«Perceived parental supports and children’s psychological wellbeing: The case of Children living with stepparents around Sheromeda area By Matewos ...»
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES
SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY
Perceived parental supports and children’s psychological wellbeing: The case
of Children living with stepparents around Sheromeda area
ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF EDUCATION AND BEHAVIORAL STUDIES
SCHOOL OF PSYCHOLOGY
The sample consisted of 360 participants from three elementary and higher schools. Data were collected from school children by questionnaires between the age group of 11 and 15 years old.
The results showed that perceived parenting support and children’s psychological wellbeing to follow family types. Mather and father mostly acted according to straight outlook.
Children tended to be fitting in their perceptions of the parental style. Stepparents perceived parental support and children’s psychological wellbeing in less parenting behaviors on children. The results are discussed in terms of how they contribute to my understanding of stepparent-stepchild relationships within the stepparent-family structure. This study fits within the existing body of literature on stepparent performance and has implications for counseling work with stepparent and for future research.
KEYWORDS: Stepparent household, Stepparent, Stepchildren, perceived, Stepmother,
Acknowledgments God I thank you for giving me purpose in life and being with me in all the way.
The completion of this thesis would not have been possible without the support of many people. First and for most my special thanks goes to my advisor Dr. Belay Tefera who should receive much credit for giving me valuable comments, suggestions and corrections.
I specially appreciate Dr. Yishak Degefu and Ato Ephrem Israel for providing me with the necessary technical comments with respect to data processing and analysis. I extend particular thanks to Addis Tesfa Elementary and higher school, Dil Betegel Elementary and higher school and Qusquam Elementary and higher school who make it possible the goal of this thesis with full cooperation during data collection and allowing me to use their resource.
In addition, from those schools Ato Abenet Fekede, Ato Tesfaye, and Ato Esayas Daniel should get my sincere thanks for supporting me in the data collection processes in those schools.
I wish to thank my dear friends for their constant support, comments and encouragement throughout the research. In addition, I would like to thank to my mother w/ro Meste Male, sisters (Senayit Gena, Buzenesh Gena, Charlotte Anderson and her all family) also thanks to other my family who had been personally involved in all the process of my study.
Lastly, my deepest thanks and love goes to my loving, caring and responsible wife Bemenit Tadese who has been with me all these years helping and encouraging me to accomplish my
Table of Contents
List of Tables
1.2. Statement of the Problem
1.3. Object of the problem
1.4. Research Questions
1.5. Operational definition of important terms
1.6. Significance of the study.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Over Veiew
2.2 Theoretical Framework
2.2.1. Evolutionary Viewpoint
2.2.2. Sociological point of View
2.3 Outcomes for children in stepparents
2.4 Stepparent expansion
2.5 Parent-child attachment
2.6 Bond between stepparent- stepchild
2.7 Stepparent Stages
2.8 Stepparent Role
2.9 Parenting style
2.10. Children's Rights in Different Instruments (Policy Frameworks)........ ………………...23
Child (UNCRC)………………………………………………………....... …….23 2.10.2. Regional Instrument: African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of Child (ACRWC) …………………………………………....... ……………………….24 2.10.3. The Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia……..... ……..25 Chapter Three
3. RESEARCH METHODS
3.2. Study Design
3.3. Study sites
3.4. Populaiton and sample
3.5. Data Collection instruments
3.6. Data Collection Procedure
3.7. Methods of data Analysis
3.10 Ethical Consideration
4.2. Background Characteristics of the Study Population
5.1 Stepchild relationship
5.2 The Stepparent duty
5.3 Attachment with children
5.4 Father and Attachment
5.5 Mother and attachment
5.6 Stepparent and child self-esteem
v Chapter Fix
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATION
Table 1:Popualtion size
Table 2: Participants age
Table 3: Summary of reliability of each variable
Table 4: Background characteristics of the study sample…………………………………........37 Table 5: Number of cases Means, standard deviations
Table 6: Comparisons the three groups of children
Table 7: Post hoe multiple comparisons between biological parent and stepparent status
Table: 8. Sex of the respondents
Table: 9. Age of the respondents
1.1.Background In many societies family, which is the first social unit of organization, has given emphasis starting from its formation. The road to enter family life is marriage. Depending on the value and norms of the society there are different forms of arrangements to start family life. Its continuation ensured by teaching children values and by discouraging its dissolution according to societies beliefs and ideas. Marriage is union of couples commit to one another with the expectation of stable and lasting intimate relationship, and this is socially recognized and approved. A marital relationship usually involves some kind of contract, either written or specified by tradition, which defines the partners‟ rights and obligations to each other, their children, and relatives.
There are many different practices in Ethiopia depending on customs and religions to be married and start family life. In the Revised Family Code (RFC) of Ethiopia marriage can be concluded before an officer of civil status, religious marriage, marriage according to customs and marriage celebrated abroad (RFC, 2000:pp.3-4). All forms of marriage should fulfil the essential conditions stated on Article 6-16 of RFC, which include the free and full consent of both couples, age above eighteen and prohibition of consanguinity, affinity, bigamy and representation (RFC, 2000:p.4-7).
Family is core of society‟s structure undergoes many changes to meet its functions.
Sometimes the pressure creates stresses that lead to family breakdown. Depending on the culture and tradition of society, family problems have been solved with different means.
Unfortunately, some of families could not escape the fate of dissolution. Therefore, society
In modern societies, many countries based on the nature of customs of the people encourage marriage and protect its dissolution by law. Recently by considering the social, economical and cultural change, taking place in the society and in line with the constitution and international instruments the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) had revised the old family law in 2000. The Revised Family Code (RFC) at national level serves for all citizens equally has given equal weight about the cause and effects of dissolution of marriage regardless of the form of celebration of marriage.
Remarriage and the formation of stepparent household is not a new phenomenon in the country Ethiopia and in other countries. In Ethiopia most people live in usual households and a growing number of divorcees are starting new relationships. There is no any research (document) to estimate about children who are living with a stepfamily before their sixteenth birthday. Divorce rates in the Ethiopia increase in this time. All divorced person not going to make stepparent. Several changes can take place during a families divorce. Some of these changes could include moving, loss of contact with a parent, involvement in conflict between the parents, and possibly financial difficulties (Lazar et aI, 2004). The changes can affect a person at different times and can affect genders in different ways at different points in the process (Hines, 2007).
Bowlby, back in 1969 created a theory of attachment, and defined attachment as the relationship between parent and child, this attachment provides the child with an idea of how to form a relationship and adjust to various life experiences (Hines, 2007). The theory assumes that adult friendships or romantic relationship develop from parents or early caregivers examples. (Carranza et aI, 2009). Carranza et al (2009) also suggests that since these are formed early, a parental divorce or separation could cause the child to have
Divorce and remarriage can change this attachment style and can make a child have feelings of anger, resentment and confusion, which can alter the child's ability to form meaningful relationships (Hines, 2007). Building relationships and committing to a relationship is one of the impacts on children during divorce and remarriage Along with building relationships, several other factors contribute to effect relationships. Children and young adults have shown that they have trouble with commitment, lower trust in their partners, lower satisfaction, trouble with interpersonal skills and greater acceptance of divorce (Fine & Harvey, 2006).
Seeing the prevalence of stepchildren live in stepparent households, even though there is no statistical data on the prevalence of remarriage and stepchildren in the country Ethiopia, the data below indicates the extent of divorce rate which can possibly plays the major role for the prevalence of stepparent households (Ihinger-Tallman, 2000; Juby et al., 2001; Robertson et al., 2006) is high. Tilson and Larson (2000) reported that 45 percent of marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years; 28 percent of first marriages end in divorce within the first five years; 34 percent within ten years, and 40 percent within 20 years (p. 360).
Children who live in stepparent households have lower grades and lower academic test scores compared to children who live in biological families (Astone & McLanahan, 1991;
Bogenscheider, 1997; Jeynes, 2000; Teachman, Carver, & Paasch, 1997), show more internalizing problems such as depressed mood (Dawson, 1991; Hanson, McLanahan, & Thomson, 1996; Zill, Morrison, & Coiro, 1993) and more externalizing problems such as delinquency than do children in first married families (Hoffman & Johnson, 1998). This activates the researcher to discover that stepchildren would experience in perceived parental supports and children‟s psychological wellbeing in Ethiopia particularly in the study area.
Moreover, the adaptations required of children by the structural characteristics of remarriages have received even less research attention than those of separation and divorce. Mainly in
much as necessary attention for both research and practice work. however researches in other part of world indicated that children in remarried families are at increased risk for the development of psychological, behavioural, social and academic problems in comparison to those in two-parent, non-divorced families (Hetherington, 2003). The current study explored experiences of stepchildren in the stepparent family environment from the children‟s perspectives given that understanding stepchildren would help to improve their situation.
1.2. Statement of the Problem A relationship is one factor compared to several that have an impact on children. Children are in a crucial time for cognitive, psychosocial and emotional transformation (Hines, 2007).
These are all impacts that children face and a parental divorce can make this process more difficult during these transformations. Stepfamily research is particularly challenging because there are no simple methods by which to identify stepfamilies within the larger population.