WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 33 |

«Hallvard Moe Dissertation for the degree philosophiae doctor (PhD) University of Bergen Public Broadcasters, the Internet, and Democracy Comparing ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Public Broadcasters,

the Internet, and Democracy

Comparing Policy and Exploring Public Service Media Online

Hallvard Moe

Dissertation for the degree philosophiae doctor (PhD)

University of Bergen

Public Broadcasters,

the Internet, and Democracy

Comparing Policy and Exploring Public Service Media Online

Bergen, 2008.

Copyright: Hallvard Moe (Part I, and Part II, Article 1);

Sage Publications (Part II, Article 2, 4, and 5);

Intellect Books (Part II, Article 3).

Public Broadcasters, the Internet, and Democracy Comparing Policy and Exploring Public Service Media Online Hallvard Moe Dissertation for the degree philosophiae doctor (PhD) University of Bergen Abstract This thesis is a study of public service broadcasting facing a digital media system. Its focus is on internet services since the mid-1990s. With a comparative design, the thesis discusses how public service broadcasters seized opportunities and handled challenges related to the internet, and how national and supranational regulatory regimes and policy actors coped with public service broadcasting venturing online. I concentrate on publicly owned former monopolists, assessing four such institutions in three states: the British BBC, Norway’s NRK, and the ARD and the ZDF in Germany.

I argue that traditional practices of media policy do not suddenly change in the digital era. Rather, settings for public service are to a large extent still defined within well-established frameworks, and dependent on the conditioned legacies of each state’s political culture. Discussing similarities and differences in the development of the institutions’ inter- net activities, and their corresponding national regulations, I find the de- velopment characterized by ad hoc solutions. This also applies to the EU policy regime, built on a competition law-logic. With the latter regime, I argue, we are incapable of grasping the autonomous democratic func- tions of public broadcasters’ online services. Moreover, the regime pro- vides insufficient space to play out national differences.

The thesis goes on to explore the democratic functions of public broadcasting institutions in an online environment. With a founding in normative public sphere theory, I contend that there is a potential in on- line communication not only for dialogue, but also for dissemination.

Both communicative forms should be utilized by public service actors in ways that consistently counter processes of enclosure and balkanization in the public sphere. On this basis, I develop a scheme for public service media online. By scrutinizing marginal parts of the cases’ internet activities I lastly explore this scheme, and the limits of public broadcast- ers’ publicly funded online offers. Thereby, I aim to revitalize discussions about the functions of public service as a media policy tool in the digital era. In my view, public service media remain relevant. The thesis substantiates why, and outlines how.

Sammendrag Denne avhandlingen er en studie av allmennkringkasting i møte med et digitalt mediesystem. Avhandlingen fokuserer på utviklingen av internettjenester siden midten av 1990-tallet. Med et komparativt design analyserer jeg hvordan allmennkringkastere utnyttet mulighetene og håndterte utfordringene knyttet til internetts framvekst. Videre undersøker jeg hvordan nasjonale og overnasjonale regulatoriske regimer og politiske aktører taklet allmennkringkasternes bestrebelser på internett. I de komparative analysene konsentrerer jeg meg om offentlig eide tidligere monopolister: BBC i Storbritannia, norske NRK og Tysklands ARD og ZDF.

Jeg argumenterer for at tradisjonelle mediepolitiske praksiser ikke plutselig forandres i møte med digital teknologi. Allmennkringkasternes vilkår defineres fortsatt innen veletablerte rammeverk, avhengig av nasjonale politiske kulturers særtrekk. Den komparative analysen av allmennkringkasternes internettjenester og deres nasjonale reguleringer viser at utviklingen har vært preget av ad hoc løsninger. Dette gjelder også for EUs regime, som er basert på en konkurranselovgivningslogikk.

Jeg viser hvordan EU-regimet ikke gir tilstrekkelig rom for nasjonale ulikheter. Med utgangspunkt i et slikt regime klarer vi heller ikke å gripe det demokratiske potensialet i allmennkringkasternes internettjenester.

Avhandlingen fortsetter med en utforskning av hvilke demokratiske funksjoner allmennkringkasterinstitusjonene kan inneha på internett. Med normativ offentlighetsteori som grunnlag argumenterer jeg for at det er et potensial i internettbasert kommunikasjon, ikke bare for dialog, men også for disseminering. Begge kommunikasjonsformer bør utnyttes av allmennkringkastingsaktører på en måte som motvirker innhegninger i, og balkanisering av, offentligheten. Jeg utvikler så et forslag til hva allmennmedier på internett kan bestå av. Til slutt tester jeg dette forslaget, og grensene for institusjonenes offentlig finansierte aktiviteter, gjennom en diskusjon av tre marginale internettjenester fra case’ene.

Målet er å revitalisere diskusjoner om allmennkringkasting som et politisk verktøy. Etter mitt syn forblir allmennkringkasting relevant. Avhandlingen underbygger hvorfor, og viser hvordan.

Contents List of publications

Preface

Acknowledgements

Part I: The final contribution





Chapter 1:

Introduction

Public service broadcasting in the digital era

Public service broadcasting and the internet

The articles: findings and arguments

Conclusion

Chapter 2:

The research field and the approach of the present study.................19 Studying public service broadcasting in the digital era

Studying public service broadcasting and the internet

The approach of the present study

Public versus commercial?

Conclusion

Chapter 3:

Broadcasting and democracy

Broadcast media and modern society

The rationale behind broadcasting regulations

The birth of public service broadcasting

Defining public service broadcasting

Conclusion

Chapter 4:

From broadcasting to the internet

The history of public broadcasters’ auxiliary activities

Categorizing public broadcasters’ internet services

The internet and the public sphere

The internet, policy, and public broadcasters

Conclusion

Chapter 5:

Theorizing public service and democracy

The origins of research on public service broadcasting and democracy..... 78

–  –  –

Criticism and revision

Against a limiting view of politically relevant communication

Meeting the challenge raised by the model of agonistic democracy.............87 Implications for the present study

Conclusion

Chapter 6:

Comparing media policy

Comparative analysis: definitions and strategies

Comparing across nations in a globalized world

Selecting cases

Sources and their uses

Conclusion

Chapter 7:

Conclusions

Conclusions to the thesis as a whole

References

Part II: The articles Article 1: The contexts and strategies article

Commercial Services, Enclosure, and Legitimacy:

Comparing Contexts and Strategies for Public Service Media Funding and Development

Strategies and regulatory frameworks

Implications for public service legitimacy

Conclusion

References

Article 2: The national policy article Public Service Media Online? Regulating Public Broadcasters’ Internet Services – A Comparative Analysis

The comparative design

NRK: ambitious approach and obscured regulations

BBC: wide-ranging service with a clarified status

ARD: moderate scope under strict regime

Discussion: understanding similarities and differences

Conclusions, and challenges ahead

References

x Contents

Article 3: The supranational policy article Between Supranational Competition and National Culture?

Emerging EU Policy and Public Broadcasters’ Online Services...... 215 EU policy and public service broadcasting

BBC: incorporating an online syllabus?

ARD and ZDF: the limits of the remit online

NRK: the internet services’ place in the remit

Implications – and a possible way forward

Concluding remarks

References

Article 4: The dissemination and dialogue article

Dissemination and Dialogue in the Public Sphere:

A Case for Public Service Media Online

Notions of public service media online

Media in the public sphere: online communication as contrasted to broadcasting

The potential of online communication – and its problems

Broadcasting and dialogue

The internet and dissemination

Public service media online

Conclusion

References

Article 5: The marginal services article Discussion Forums, Games, and Second Life: Exploring the Value of Public Broadcasters’ Marginal Online Activities

Outline of an argument for public service media online

First tendency: assessing individual online services in isolation

Second tendency: online services as an appendix to broadcasting............... 278 Third tendency: public broadcasters as a supplement online

Conclusion

References

Appendices Appendix 1: The ARD member institutions

Appendix 2: Screen shots: the cases’ main website front pages

Appendix 3: Postscript – updating The contexts and strategies article and The national policy article

Appendix 4: Screen shots: the marginal services

xi List of publications

The five articles constituting part II of this thesis are all single-authored by Hallvard Moe, and have all been published elsewhere. I have not revised the articles for inclusion in the thesis. Notwithstanding some basic formatting, the articles appear as they did when submitted for their original publication (see appendix 3 for a brief postscript updating the two empirical articles which were finalized first). Here, I list the time of final submission and original publication, as well as copyright information, along with the complete reference for each article.

Article 1: “Commercial Services, Enclosure, and Legitimacy:

Comparing Contexts and Strategies for Public Service Media Funding and Development”, pp. 51-69 in Gregory Ferrell Lowe and Jo Bardoel (eds) From Public Service Broadcasting to Public Service Media. RIPE@2007.

Göteborg: Nordicom. Final version submitted August 2007 and published January 2008. All rights reserved. Copyright Hallvard Moe, 2008.

Article 2: “Public Service Media Online? Regulating Public Broadcasters’ Internet Services – A Comparative Analysis”. Television & New Media 9(3): 220-38. Final version submitted September 2006 and published May 2008. All rights reserved. Copyright Sage Publications Ltd, 2008.

Article 3: “Between Supranational Competition and National Culture? Emerging EU Policy and Public Broadcasters’ Online Services”, in Ib Bondebjerg and Peter Madsen (eds) Media, Democracy and European Culture. Bristol: Intellect Books. Final version submitted March 2008 and published autumn 2008. All rights reserved. Copyright Intellect Books, 2008.

Article 4: “Dissemination and Dialogue in the Public Sphere: A

Case for Public Service Media Online” Media, Culture & Society 30(3):

319-36. Final version submitted June 2007 and published May 2008. All rights reserved. Copyright Sage Publications Ltd, 2008.

Article 5: “Discussion Forums, Games, and Second Life - Exploring the Value of Public Broadcasters’ Marginal Online Activities” Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies 14(3): 255-70. Final version submitted December 2007 and published August 2008. All rights reserved. Copyright Sage Publications Ltd, 2008.

xiii Preface

This thesis is the result of a four-year research project. Not surprisingly, I started out with a pretty wide scope, and a vague idea about what I was up to. During the project’s course, the scope has gotten narrower, and my thoughts clearer. The project began with a general interest in looking at recent developments related to public service broadcasting. It grew into a comparative study of media policy as public broadcasters venture on to the internet, combined with critical discussions of what these broadcasters can contribute online.

I have worked on several texts throughout the project period.

Five of them are presented here as research articles. This is, then, a socalled article-based thesis. It consists of two parts. Part II is the five articles. From different perspectives, and through different analyses, they all deal with public broadcasters, democracy, and the internet by comparing media policy and by exploring public service media online.

The official statutes of the Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Bergen call part I of an article-based PhD-thesis sammendrag, summary in English. Somewhat confusingly, the same statutes specify that the text should not only summarize, but also juxtapose the different articles’ research questions and conclusions, and discuss them with a general perspective. Informally, the part is sometimes referred to as a kappe – cloak or cape in English – connoting something covering or wrapping the articles. Others refer to it as The final contribution, signalling the text’s presumed place in the chronology of the writing process, as a piece for substantiating or add to the different articles.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 33 |


Similar works:

«Nordic journal of working life studies Volume 3 ❚ Number 3 ❚ August 2013 Habituating pain: Questioning pain and physical strain as inextricable conditions in the construction industry Jeppe Z. N. Ajslev1 ❚❚ Ph.D. fellow, Centre for Working Life Research, Roskilde University Henrik L. Lund ❚❚ Associate professor, Centre for Working Life Research, Roskilde University Jeppe L. Møller ❚❚ Ph.D. fellow, Centre for Working Life Research, Roskilde University Roger Persson ❚❚...»

«ORGANIZATION BENEFITS – THE PANACEA FOR ALL THAT AILS YOU? A DYADIC, DUAL-EARNER INVESTIGATION OF ORGANIZATION-OFFERED BENEFITS AND THEIR EFFECT ON INDIVIDUALS AND THEIR PARTNERS A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in The Department of Psychology by Suzanne M. Booth-LeDoux B.S., McNeese State University, 2008 M.A., Louisiana...»

«From Soulard’s Notebooks Assistant Editor: Kassandra Soulard Poetry by Ric Amante 1 Notes from New England [Commentary] by Raymond Soulard, Jr. 9 Poetry by Judih Haggai 27 Poetry by Joe Ciccone 32 Paelo Redemption [Travel Journal] by Charlie Beyer 35 Poetry by Joe Coleman 45 Baby Steps Up into the Sky [Travel Journal] by Nathan D. Horowitz 55 Many Musics [Poetry] by Raymond Soulard, Jr. 59 Psychedelics and Lucid Dreaming: Doorways in the Mind [Essay] by A.S. Kay 91 Poetry by Tom Sheehan 99...»

«Tiedemann, K. B., D. F. Ventura and C. Ades. 1986. Spectral sensitivities of the eyes of the orb we b spider Argiope argentata (Fabricius). J. Arachnol., 14 :71-78. SPECTRAL SENSITIVITIES OF THE EYES OF THE ORB WE B SPIDER ARGIOPE ARGENTATA (FABRICIUS ) Klaus B. Tiedemann, Dora Fix Ventura and Cesar Ade s Department of Experimental Psychology Institute of Psychology University of Sao Paul o Sao Paulo, Brazil ABSTRACT Spectral sensitivity curves to light between 425 and 650 nm for the...»

«*** Free EBOOK*** Your Journey of Personal Transformation Begins HERE: An Introduction to Understanding Your Human Design Chart by Evelyn Levenson, MBA Certified Human Design Specialist Your Success By Design Coach Your Journey Begins HERE www.HumanDesignforSuccess.com This Report is for your personal use. You MAY SHARE it, in its entirety with all author and contact information. However, You May NOT Trade, Sell or Resell This Intellectual Property in Any Way. You may not reprint any part of it...»

«On the clarity of the music stave Arnold J Wilkins and Isobel Kiff Department of Psychology University of Essex Abstract The staves of 63 scores from 50 music publishers were measured. The staves had similar height but with lines that varied in thickness by a factor of 4 from 0.1-0.4mm. Evidence from visual psychophysics suggests that when the stave has thick lines, perceptual distortions are likely to affect the clarity of the score adversely. Music students were asked to sight read scores...»

«What Indoor Cats Need To enrich the lives of indoor cats, we have developed this resource checklist; and some suggestions for making changes. Informed Owners As an owner, one of the most important things you can do for you cat is to educate yourself about feline idiosyncrasies. These resources will help you do just that. Books From the Cat's Point of View answers nearly every question the new cat owner could have and gives the experienced cat owner a look at life from the other side of the...»

«1 Sociocultural Issues in Learning English for Women in Northwest Pakistan Dissertation zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors Englische Philologie am Fachbereich Philosophie und Geisteswissenschaften der Freien Universität Berlin vorgelegt von Sabina Shah Berlin, February, 2015 2 Erstgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Gerhard Leitner (Institut für Englische Philologie) Zweitgutachter/in: Prof. Dr. Ferdinand von Mengden (Institut für Englische Philologie) Tag der Disputation: 14. Juli 2015 3 Contents...»

«Louisiana Architecture: 1945-1965 The Contemporary House NATIONAL BACKGROUND Introduction: “I am not going to sit on furniture that continually reminds me of a machine shop or a hospital operating room.” Albert Einstein Machined modernism in art and architecture wasn’t for everyone. If Einstein had been talking about houses, he might have had in mind the high-art Farnsworth House near Chicago, a serene steel and glass box designed by the supreme modernist Mies van der Rohe (Photo 1). But...»

«COGNITIVE SCIENCE 8, 1-26 (1984) Discrimination Nets as Psychological Models* LAWRENCE BARSALOU W. Emory University GORDONH. BOWER Stanford University Simulations of human cognitive processes often employ discrimination nets to model the access of permanent memory. We consider two types of dixrimina. ~ tion nets-EPAM and positive-proper&only nets-and argue that they have insufficient psychologi&l validity. ~hei;deficiencies arise from negative properties, insufficient sensitivity to the...»

«Begin Reading Table of Contents Copyright Page In accordance with the U.S. Copyright Act of 1976, the scanning, uploading, and electronic sharing of any part of this book without the permission of the publisher constitute unlawful piracy and theft of the author’s intellectual property. If you would like to use material from the book (other than for review purposes), prior written permission must be obtained by contacting the publisher at permissions@hbgusa.com. Thank you for your support of...»

«COGNITIVE SCIENCE 8, 1-26 (1984) Discrimination Nets as Psychological Models* LAWRENCE W. BARSALOU Emory University GORDON H. B O W E R Stanford University Simulations of human cognitive processes often employ discrimination nets to model the access of permanent memory. We consider two types of discrimination netsEPAM and positive-property-only netsand argue that they have insufficient psychological validity. Their deficiencies arise from negative properties, insufficient sensitivity to the...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.