WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 7 |

«A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty By Estelle A. Sandhaus In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

VARIATION OF FEEDING REGIMES: EFFECTS ON GIANT PANDA

(AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA) BEHAVIOR

A Thesis

Presented to

The Academic Faculty

By

Estelle A. Sandhaus

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Degree

Master of Science in Psychology

Georgia Institute of Technology

September, 2004

Variation of Feeding Regimes: Effects on

Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Behavior

Approved by:

Dr. Terry L. Maple, Advisor School of Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Mollie A. Bloomsmith School of Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. M. Jackson Marr School of Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology Date Approved: September 15, 2004

DEDICATION

This thesis is dedicated in loving memory to my grandmother, Eleanor A. O’Gorman, whose unwavering faith will be with me always.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to thank my committee members, Dr.’s Terry Maple, Mollie Bloomsmith, and M. Jackson Marr, for their guidance on this endeavor. I also wish to thank Dr.

Rebecca Snyder for sharing her expertise on giant panda behavior throughout the entire course of this project.

I would like to express my profound gratitude to the directors, researchers, and animal care staff at the Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding. I am thankful for having had the rare opportunity to share in your efforts on behalf of the giant panda.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF FIGURES vii SUMMARY viii

INTRODUCTION 1

Conservation, Research, and Education in the Zoo 1 The Giant Panda 2 Environmental Enrichment and Psychological Well-Being 4 The Role of Predictability in Animal Welfare 9 Environmental Enrichment for the Giant Panda 12 METHODS 16 Study Site 16 Experiment 1 18 Subjects 18 Procedure 19 Data Collection 22 Data Analysis

–  –  –

Figure 1 Mean Number of Occurrences of Agonistic Interactions for Each 33 Pair of Females in the Baseline Phase Figure 2 Mean Hourly Rate of Bouts of Stereotypy for Each Experimental 37 Phase.

Figure 3 Mean Hourly Rate of Head-Tosses for Each Experimental Phase. 37

–  –  –

In zoos, an increased emphasis on conservation, animal welfare, and public education has fueled the drive to create captive environments that encourage the expression of natural patterns of behavior. However, captive environments are inherently less complex and/or more predictable than wild ones (Tudge, 1992). It is not uncommon for a number of abnormal behaviors to arise in environments lacking in complexity and/or predictability (Mason, 1991a, 1991b), which is one issue addressed by the principle of environmental enrichment. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a critically endangered species for which conservation and public education efforts are of vital importance. While most of a wild panda’s time is spent foraging, processing, and eating bamboo (Schaller Jinchu, Wenshi, & Jing, 1985), captive giant pandas are typically fed discrete amounts of highly concentrated foods on a fixed schedule (Dierenfeld, Qiu, Mainka, & Liu, 1995). Captive giant pandas in various facilities routinely engage in a number of abnormal behaviors prior to the feedings of these predictable meals. These observations are consistent with the findings that members of many species when fed on fixed schedules exhibit increased arousal and activity just prior to feeding, and this is referred to as feeding anticipatory activity (Mistleberger, 1994). While the animal welfare literature abounds with recommendations to implement more temporally complex feeding schedules, few quantitative assessments of these recommendations have been made.

This study proposed to provide a quantitative analysis of the effects of meal predictability on giant panda behavior. A reversal design was planned in which the animals were to be evaluated as they were fed on their usual predictable schedule, then as

–  –  –

more predictable schedule. The goal was to allow for the objective evaluation of a management strategy that has been frequently proposed, yet infrequently investigated, in the literature.

Because dietary restrictions were imposed on the female giant pandas (each of which was possibly pregnant at the time of this study), the originally proposed diet manipulations were modified. For the female subjects, the frequency of bamboo feedings was increased (the amount was held constant to baseline levels) in the manipulation phase of the experiment. For the male subjects, the delivery of concentrated meals was, as planned, made more unpredictable in the manipulation phase. Because of housing arrangements, the males were necessarily subject to the increase in bamboo feedings that was arranged for the females.

It was hypothesized that a pattern of feeding anticipatory activity would be present in the 30-minute periods prior to the feeding of concentrated meals. It was expected that rates of stereotypic behavior would be highest in these prefeed periods and that it would be lowest during nonfeeding periods throughout the day. It was also predicted that a more species-appropriate activity budget, with a lower incidence of abnormal and stereotypic behaviors, would be observed in giant pandas when switched to the modified feeding regimes, and that when returned to the less naturalistic regime the activity budget would return to baseline levels.





Across all phases of the study, the females spent significantly more time engaged in door-directed/human-oriented behavior, stereotypic behavior, and non-stereotypic locomotion in the 30-minute periods prior to feeding of a concentrated meal when

–  –  –

differences were found between study phases for the above-mentioned behaviors of interest, though percentage of time engaged in stereotypy approached statistical significance. We did not find significant differences in behaviors of interest between experimental phases or observation periods in the males’ data. These findings may be attributable in part to the low power inherent in the small sample size. However, some visual trends which may be indicative of increased feeding anticipatory activity were apparent. Thus, it appears that giant pandas, like many other animal species discussed in the literature, are sensitive to periodic feeding regimes. Further study is needed to determine just which modifications to current regimes will be most beneficial to captive giant pandas. Methodology of the current study is examined from an applied perspective with the goal of aiding future research.

–  –  –

Conservation, Research, and Education in the Zoo Modern zoos have become increasingly involved with wildlife conservation and public education efforts. For instance, the American Zoo and Aquarium Association (AZA) now describes itself as a “professional organization dedicated to the advancement of North American zoos and aquariums through conservation, education, scientific studies, and recreation.” The mission statement of Zoo Atlanta expresses similar sentiments: “...to exhibit, interpret, study and care for wildlife in superior environments, to conserve biodiversity throughout the world, to educate, entertain, and enlighten the public....” This increased emphasis on conservation and education of late has fueled the drive to create captive environments that encourage the expression of natural patterns of behavior. In terms of education, this is significant in that the public may derive little educational benefit from the study of animals that do not behave similarly to their wild counterparts. The implications for conservation, too, are great. Zoo animals “...must be encouraged to retain enough of their natural behaviour to make it possible for them to go back to the wilderness; or enough at least of their native wit to enable them to relearn the necessary skills” (p. 193, Tudge, 1992). The ultimate challenge before zoos, then, is to provide “...sufficiently rich environments to allow the performance and maintenance of the species-typical behaviors necessary for survival in the wild” (Shepherdson, 1988).

This task is inherently difficult; captive environments rarely match the wilderness in complexity and unpredictability (Tudge, 1992). To do this effectively, we must objectively evaluate the strategies that we implement. Maple and Finlay (1989)

–  –  –

We maintain that behavioral scientists are obliged to play an active movement to improve captive environments. Solutions to the problems of animal housing and husbandry must be cost effective, and we should not waste our time and resources on techniques that have not been objectively evaluated. Further progress depends upon a sustained program of applied research. (p. 102).

The Giant Panda The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an animal for which issues of conservation and public education hold great urgency. While the giant panda has long held significance in Chinese culture (Schaller, Jinchu, Wenshi, & Jing, 1985), it has only recently become recognized worldwide as a precious resource. The giant panda has had significant public exposure as the icon of the World Wildlife Fund, an organization whose self-proclaimed goal is “...to stop, and eventually reverse, the worsening degradation of the planet's natural environment, and build a future in which humans live in harmony with nature.” The round, black-and-white face of the giant panda is all too appropriate a symbol for the struggles of this organization. The giant panda is a critically endangered species; the most recent peer-reviewed estimate indicates that less than one thousand still live in the wild (Tougard, Chaimane, Suteethorn, Triamwichanon, & Jaeger, 1996).

After extensive DNA analysis, it has generally been agreed upon that the giant panda is a member of the bear family, Ursidae (Ledge & Arnason, 1996; Nash, Weinberg, Ferguson-Smith, Menninger, & O’Brien, 1988; Talbot & Shields, 1996;

Waits, Sullivan, O’Brien, & Ward, 1999). Although bamboo comprises more than 99% of its diet, the giant panda has essentially retained the digestive tract of a carnivore: it has

–  –  –

retain food, and lacks symbiotic microbes to ferment cellulose into available nutrients.

(Schaller et al., 1985). However, the giant panda does possess several morphological traits that facilitate the consumption and digestion of a bamboo diet, such as relatively flat molars and posterior premolars suited to crushing stems, and an enlarged radial sesamoid and sharply curved claws that facilitate the manipulation of bamboo (Schaller et al., 1985). Adaptations to reduce energy expenditure include large body size, a thick coat with oily, springy hairs, and sparing use of calorically expensive activities (Schaller et al., 1985). Giant pandas are largely solitary, and speculations have been made that its bold black and white coloration, which is cryptic only in the snow, helps them to easily spot one another in the forest and thus avoid unwanted contact (Schaller et al., 1995).

Habitat destruction and fragmentation have caused a rapid decline in the giant panda in recent decades by separating a “...once well-integrated giant panda population into many sub-populations of small size.” These small populations are susceptible to a loss of genetic diversity through inbreeding, and are particularly vulnerable to greater reduction in numbers due to further habitat loss and poaching (Zhou & Pan, 1997).

During the periodic synchronous flowering and die-off that is characteristic of many temperate bamboo species, food availability can drop below carrying capacity, resulting in the starvation of giant pandas in the isolated blocks of habitat (Reid, Jinchu, Sai, Wei, & Yan, 1989). Furthermore, individuals suffer from higher mortality rates when attempting to move from one isolated block of habitat to the next (Reid et al., 1989).

Small litter sizes and high infant mortality rates further contribute to the grave status of the giant panda. Giant pandas usually give birth to one or two highly altricial

–  –  –

part of a comprehensive management plan for this species. Unfortunately, successful captive breeding remains a challenge. Some individuals are reluctant to breed, and there has been some evidence of sub-optimal maternal care in captivity (Gittleman, 1994). One tool that may be used to improve the overall physiological and psychological welfare, and subsequently the reproductive success of captive giant pandas is that of environmental enrichment.

Environmental Enrichment and Psychological Well-Being Environmental enrichment is defined as “...an animal husbandry principle that seeks to enhance the quality of captive animal care by identifying and providing the environmental stimuli necessary for optimal psychological and physiological well-being” (Shepherdson, 1998). While precisely defining the term “psychological well-being” is problematic for both practical and theoretical reasons, several factors are generally considered as indicative of psychological well-being. It should be emphasized that these factors are not necessarily independent of one another.

The absence of stress has been proposed as an indicator of psychological wellbeing (Moberg, 1985, cited by Novak and Suomi, 1988). Certainly, chronic or inappropriately high levels of stress can be detrimental to the physical and mental health of an organism. For instance, prolonged exposure to stress or to the adrenal steroids secreted during stress have been shown to have detrimental effects on the rodent hippocampus, and more recent findings indicate that a similar phenomenon, associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, occurs in the human hippocampus (Sapolsky, 2000).

–  –  –



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 7 |


Similar works:

«1 Pierrette Meisch, criminologue, Baptiste Antoine, licencié en licenciée en santé publique, formée sciences psychologiques, formé en en approche familiale systémique et médiation, Centre de Consultation et en médiation, directrice à la de Médiation Familiale de la Fondation Pro Familia Fondation Pro Familia Fondation Pro Familia A la recherche des significations des violences en milieu scolaire touchant les enfants « souffre-douleur » Abstract. L’article propose une réflexion...»

«Tiedemann, K. B., D. F. Ventura and C. Ades. 1986. Spectral sensitivities of the eyes of the orb we b spider Argiope argentata (Fabricius). J. Arachnol., 14 :71-78. SPECTRAL SENSITIVITIES OF THE EYES OF THE ORB WE B SPIDER ARGIOPE ARGENTATA (FABRICIUS ) Klaus B. Tiedemann, Dora Fix Ventura and Cesar Ade s Department of Experimental Psychology Institute of Psychology University of Sao Paul o Sao Paulo, Brazil ABSTRACT Spectral sensitivity curves to light between 425 and 650 nm for the...»

«ADVERSITY QUOTIENT IN PREDICTING JOB PERFORMANCE VIEWED THROUGH THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE BIG FIVE MASTER THESIS MAY 2007 MASTER’S DEGREE PSYKOLOGISKE INSTITUTT UNIVERSITY OF OSLO Elizabeth Le Thi ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to theoretically and empirically investigate a theory labeled the Adversity Quotient (AQ). Its claim of being able to predict all facets of human capacity and performance is being tested by comparing it with the more established Five Factor Model (also known as...»

«Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework for the sharing of influenza viruses and access to vaccines and other benefits (PIP Framework) Questions and Answers September 2011 Contents: Page I. General 3 II. Advisory Group 4 III. Global Influenza Surveillance & Response System (GISRS) 6 IV. Pandemic Influenza Benefit Sharing 7 V. Partnership Contribution 7 VI. Standard Material Transfer Agreements 8 VII. Intellectual Property Rights 9 VIII. Influenza Virus Traceability Mechanism (IVTM) 10 This...»

«1 Sociocultural Issues in Learning English for Women in Northwest Pakistan Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors Englische Philologie am Fachbereich Philosophie und Geisteswissenschaften der Freien Universität Berlin vorgelegt von Sabina Shah Berlin, February, 2015 2 Erstgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Leitner (Institut für Englische Philologie) Zweitgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Ferdinand von Mengden (Institut für Englische Philologie) Tag der Disputation: 14. Juli 2015 3 Contents...»

«TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT MÜNCHEN Lehrstuhl für Aquatische Systembiologie Bioindication tools for measuring the success of stream restoration Joachim Wolfgang Pander Vollständiger Abdruck der von der Fakultät Wissenschaftszentrum Weihenstephan für Ernährung, Landnutzung und Umwelt der Technischen Universität München zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften genehmigten Dissertation. Vorsitzender: Univ.-Prof. Dr. A. Melzer Prüfer der Dissertation: 1....»

«From Soulard’s Notebooks Assistant Editor: Kassandra Soulard Poetry by Ric Amante 1 Notes from New England [Commentary] by Raymond Soulard, Jr. 9 Poetry by Judih Haggai 27 Poetry by Joe Ciccone 32 Paelo Redemption [Travel Journal] by Charlie Beyer 35 Poetry by Joe Coleman 45 Baby Steps Up into the Sky [Travel Journal] by Nathan D. Horowitz 55 Many Musics [Poetry] by Raymond Soulard, Jr. 59 Psychedelics and Lucid Dreaming: Doorways in the Mind [Essay] by A.S. Kay 91 Poetry by Tom Sheehan 99...»

«FIXING STUDENTS’ FIXED MINDSETS: PAVING THE WAY FOR MEANINGFUL ASSESSMENT Carrie Sperling and Susan Shapcott* I. INTRODUCTION Picture a first-semester legal writing classroom. Students receive their first important graded assignment in law school. They anxiously flip through the pages of their office memo and see more markings on their papers than they have ever seen on anything they have written in the past. Their professor commented on their organization, their analysis, their use of...»

«ORGANIZATION BENEFITS – THE PANACEA FOR ALL THAT AILS YOU? A DYADIC, DUAL-EARNER INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIZATION-OFFERED BENEFITS AND THEIR EFFECT ON INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR PARTNERS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Department of Psychology by Suzanne M. Booth-LeDoux B.S., McNeese State University, 2008 M.A., Louisiana...»

«ÉTUDES ROMANES DE BRNO 35, 1, 2014 SAMUEL BIDAUD SUR LES SIGNIFIES DES MOTS ITALIENS CHE ET COSA Introduction Si elle est aujourd’hui très largement utilisée dans la linguistique francophone, la psychomécanique du langage est reçue de façon inégale à l’étranger. Si l’on excepte les travaux de quelques linguistes comme Alvaro Rochetti, Louis Begioni, Alberto Martone, Alberto Manco, Roberto Silvi ou Sophie Saffi, et le fait que les Principes de linguistique théorique et Temps et...»

«THE JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Vol. XVII. APRIL, 1937 No. 68 Oriuuatnal 1apers AN ENQUIRY INTO THE CAUSES OF MESCAL VISIONS BY C. R. MARSHALL, TUNBRIDGE WELLS INTRODUCTION MESCAL hallucinations have recently been investigated in the hope that their elucidation might help to unravel other hallucinatory phenomena. Zucker 1 administered mescaline to patients with hallucinations. From the protocols given many of the effects obtained (coloured lights, tapestry patterns, visions of...»

«COGNITIVE SCIENCE 8, 1-26 (1984) Discrimination Nets as Psychological Models* LAWRENCE W. BARSALOU Emory University GORDON H. B O W E R Stanford University Simulations of human cognitive processes often employ discrimination nets to model the access of permanent memory. We consider two types of discrimination netsEPAM and positive-property-only netsand argue that they have insufficient psychological validity. Their deficiencies arise from negative properties, insufficient sensitivity to the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.