WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |

«A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty By Bonnie M. Perdue In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Masters of Science in ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

SPATIAL MEMORY RECALL IN THE GIANT PANDA

(AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA)

A Thesis

Presented to

The Academic Faculty

By

Bonnie M. Perdue

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the Requirements for the Degree

Masters of Science in Psychology

Georgia Institute of Technology

August, 2008

SPATIAL MEMORY RECALL IN THE GIANT PANDA

(AILUROPODA MELANOLEUCA)

Approved By:

Dr. Terry L. Maple, Advisor School of Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. M. Jackson Marr School of Psychology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Rebecca J. Snyder Zoo Atlanta Date Approved: August 5, 2008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First, I would like to thank my advisor, Terry Maple, for providing me with amazing opportunities as a graduate student, as well as his constant enthusiasm and encouragement. I thank Jack Marr for many stimulating and thought-provoking conversations about this project and others. Rebecca Snyder has been critical to the development and completion of this project. Her dedication to research, and to the giant pandas, is admirable and inspirational. This project would not have been possible without her support and the cooperation of the entire giant panda department at Zoo Atlanta. In particular, I would like to thank Kenn Harwood for constructing the apparatus. I also owe many thanks to Jason Pratte for training the animals, which took tremendous dedication and patience. Finally, I am eternally grateful to Andrew, my family, and my friends for their support and love during the completion of this process.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS………………………………………………………………iii LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………………….v SUMMARY……………………………………………………………………………....vi CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………1

1.1 Spatial Memory………………………………………………………………..2

1.2 Memory in Non-human species……………………………………………….3

1.3 Recall versus recognition memory…………………………………………….4

1.4 Radial Arm Maze……………………………………………………………...5

1.5 Delayed Response Task……………………………………………………….9 CHAPTER 2: METHOD………………………………………………………………...17

2.1 Subjects………………………………………………………………………17

2.2 Apparatus…………………………………………………………………….17 2.3.1 Training Procedure…………………………………………………………20 2.3.1.1 Initial training…………………………………………………….20 2.3.1.2 Brightness Fading………………………………………………..21 2.3.1.3 Time Fading……………………………………………………...22 2.3.2 Testing Procedure………………………………………………………….23 2.3.2.1 Phase One: Two-second delay…………………………………...23 2.3.2.2 Phase Two………………………………………………………..25

2.4 Data Analysis………………………………………………………………...26 CHAPTER 3: RESULTS………………………………………………………………...28 CHAPTER 4: DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………….29 REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………......34

–  –  –

Figure 1 Subject view of apparatus. Light indicates baited site…………………..18 Figure 2 View of target stick and buttons…………………………………………18 Figure 3 Experimenter view of apparatus. Lighted site indicates subject response.………………………………………………………….19 Figure 4 Subject trained to touch target stick while light is presented…………….21 Figure 5 Illustration of the experimenter positions……………………………….24 Figure 6 Percentage correct on last session for each delay……………………….28

–  –  –

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered species and many efforts are being made to ensure its survival, including numerous research studies. However, there has been little investigation of spatial memory in the giant panda. Spatial memory is an important mechanism for survival in the wild, allowing an animal to find and remember the location of food, mates, den sites and avoid predators. Memory assessment in non-human species typically involves the use of recognition, as opposed to recall tasks. The current study tested spatial memory recall in 1.1 giant pandas using a delayed response memory task. The design required a delayed response to a previously lighted location, with varying lengths of delay between the observation phase and the test phase. The male subject reached criterion at 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 10-second delays. The female subject reached criterion at 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 10-, and 15-second delays. The results support the hypothesis that giant pandas have working memory recall ability for spatial location.





–  –  –

The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) has stimulated a great deal of research in zoological institutions because of its unique biological characteristics, difficulties in captive breeding, and conservation efforts (Lindburg & Baragona, 2004). The captive environment provides a unique opportunity to investigate sensory and cognitive abilities which could not be studied in the wild, but may be relevant to the conservation of giant pandas. Survival in the wild depends on an individual’s ability to navigate its environment to locate resources such as food, potential mating partners, and avoid predators (Vauclair, 1996). Therefore, a lot of research has focused on giant panda sensory capabilities, including olfactory communication and vision (Swaisgood, Lindburg, White, Zhang, & Zhou, 2004; Kelling et al., 2006). Yet, there has been little investigation of spatial memory in the giant panda, which may be a critical component of efforts such as foraging for bamboo (Tarou, Snyder & Maple, 2004).

More research is needed to investigate giant panda cognition and memory.

Furthermore, the majority of memory research in non-human species has focused on recognition, rather than recall memory (Washburn, Gulledge & Martin, 2003). Cognitive tasks may also serve as enrichment for animals in captivity, providing novel stimuli that enhance the environment (Swaisgood, Ellis, Forthman, Shepherdson, 2003). The current study investigated spatial memory in the giant panda, specifically the giant panda’s ability to recall information about spatial location.

–  –  –

In general, spatial memory is defined as the ability to remember a location (Clark & Martin, 2005). This capacity has been investigated with a variety of experimental and naturalistic tasks. Spatial memory has been documented across a variety of animal classes; including mammals, birds, and insects (Benhamou & Pouchet, 1996).

The natural history of giant pandas suggests the potential for spatial memory ability. Foraging and/or reproductive efforts may have benefited from the evolution of spatial memory. The giant panda is a carnivore by nature, but has adapted to an almost entirely herbivorous diet which consists primarily of bamboo (Schaller, 1985). The digestive tract of the giant panda is poorly designed for this type of diet, given that it does not have a chambered stomach or the enzymes necessary to break down the cell walls of bamboo. As a result, the digestion of bamboo yields poor nutritional value, forcing the panda to eat large amounts quickly, since very little energy is actually obtained from the consumed food. Schaller (1985) reported that the average distance between bamboo

feeding sites ranged from 6.6 ± 5.9 m (species: Sinarundinaria) to 9.0 ± 6.1 m (species:

Fargesia). This short foraging distance suggests that giant pandas may use olfactory or visual cues to locate food sources, which would argue against a need for spatial memory.

However, giant pandas appear to be highly selective in terms of bamboo foraging. Giant pandas show preferences for topography of feeding sites as well as distinct seasonal variation in the types of bamboo consumed, parts of bamboo consumed (leaves or stem), and age of plants consumed (Reid & Jinchu, 1991; Schaller, 1985). The seasonal variation in nutrient content of different types of bamboo may guide this complex and fluctuating set of preferences. Spatial memory ability would support remembering the

–  –  –

use spatial information to locate food.

Another potential driving force for the evolution of spatial memory in giant pandas is the need to locate mates during breeding season. Giant pandas are solitary throughout the year, but will mate with multiple partners during breeding season (Schaller, 1985). Males have larger, less defined ranges and must find females during the breeding season. The ability to remember information about females’ home range areas would help males locate potential mates during the breeding season. Much of the interaction between giant pandas occurs through chemical communication. Giant pandas will scent mark in communal locations to convey information and avoid direct contact (White, Swaisgood, Zhang, 2002). Remembering the location of these common scent marking areas is particularly relevant during breeding season. Also, female giant pandas need to remember the location of dens following birth. Spatial memory ability may have evolved because it improves reproductive success in the giant panda.

–  –  –

The assessment of cognitive factors in non-human subjects is a challenging endeavor; nonetheless it has been attempted and refined in various ways. The focus of the current study was on working or short-term memory. These are commonly studied as separate constructs in the human literature, even though the use of a simple dichotomy is a debatable issue because the two constructs are highly related (Engle, Tuholski, Laughlin, & Conway, 1999). However, the distinction is not made in studies of nonhuman memory (Washburn et al., 2003). Rather, for the purposes of non-human animal memory research, the concepts of working memory and reference memory are analogous

–  –  –

Working memory can be considered the “memory for events on a specific trial” and reference memory should be considered the “memory for unchanging characteristics of the task” (Shettleworth, 1998). The current study focused specifically on working memory.

–  –  –

A variety of approaches have been developed to test memory ability using recognition and recall tasks. In recognition tasks, a single stimulus is shown during a presentation phase, followed by a test phase in which the same stimulus is presented along with additional stimuli. The recognition task requires the subject to identify (‘recognize’) which stimulus had previously been observed, making memory recognition reliant on external stimuli, as the information is generally re-presented. In a recall task, on the other hand, subjects are shown a stimulus during the presentation phase, and then during the test phase are required to reproduce (‘recall’) the stimulus, with no stimulus cues present. Therefore, memory recall relies more on internal cues, because the stimuli cues are limited at the time of retrieval (Craik & McDowd, 1987). In humans, given the lack of external stimuli in recall tasks, these tasks are often verbally based (i.e. “Tell me what you remember”). This scenario allows for a somewhat straightforward approach to addressing memory recall in humans. This situation is not the case in non-human species. Recognition tasks have been used as the primary approach to assessing memory in non-human species because of the difficulty of implementing pure recall tasks (Washburn et al., 2003; Shettleworth, 1998), however, some attempts have been made to involve recall as well as recognition in tasks designed to assess memory. For example,

–  –  –

presented out of an array consisting of both previously presented stimuli and novel alternatives. Additionally, the subject must recall the order in which the objects were initially presented. Another example is the Concentration task, which requires recognition of whether an object has been seen before, and if so, recalling the location (Washburn et al., 2003). However, the majority of memory assessment tasks in nonhuman species do not focus specifically on memory recall.

–  –  –



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |


Similar works:

«FIXING STUDENTS’ FIXED MINDSETS: PAVING THE WAY FOR MEANINGFUL ASSESSMENT Carrie Sperling and Susan Shapcott* I. INTRODUCTION Picture a first-semester legal writing classroom. Students receive their first important graded assignment in law school. They anxiously flip through the pages of their office memo and see more markings on their papers than they have ever seen on anything they have written in the past. Their professor commented on their organization, their analysis, their use of...»

«Louisiana Architecture: 1945-1965 The Contemporary House NATIONAL BACKGROUND Introduction: “I am not going to sit on furniture that continually reminds me of a machine shop or a hospital operating room.” Albert Einstein Machined modernism in art and architecture wasn’t for everyone. If Einstein had been talking about houses, he might have had in mind the high-art Farnsworth House near Chicago, a serene steel and glass box designed by the supreme modernist Mies van der Rohe (Photo 1). But...»

«THE SIGNIFIER POINTING AT THE MOON THE SIGNIFIER POINTING AT THE MOON Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism Raul Moncayo Masao Abe, Zen and Western Thought, 1999, University of Hawaii Press, reproduced with permission of Palgrave Macmillan. Ekaku Hakuin (1685–1788). Daruma, 18th century. Hanging scroll, ink on paper © 2012 Museum Associates/LACMA. Licensed by Art Resource, NY. First published in 2012 by Karnac Books Ltd 118 Finchley Road London NW3 5HT Copyright © 2012 by Raul Moncayo The right...»

«ORGANIZATION BENEFITS – THE PANACEA FOR ALL THAT AILS YOU? A DYADIC, DUAL-EARNER INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIZATION-OFFERED BENEFITS AND THEIR EFFECT ON INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR PARTNERS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Department of Psychology by Suzanne M. Booth-LeDoux B.S., McNeese State University, 2008 M.A., Louisiana...»

«1 Sociocultural Issues in Learning English for Women in Northwest Pakistan Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors Englische Philologie am Fachbereich Philosophie und Geisteswissenschaften der Freien Universität Berlin vorgelegt von Sabina Shah Berlin, February, 2015 2 Erstgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Leitner (Institut für Englische Philologie) Zweitgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Ferdinand von Mengden (Institut für Englische Philologie) Tag der Disputation: 14. Juli 2015 3 Contents...»

«What Indoor Cats Need To enrich the lives of indoor cats, we have developed this resource checklist; and some suggestions for making changes. Informed Owners As an owner, one of the most important things you can do for you cat is to educate yourself about feline idiosyncrasies. These resources will help you do just that. Books From the Cat's Point of View answers nearly every question the new cat owner could have and gives the experienced cat owner a look at life from the other side of the...»

«THE JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Vol. XVII. APRIL, 1937 No. 68 Oriuuatnal 1apers AN ENQUIRY INTO THE CAUSES OF MESCAL VISIONS BY C. R. MARSHALL, TUNBRIDGE WELLS INTRODUCTION MESCAL hallucinations have recently been investigated in the hope that their elucidation might help to unravel other hallucinatory phenomena. Zucker 1 administered mescaline to patients with hallucinations. From the protocols given many of the effects obtained (coloured lights, tapestry patterns, visions of...»

«Begin Reading Table of Contents Copyright Page In accordance with the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, the scanning, uploading, and electronic sharing of any part of this book without the permission of the publisher constitute unlawful piracy and theft of the author’s intellectual property. If you would like to use material from the book (other than for review purposes), prior written permission must be obtained by contacting the publisher at permissions@hbgusa.com. Thank you for your support of...»

«On the clarity of the music stave Arnold J Wilkins and Isobel Kiff Department of Psychology University of Essex Abstract The staves of 63 scores from 50 music publishers were measured. The staves had similar height but with lines that varied in thickness by a factor of 4 from 0.1-0.4mm. Evidence from visual psychophysics suggests that when the stave has thick lines, perceptual distortions are likely to affect the clarity of the score adversely. Music students were asked to sight read scores...»

«ÉTUDES ROMANES DE BRNO 35, 1, 2014 SAMUEL BIDAUD SUR LES SIGNIFIES DES MOTS ITALIENS CHE ET COSA Introduction Si elle est aujourd’hui très largement utilisée dans la linguistique francophone, la psychomécanique du langage est reçue de façon inégale à l’étranger. Si l’on excepte les travaux de quelques linguistes comme Alvaro Rochetti, Louis Begioni, Alberto Martone, Alberto Manco, Roberto Silvi ou Sophie Saffi, et le fait que les Principes de linguistique théorique et Temps et...»

«1 On PANDAS, the LeRoy Controversy and False Dichotomies By Gunilla Gerland This text can be shared or published in its entirety on Facebook, websites etc. as long as it is not altered, or quoted in parts as long as the author's name is mentioned. An epidemic outbreak of tics disorder among young girls in an area in LeRoy, New York has become international news, and a documentary, The Town That Caught Tourette's, has aired in several countries (1). In the documentary, as well as in reality, the...»

«Public Broadcasters, the Internet, and Democracy Comparing Policy and Exploring Public Service Media Online Hallvard Moe Dissertation for the degree philosophiae doctor (PhD) University of Bergen Public Broadcasters, the Internet, and Democracy Comparing Policy and Exploring Public Service Media Online Bergen, 2008. Copyright: Hallvard Moe (Part I, and Part II, Article 1); Sage Publications (Part II, Article 2, 4, and 5); Intellect Books (Part II, Article 3). Public Broadcasters, the Internet,...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.