACE STAVE COOLER M.Tech. Thesis Submitted to National Institute of Technology, Rourkela By SAMEER KUMAR BEHERA ROLL NO: 212ME3310 Department of Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology Rourkela Rourkela,2014 HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS OF BLAST FURNACE STAVE COOLER M.Tech. Thesis Submitted to National Institute of Technology, Rourkela Under the guidance of (Prof. S. K. SAHOO) Department of Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology...»

«University of Miami Scholarly Repository Open Access Dissertations Electronic Theses and Dissertations 2008-04-27 Solo Techniques for Unaccompanied Pizzicato Jazz Double Bass Larry James Ousley University of Miami, ousley@bellsouth.net Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_dissertations Recommended Citation Ousley, Larry James, Solo Techniques for Unaccompanied Pizzicato Jazz Double Bass (2008). Open Access Dissertations. Paper 96. This Open access is...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.