«Edited by John S. Ott and Trpimir Vedriš Copy-editing: Marina Miladinov Bibliotheca Hagiotheca ∙ Series Colloquia, vol. 2. Series editors: Ana ...»
Bibliotheca Hagiotheca ∙ Series Colloquia
Saintly Bishops and Bishops’ Saints:
Proceedings of the 3rd Hagiography Conference organized by Croatian Hagiography Society
'Hagiotheca' and International Hagiography Society, Poreč, 27-30 May 2010
Edited by John S. Ott and Trpimir Vedriš
Copy-editing: Marina Miladinov
Bibliotheca Hagiotheca ∙ Series Colloquia, vol. 2.
Series editors: Ana Marinković and Trpimir Vedriš
First published 2012
Croatian Hagiography Society 'Hagiotheca', Vrbanićeva 6, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia Humaniora d.o.o., Rakovčeva 19, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia Copyright © 2012 by the publisher and contributors All rights for this book reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner.
ISBN 978-953-56205-1-8 A catalogue record for this book is available from the National and University Library in Zagreb under number 815948.
Saintly Bishops and Bishops’ Saints edited by John S. Ott and Trpimir Vedriš h
HAGIOTHECA ∙ HUMANIORA
1. Shifting Identities: From a Roman Matron to Matrona Dei in the Passio Sanctarum Perpetuae et Felicitatis Thomas J. Heffernan 1
2. Martyr Bishops and the Bishop’s Martyrs in Fourth- Century Rome Marianne Sághy 13
3. Public Displays of Asceticism: Holy Bishops and the Conversion of Gaul in the Vita Sancti Martini John Marcus Beard 31
4. A Self-Made Living Saint? Authority and the Two Families of Theodoret of Cyrrhus Ville Vuolanto 49
5. Putria tecta, the Bishop and His Martyr: Mutual Patronage and Configuration of Power in Byzantine Istria Marina Miladinov 67
6. Benedict, Father of Monks, in the Chronicle of Mellitus, Bishop of London Luciana Cuppo 87
7. Where He Is, Thither Will the Eagles Be Gathered Together:
The Metropolitan Status of the Bishop of Spalato from the Decline of Salona until the Councils of Spalato in 925 and 928 Vadim Prozorov 103
8. The Businessman Saint
This volume arose from the conference held in Poreč (Croatia) in May 2010.
The conference was co-organized by the Croatian Hagiography Society ‘Hagiotheca’ and the International Hagiography Society, and financially supported by the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia.
Remembering the event, we are grateful to all the organizers, participants, and guests who made the conference successful and enjoyable. The list of those to whom we are particularly indebted opens with thanks to Sherry Reames and Ana Marinković as the “first ladies” of our two societies, whose contacts and initiative put the conference in motion. We hope that they will also enjoy this volume as the fruit of their own labor. Further thanks are due to the members of our common Organisational Board, who had the unrewarding task of choosing the contributions from the great number of proposals we received. We would like to express our special gratitude to the Bishopric of Poreč and Pula and to thank personally His Excellency, The Right Reverend Bishop Monsignor Ivan Milovan, for making the conference possible in the unique space of the Episcopal complex of Poreč. This and many other details which gave the conference its special flavor would be missing without the enthusiasm and help of Ivan Matejčić, to whom we express our warmest gratitude. We are further thankful to Mirko Sardelić and others who helped us with the conference organisation.
When it comes to the volume production, we are (once again) indebted to Gábor Klaniczay and Neven Budak for having financially
supported the publication of this volume through their respective projects:
EuroCORECODE ESF-OTKA project Symbols that Bind and Break Communities: Saints’ Cults and Stimuli and Expressions of Local, Regional, National and Universalist Identities and Monumenta Medievalia Varia, a project of the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia. Further thanks are due to the reviewers, who generously invested their time and efforts in reading the articles and suggesting possible improvements. We are grateful to Ivan Landeka (and his Print4U) for his unfailing technical and human support, which made the task of preparing the final version of the publication manuscript so much easier. The editors would, finally, like to acknowledge the collaborative and friendly spirit with which they compiled, edited, and produced this collection of essays.
Zagreb, September 19, 2012 On the feast day of Remigius of Rheims Abbreviations Apart from the following, most frequently used titles, all works are cited in full at the first reference and subsequently in short-title form in each paper.
Well-known sources (such as the Bible or the Church Fathers) are cited in their commonly accepted abbreviated forms. Other, more specific abbreviations (used by a single author), are given in the footnotes of the particular text.
AASS Acta Sanctorum, Antwerp – Brussels.
AB Analecta Bollandiana, Brussels.
BHG Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca, Brussels.
BHL Bibliotheca Hagiographica Latina, Brussels.
CCSL Corpus Christianorum, Series Latina, Turnhout.
CSEL Corpus scriptorum ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vienna.
MGH AA Monumenta Germaniae Historica Auctores Antiquissimi, Berlin.
MGH EP Monumenta Germaniae Historica Epistolae, Berlin.
MGH SS Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores, Hanover.
MGH SRM Monumenta Germaniae Historica Scriptores rerum Merovingicarum, Hanover.
PG Patrologiae cursus completus, Series Graeca, Paris.
PL Patrologiae cursus completus, Series Latina, Paris.
WHERE HE IS, THITHER WILL THE EAGLES BE
GATHERED TOGETHER: THE METROPOLITAN
STATUS OF THE BISHOP OF SPALATO FROM THE
DECLINE OF SALONA UNTIL THE COUNCILS OFSPALATO IN 925 AND 928
In Late Antiquity, when the Church of Salona started to play the role of the metropolis of Dalmatia (at least since the beginning of the sixth century) and St. Domnius was widely acclaimed as its holy protector, there emerged a tradition of the apostolic foundation of this Church.1 In the ecclesiastical tradition, St. Domnius, victim of Diocletian’s persecution, was transferred from the late third or early fourth centuries to the first century and assigned with the mission as the disciple of St. Peter the Apostle, the apostle to Dalmatia and the first bishop of Salona. Barbarian incursions in the first half of the seventh century led to the decay of Salona and the decline of Dalmatian Church organization.2 However, it soon revived. The inhabitants of Salona first fled to the islands by the coast, but soon some of 1 Vadim B. Prozorov, “The Passion of St. Domnius: the Tradition of Apostolic Succession in Dalmatia,” Scrinium. Revue de patrologie, d’hagiographie critique et d’histoire ecclésiastique, vol. 2, Universum Hagiographicum. Mémorial R. P. Michel van Esbroeck, SJ (1934-2003) (2006): 219Frane Bulić, “Sull’anno della distruzione di Salona,” Bullettino di archeologia e storia dalmata (hereafter BASD) 29 (1906): 268-304; Lovre Katić, “Vjerodostojnost Tome Arciđakona i posljednji dani Solina” [Thomas the Archdeacon’s Reliability and Salona’s Last Days], Vjesnik za arheologiju i historiju dalmatinsku (hereafter VAHD) 53 (1952): 99-119;
Ivan Marović, “Reflexions about the Year of the Destruction of Salona,” VAHD 77 (1984):
293-314; Nikola Jakšić, “Constantine Porphyrogenitus as the Source for the Destruction of Salona,” VAHD 77 (1984): 315-326; Mate Suić, “Nova post vetera – ponovni pad Salone,” Mogućnosti 36/3-4 (1988): 329-336; Željko Rapanić, Od carske palače do srednjovjekovne općine [From the Imperial Palace to the Medieval Commune] (Split: Književni krug, 2007), 137Recent scholarship tends to accept a view of slow “dying out” of urban centers on the Adriatic coast. See e.g. Danijel Dzino, Becoming Slav, Becoming Croat: Identity Transformations in Post-Roman and Early Medieval Dalmatia (Leiden: Brill, 2010), 155-161. However, even the partisans of this new paradigm admit that Salona was highly vulnerable to the barbarian attacks, though they were not crucial in the process of the “natural” decline of the city, which was especially intense in the mid-seventh century. See Ivo Goldstein, Bizant na Jadranu od Justinijana I. do Bazilija I. [Byzantium in the Adriatic from Justinian I to Basil I] (Zagreb: Latina et Graeca, 1992), 89-95.
104 Vadim Prozorov them returned and settled in Diocletian’s palace near the desolated city.
This place was called Spalatum (Spalato, present-day Split).
The thirteenth-century historian Thomas the Archdeacon of Spalato tells the story of the restoration of the archiepiscopal status of Salona by John of Ravenna, sent by the pope3 soon after the destruction of the Dalmatian metropolis by the barbarians, which was described in detail by Constantine Porphyrogenitus and Thomas himself.4 This may have happened in the middle of the seventh century, although some scholars doubt the reliability of this account, especially the foundation of the archbishopric in Spalato.5 Thomas states that it was John of Ravenna’s initiative to renew the archbishopric of Salona on a new site.6 The pope consecrated him and transferred all privileges of Salona to the Church of Spalato.7 As the metropolitan of Dalmatia (including the Slavic lands), Archbishop John “restored churches, appointed bishops, established parishes,” and started the missionary work in the territories of Dalmatia.8 3 According to Historia Salonitana maior, it was John IV (640-642). See Historia Salonitana Maior, ed. Nada Klaić (hereafter HSM) (Belgrade: Naučno delo, 1967), 95.
4 Constantine Porphyrogenitus, De administrando imperio, ed. Gyula Moravcsik and trans.
Romilly J. H. Jenkins (hereafter DAI) (Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1967), 122-125, ch. 29 and 140-143, ch. 30; Thomas Spalatensis, History of the Bishops of Salona and Split (hereafter HS), ed. Damir Karbić, Mirjana Matijević Sokol, and James Ross Sweeney (Budapest: CEU Press, 2006), 32-43, ch. 7.
5 Nada Klaić, having accumulated these doubts, argues that this story is a legend, that there was no metropolitan organization in Dalmatia until the first council of Spalato (925), and that the idea of its establishment belongs to Pope John VIII (872-882). She identifies John of Ravenna with Archbishop John of Spalato, who presided over the councils of Spalato. See Nada Klaić, “Ivan Ravenjanin i osnutak splitske nadbiskupije” [John of Ravenna and the Foundation of the Metropolis of Spalato], VAHD 65-67 (1971): 209-249.
Radoslav Katičić has tried to prove that Thomas’ story is based on old documents and advanced new arguments in favor of the authenticity of Severus the Great involved in the restoration of the metropolis by John of Ravenna. See Radoslav Katičić, “Vetustiores Ecclesiae Spalatensis Memoriae,” in idem, Uz početke hrvatskih početaka. Filološke studije o našem najranijem srednjovjekovlju [About the Beginning of Croatian Beginnings. Philological Studies on Our Earliest Middle Ages] (Split: Književni krug, 1993), 99-130.
6 On the time of the destruction of Salona, see Marović, “Reflexions,” 293-314.
7 HS, 54-55, ch. 11: “It was granted to him [John of Ravenna] by the Apostolic See that the church of Spalato would have all the privileges and honors that Salona had formerly enjoyed.” 8 HS, 54-55, ch. 11: “he went about Dalmatia and Slavonia, restoring churches, ordaining bishops and setting up parishes, and little by little he drew the ignorant people to knowledge of the Catholic faith.” In the catalogue of the archbishops in HS, 58-59, ch. 13, Archdeacon Thomas writes: “The archbishops of the church of Spalato were many, and to them all bishops of both Upper and Lower Dalmatia were obedient, according to the right of privilege of the church of Salona, inasmuch as they had been suffragans from ancient times.” Certainly we should remember that Thomas, composing his work, had the aim to show the antiquity and priority of the metropolitan church of Spalato over all the bishops of Dalmatia and Croatia. The very word suffraganeus was being introduced from the end of the Where he is 105 In this paper, despite the skepticism expressed in the current literature, I will try to demonstrate that the transfer of the see, along with the relics of its holy protector and the first bishop St. Domnius, to the new site did not necessarily lead to the loss of the metropolitan status of the church.9 Quite the contrary, the deposition of St. Domnius’ body in Spalato signified the transfer of metropolitan authority to the bishop of Spalato.
Constantine Porphyrogenitus’ De administrando imperio informs us that “Emperor Herakleios sent and brought priests from Rome, and made of them an archbishop and a bishop and elders and deacons, and baptized the Croats.” This information can be regarded as a confirmation of Thomas’ account about the activity of John of Ravenna.10 Thomas narrates that the Salonitans who had returned to Spalato requested protection against the barbarians from the “emperors in Constantinople” and were given the special “sacred rescript of the noble rulers,” and a corresponding “command (jussio) was sent to the chiefs” of the barbarians.11 One of the components of John’s program, according to Thomas, was a translation of the bodies of the holy martyrs Domnius, the first bishop of Salona, and Anastasius of Aquileia from Salona to the Spalato church of the Virgin Mary, the former mausoleum of Emperor Diocletian.
Thus the legitimacy of the bishopric of Spalato as a successor to the archbishopric of Salona was definitely established through the intercession eighth century; see Friedrich Kempf, ed., The Church in the Age of Feudalism, trans. Anselm Biggs, vol. 3 of History of the Church, ed. Hubert Jedin (Kent: Burns and Oates, 1991), 288.