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«Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning Part II: Exegesis §§1–184 G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker Fellows of St John’s College · Oxford ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Volume 1

of An Analytical Commentary on

the Philosophical Investigations

Wittgenstein:

Understanding and Meaning

Part II: Exegesis §§1–184

G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker

Fellows of St John’s College · Oxford

Second, extensively revised edition

by

P. M. S. Hacker

Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning

Part II: Exegesis §§1–184

Other volumes of this Commentary

Wittgenstein: Rules, Grammar and Necessity, Volume 2 of An Analytical

Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker Wittgenstein: Meaning and Mind, Volume 3 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations Part I: Essays P. M. S. Hacker Wittgenstein: Meaning and Mind, Volume 3 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations Part II: Exegesis §§243–427 P. M. S. Hacker Wittgenstein: Mind and Will, Volume 4 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations Part I: Essays P. M. S. Hacker Wittgenstein: Mind and Will, Volume 4 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations Part II: Exegesis §§428–693 P. M. S. Hacker

Epilogue:

Wittgenstein’s Place in Twentieth-Century Analytical Philosophy P. M. S. Hacker Companion to this volume Wittgenstein: Understanding and Meaning, Volume 1 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations Part I: Essays G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker second, extensively revised edition by P. M. S. Hacker UAM2A01 10/04/2004 07:14PM Page iii Volume 1 of An Analytical Commentary on the Philosophical Investigations

Wittgenstein:

Understanding and Meaning Part II: Exegesis §§1–184 G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker Fellows of St John’s College · Oxford Second, extensively revised edition by P. M. S. Hacker © 2005 by G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker

BLACKWELL PUBLISHING

350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of G. P. Baker and P. M. S. Hacker to be identified as the Authors of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, a

–  –  –

The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards.

–  –  –

Dr Erich Ammereller, Dr Hanoch Benyami, Professor Hans-Johann Glock, Professor Oswald Hanfling, Edward Kanterian, Dr Joachim Schulte, Dr Jonathan Witztum and Professor Eike von Savigny read and commented upon one or more chapters of exegesis. They saved me from a multitude of errors and oversights. I am most grateful to them for their generosity and for their constructive criticisms.

I owe thanks to Professor Brian McGuinness, Dr Joachim Schulte and the late Professor Georg Henrik von Wright, who have done so much to clarify the history of Wittgenstein’s masterpiece, for reading and giving me their comments upon the essay entitled ‘The history of the composition of the Philosophical Investigations’ and upon the exegesis of the ‘prelims’ to Wittgenstein’s book.

St John’s College has, as always, been generous in its support of research and scholarship. I am, as I have now so often been, most grateful to Jean van Altena for her admirable copy-editing.

–  –  –

The exegesis of the second edition of Volume 1 is constructed on the same principles as that of the first edition. The text of the Investigations §§1–184, as before, is divided into six chapters. There is nothing sacrosanct about the chosen division — other ways of segmenting the text can readily be imagined and justified. The divisions were chosen partly for convenience of exposition, and because we thought, and I still think, that they correspond to fairly evident thematic changes (the exception is chapter 5, §§134–42, which is a bridging sequence of remarks). They enable readers to pause for breath, as it were, and to gain their bearings in the landscape.

Each chapter of exegesis is preceded by an introduction, which surveys the argumentative development of the sequence of Wittgenstein’s numbered Bemerkungen (referred to as ‘sections’ to avoid ambiguity) and explains the structure of the argument. This is supplemented by tree diagrams that represent the relationships between the various sections. At the end of each such introduction, there is a table of sources. In the first edition, we were satisfied to correlate the numbered sections of the text with TS 220 (the Early Draft (Frühfassung (FF))), and TS 226R, which is Rhees’s 1938/9 translation of it up to §116, although, of course, the exegesis of individual sections made reference to many more texts. Subsequent volumes of the Commentary were more thorough in their attempts to track down sections to their manuscript sources.





Now, with the publication of the Bergen edition of the Nachlass in electronic form, and the consequent availability of a search engine, I have endeavoured to give all the relevant sources of a given section in the tables of sources annexed to each introduction to a chapter of exegesis. Of course, an element of judgement is involved in thus selecting sources, and no doubt there are some passages that I decided not to be worth registering which another person might, with equal right, think to be relevant.

As it was decided to publish this volume of the Commentary in two parts ab initio, rather than, as hitherto, waiting on the publication of the paperback edition, I have followed the practice of the paperback editions and indicated in a text box the appropriate locus, relative to the exegesis, of each essay, and have specified, in the inserted box, the section headings of the relevant essay.

This will indicate to anyone using the exegesis for the study of Wittgenstein’s book that corresponding to a particular place in it, there is a comprehensive discussion of Wittgenstein’s treatment of a topic in an essay printed in Part I of this volume of Commentary.

xii Introduction to Part II: Exegesis

I observed in the Introduction to Part I that my reasons for wishing to write a second edition of this volume included the fact that much new material by way of both primary sources (manuscripts, diaries and letters) and derivative primary sources (students’ lecture notes, dictations) has been published in the last quarter of a century. These materials often shed light on the interpretation of individual sections of Wittgenstein’s text. Furthermore, many debates over the interpretation of individual remarks have been illuminating and have sometimes led me to revise the interpretations we gave in the 1970s. I am especially indebted to Professor Eike von Savigny’s methodical criticisms in his Wittgensteins ‘Philosophische Untersuchungen’: Ein Kommentar für Leser, 2nd edn (Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main, 1994). I do not always agree with his strictures or with the interpretations he advocates, but I always learnt a great deal from his criticisms and discussions. It would be tedious and unbearably lengthy to list all the significant changes I have made throughout the text of the exegesis, for I have rewritten, compressed and revised it extensively. But the ‘chapter’ that has undergone the most transformation and supplementation is the exegesis of §§89–133 on philosophy and philosophical methodology.

The interpretations here are importantly different from those offered in the first edition, and are supported with a great deal of new evidence. The upshot is that, despite compression, this chapter of exegesis is almost twice as long as the previous text, and sheds a great deal more light on Wittgenstein’s criticisms of the Tractatus and on his new conception of philosophy, its aims and methods.

In this second edition, I have added a preliminary essay entitled ‘The history of the composition of the Philosophical Investigations’ that summarizes what has been learnt over the past half-century by various scholars working closely on the editing of Wittgenstein’s texts. I have also added an essay, ‘An overview of the structure and argument of the Philosophical Investigations’, in which I have tried to survey the argument of the whole book, from §1 to §693. It is not easy to see how it all hangs together, and why the various discussions are located where they are. So I have tried to remedy this.

The structure of the exegesis of the sections is in essence the same as before.

Each section is discussed separately, as are the Randbemerkungen (comments below the line at the bottom of certain pages). Different paragraphs in each section are referred to by lower-case letters (e.g. ‘§27(a)’ refers to the first paragraph of

§27). Five different kinds of comments are marked out by marginal numbers:

1, 1.1, 2, 2.1 and 3. The first, i.e. 1, consists of commentary on the section as a whole. 1.1 consists of comments on individual lines, phrases and words, as well as suggestions for rectification of mistranslations. 2 discusses parallel remarks from Wittgenstein’s other writings, which sometimes offer elaborations of the thought expressed concisely in the Investigations, and sometimes contrast with the final text and therefore shed light on the development of his ideas. 2.1 consists of parallel lines or phrases in Wittgenstein’s other works which amplify or illuminate matters of detail. 3, used infrequently, is reserved for any other

Introduction to Part II: Exegesis xiii

business. Lower-case roman numerals are used when an enumeration of points is necessary. Enumeration within enumeration has sometimes forced recourse to arabic numerals or lower-case letters. Since these conventions were chosen for their perspicuity, I have, as before, not hesitated to transgress them where, for some reason, they impeded clarity.

To save space, I have much reduced the quotations in the original German, which, in the first edition, accompanied our translations from the Nachlass.

Since the whole of the Nachlass is now available on CD-rom, the translations can readily be checked against Wittgenstein’s original.

–  –  –

1. Wittgenstein’s published works The following abbreviations, listed in alphabetical order, are used to refer to Wittgenstein’s published works.

BB The Blue and Brown Books (Blackwell, Oxford, 1958).

BlB Occasionally used to refer to the Blue Book.

BrB Occasionally used to refer to the Brown Book.

BT The Big Typescript: TS 213, tr. and ed. C. G. Luckhardt and M. A.

E. Aue (Blackwell, Oxford, 2005).

C On Certainty, ed. G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright, tr.

D. Paul and G. E. M. Anscombe (Blackwell, Oxford, 1969).

CL Cambridge Letters, ed. Brian McGuinness and G. H. von Wright (Blackwell, Oxford, 1995).

CV Culture and Value, ed. G. H. von Wright in collaboration with H. Nyman, tr. P. Winch (Blackwell, Oxford, 1980).

EPB Eine Philosophische Betrachtung, ed. R. Rhees, in Ludwig Wittgenstein:

Schriften 5 (Suhrkamp, Frankfurt, 1970).

GB ‘Remarks on Frazer’s “Golden Bough” ’, tr. J. Beversluis, repr. in Ludwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical Occasions 1912–1951, ed. J. Klagge and A. Nordmann (Hackett, Indianapolis and Cambridge, 1993), pp. 118–55.

LPE ‘Wittgenstein’s Notes for Lectures on “Private Experience” and “Sense Data” ’, ed. R. Rhees, repr.

in Ludwig Wittgenstein:

Philosophical Occasions 1912–1951, ed. J. Klagge and A. Nordmann (Hackett, Indianapolis and Cambridge, 1993), pp. 202–88.

LW I Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. I, ed. G. H. von Wright and H. Nyman, tr. C. G. Luckhardt and M. A. E. Aue (Blackwell, Oxford, 1982).

LW II Last Writings on the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. II, ed. G. H. von Wright and H. Nyman, tr. C. G. Luckhardt and M. A. E. Aue (Blackwell, Oxford, 1992).

NB Notebooks 1914–16, ed. G. H. von Wright and G. E. M. Anscombe, tr. G. E. M. Anscombe, 2nd edn (Blackwell, Oxford, 1979).

PG Philosophical Grammar, ed. R. Rhees, tr. A. J. P. Kenny (Blackwell, Oxford, 1974).

Abbreviations xv PI Philosophical Investigations, ed. G. E. M. Anscombe and R. Rhees, tr.

G. E. M. Anscombe, 2nd edn (Blackwell, Oxford, 1958).

PO Ludwig Wittgenstein: Philosophical Occasions 1912–1951, ed. J. Klagge and A. Nordmann (Hackett, Indianapolis and Cambridge, 1993).

PR Philosophical Remarks, ed. R. Rhees, tr. R. Hargreaves and R. White (Blackwell, Oxford, 1975).

PTLP Proto-Tractatus: An Early Version of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, ed.

B. F. McGuinness, T. Nyberg and G. H. von Wright, tr. D. F. Pears and B. F. McGuinness (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1971).

RC Remarks on Colour, ed. G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright, tr. L. L. McAlister and M. Schättle (Blackwell, Oxford, [1977]).

RFM Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics, ed. G. H. von Wright, R.

Rhees and G. E. M. Anscombe, rev. edn (Blackwell, Oxford, 1978).

RLF ‘Some Remarks on Logical Form’, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, suppl. vol. 9 (1929), pp. 162–71.

RPP I Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. I, ed. G. E. M.

Anscombe and G. H. von Wright, tr. G. E. M. Anscombe (Blackwell, Oxford, 1980).

RPP II Remarks on the Philosophy of Psychology, vol. II, ed. G. H. von Wright and H. Nyman, tr. C. G. Luckhardt and M. A. E. Aue (Blackwell, Oxford, 1980).

TLP Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, tr. D. F. Pears and B. F. McGuinness (Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1961).

Z Zettel, ed. G. E. M. Anscombe and G. H. von Wright, tr. G. E. M.

Anscombe (Blackwell, Oxford, 1967).



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