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«Sociocultural Issues in Learning English for Women in Northwest Pakistan Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors Englische Philologie am ...»

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Sociocultural Issues in Learning English for Women in Northwest

Pakistan

Dissertation

zur Erlangung des Grades eines

Doktors Englische Philologie

am Fachbereich Philosophie und Geisteswissenschaften

der Freien Universität Berlin

vorgelegt von

Sabina Shah

Berlin, February, 2015

2

Erstgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Leitner (Institut für Englische

Philologie)

Zweitgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Ferdinand von Mengden (Institut für

Englische Philologie)

Tag der Disputation: 14. Juli 2015 3 Contents Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………8 Abstract…………………………………………………………………………….9 Chapter Title Page No.

1. Introduction to the study………………………………………………………10

1.1. Context……………………………………………………………………...10 1.1.1. Pakistan: demographic profile…………………………………….....10 1.1.2. Mansehra city: demographic profile…………………………………11 1.1.3. Traditional roles of a woman…….………………………………….13 1.1.4. Women and language stasis…………………………………………13 1.1.5. Social factors………………………………………………………...14

1.2. Preliminary considerations..………………………………………………...15 1.2.1. Statement of problem…………………………………………….......15 1.2.2. Justification…………………………………………………………..17 1.2.3. Hypothesis……………………………………………………………19 1.2.4. Objectives…………………………………………………………….19 1.2.5. Research questions…………………………………………………...20

1.3. Theoretical underpinnings..…………………………………………………20 1.3.1. Bourdieu’s theory of class distinction………………………………20 1.3.2. Feminism—Sadiqi……………………………………………………24 1.3.3. Exploration of this research: a theoretical framework……………....26

1.4. Organizational and conceptual framework…………………………………..28

1.5. Overview of chapters / Structure of thesis.………………………………….33

2. English in Asia: cultural revitalization and attitudes…..…………………….36

2.1. Impact of colonialism and formation of a new culture………………….......36 2.1.1. Impact of colonialism………………………………………………...36 2.1.2. Cultural and linguistic imprints: a new culture……………………...38

2.2. Kachru‘s three concentric circles and the revitalization of the English language……………………………………………………………………...39 2.2.1. Three concentric circles: inner, outer and expanding…………….....39 2.2.2. English language and cultural dimensions: revitalization…………...40

2.3. English (as a lingua franca) evolves indigenous varieties…………………...40 2.3.1. English language versus regional languages………………………...41 2.3.2. Indigenous varieties are evolving………………………………….....42

2.4. Attitudes towards English across Asia……………………………………....43 2.4.1. East Asia……………………………………………………………...43 2.4.2. Southeast Asia………………………………………………………..46 2.4.3. South Asia………………………………………………………….....51

2.5. Summary……………………………………………………………………53 4

3. English in Pakistan: the sociocultural and learning situation………………..54

3.1. Social factors……………………………………………………………….54 3.1.1. Muslims’ three means of reaching to English……………………….54 3.1.2. Language policy……………………………………………………..57 3.1.3. Language, power and societal networks…………………………….60 3.1.4. Gender-based social constraints…………………………………….64 3.1.5. English versus local languages……………………………………...69

3.2. Cultural factors……………………………………………………………...72 3.2.1. Islamic influences on English in Pakistan…………………………...72 3.2.2. Stabilized relationship between Islam and English language textbooks……………………………………………………………..73 3.2.3. Influences of English on the localization process…………………...74 3.2.4. Regional languages – a cultural stigma……………………………..75 3.2.5. Local cultural contexts in English……………………………….......77

3.3. Language learning situation…………………………………………….......78 3.3.1. Motivation in learning English………………………………………78 3.3.2. Standard English versus Pakistani English, and attitudes towards non-native variety…………………………………………………….82 3.3.3. Problems of English language learning………………………….......84 3.3.4. Problems of English language teaching………………………….......87 3.3.5. Deficiencies in ELT Reforms……………………………………........90





3.4. Summary…………………………………………………………………….93

4. Women’s education in Pakistan: religious and sociocultural factors………..94

4.1. Religious factors: misinterpretations, secular versus religious feminists and the curriculum in madrassas…………………………………………………95 4.1.1. Misinterpretations of religion………………………………………..95 4.1.2. Secular feminists versus religious feminists………………………….96 4.1.3. The curriculum in women’s madrassas………………………………97 4.1.4. Riots, insurgency and obstacles…………………………………...…99

4.2. Gender roles, economic growth and gender inequality affects women‘s education in Pakistan………………………………………………………..100 4.2.1. Gender roles………………………………………………………...100 4.2.2. Effects of women’s education on economic growth………………...102

4.3. Sociocultural factors: parental attitudes, segregation system and early marriages……………………………………………………………………104 4.3.1. Parents’ discriminatory attitude towards girls’ education…………104 4.3.2. The purdah (segregation) system…………………………………...109 4.3.3. Educational attainment and the age of marriage…………………...111 4.3.4. Household responsibilities………………………………………….112 4.3.5. Girls’ education: corrupting influence……………………………..113

4.4. Supply side factors: school and education system………………………...114 4.4.1. Lack of schools for girls……………………………………………114 5 4.4.2. Shortage of female teachers………………………………………..115 4.4.3. Physical amenities………………………………………………….117

4.5. Summary…………………………………………………………………..118

5. Research methodology...………………………………………………………120

5.1. Methods……………………………………………………………………120 5.1.1. Qualitative field research…………………………………………...120 5.1.2. Quantitative method………………………………………………...125

5.2. Research design……………………………………………………………126 5.2.1. Study subjects and participants……………………………………..129 5.2.2. Ethical considerations………………………………………………130 5.2.3. Validity, reliability and consistency of the questionnaire…………..131 5.2.4. Likert scale………………………………………………………….132 5.2.5. Pilot study…………………………………………………………...132 5.2.6. Design of the questionnaire survey and presentation of themes in the questionnaire………………………………………………………..133 5.2.7. Roles of interviewee and interviewer, design of interview questions and presentation of themes in interviews………………………………..142 5.2.8. Institutional ethnography and participatory observation…………..145 5.2.9. Strengths and weaknesses of qualitative field research…………….147

5.3. Summary…………………………………………………….……………..148

6. Analysis, discussion and implications: questionnaires, interviews and participant observation………………………………………………………..150

6.1. Dataset 1: Questionnaire – findings…………………………….………….151 6.1.1. Self-assessment of competency……………………………………...151 6.1.2. Reported use of English……………………………………………..153 6.1.3. Acquisition context………………………………………………….162 6.1.4. Impact of English on values………………………………………...165 6.1.5. General: impact on attitudes about women’s social role…………...169 6.1.6. Attitudes about change in the region and the impact of English……202 6.1.7. Summary…………………………………………………………….214

6.2. Dataset 2: Interviews – findings……………………..……………………..215 6.2.1. Self-assessment of competency in English…………………………..216 6.2.2. The role of English in the Mansehra region’s development………..216 6.2.3. Problems affecting English literacy in the Mansehra region………220 6.2.4. Social factors affecting female English literacy……………………221 6.2.5. Problems affecting female English literacy………………………...227 6.2.6. Summary……………………………………………………………233

6.3. Dataset 3: Participant observation – experiences…………………………..234 6.3.1. Use of English words………………………………………………..234 6.3.2. English newspapers versus Urdu newspapers……………………...235 6.3.3. Attitude of rural and urban men to English songs………………….235 6 6.3.4. Acquisition of the English language………………………………..236 6.3.5. Impact of English on values………………………………………...237 6.3.6. Traditional culture versus English culture………………………….238 6.3.7. Women education…………………………………………………...238 6.3.8. Rural women get education………………………………………...238 6.3.9. Desire to learn English language and culture……………………..239 6.3.10. Summary……………………………………………………………239

7. Conclusion……………………………………………………………………..241

7.1. Three factors affecting female English literacy……………………………241 7.1.1. Age………………………………………………………………….241 7.1.2. Gender……………………………………………………………...242 7.1.3. Class………………………………………………………………..242

7.2. Four objectives developed to assess attitudes to female English literacy…243 7.2.1. Extent of female English language learning………………………..243 7.2.2. English and traditional culture……………………………………..244 7.2.3. Social roles of women………………………………………………245 7.2.4. Modernization and female English literacy………………………...247

7.3. Three instruments or tools…………………………………………………248 7.3.1. Questionnaire………………………………………………………248 7.3.2. Interviews…………………………………………………………...249 7.3.3. Participant observation…………………………………………….250

7.4. Implications………………………………………………………………..251 7.4.1. Traditional culture………………………………………………….252 7.4.2. Participants aged 22-32 years product of 2 cultures: traditional and modern………………………………………………………………252 7.4.3. Parents’ dissatisfaction with their daughters’ conduct……………..252 7.4.4. Purdah / Seclusion…………………………………………………..253 7.4.5. Different ethnic groups……………………………………………..253 7.4.6. Female education…………………………………………………...253 7.4.7. Educated women affect child education……………………………254 7.4.8. Islamic view on women education………………………………….255 7.4.9. Women’s use of English…………………………………………….255 7.4.10. Urdu (national language) versus English………………………….255 7.4.11. Four walls – urban and rural………………………………………256 7.4.12. Rethinking traditions and social values……………………………256 7.4.13. Transition…………………………………………………………...257 7.4.14. Policies related to female English literacy…………………………257

7.5. Recommendations…………………………………………………………257

7.6. Limitations of this study…………………………………………………...263



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