«Anthony Lake and Christine Todd Whitman Chairs Princeton n. lyman and j. stephen morrison Project Directors INDEPENDENT TASK FORCE REPORT No. 56 More ...»
Anthony Lake and Christine Todd Whitman
Princeton n. lyman and j. stephen morrison
INDEPENDENT TASK FORCE REPORT No. 56
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Task Force Chairs
This was the ‘‘year of Africa.’’ Africa figured prominently at world summits. Rock stars staged concerts to focus public attention on the continent. The industrialized democracies pledged to double aid to Africa and forgive the debt of fourteen of the continent’s poorest countries.
Attention and commitments, though, are not the same as results.
For this reason, the Council on Foreign Relations established an Independent Task Force to examine whether the United States was getting Africa policy right.
Africa is of growing international importance. By the end of the decade, for example, sub-Saharan Africa is likely to become as important a source of U.S. energy imports as the Middle East. China, India, Europe, and others are competing with each other and with the United States for access to oil, natural gas, and other natural resources. The world’s major powers are also becoming more active in seeking out investments, winning contracts, and building political support on the continent.
Africa is also one of the battlegrounds in the fight against terrorism.
Osama bin Laden based his operations in Sudan before setting up shop in Afghanistan. Terrorists struck U.S. embassies in Africa years before the 9/11 attacks. Africans are actively recruited for terrorist operations in South Asia and the Middle East, including Iraq.
Mass killings in the Darfur region of Sudan and the persistence of conflict on the continent challenge the world’s will to spotlight, prevent, xiii xiv Foreword and stop atrocities. Africa is also the epicenter of the world’s most serious health pandemic, HIV/AIDS.
The Task Force evaluated U.S. Africa policy in light of Africa’s growing importance. The Task Force’s main finding is that U.S. policy toward Africa should change to reflect Africa’s growing strategic importance. Washington should maintain its historic and principled humanitarian concerns, while broadening the basis for U.S. engagement on the continent. The Task Force also recommends that the United States advance a policy to help ‘‘integrate Africa more fully into the global economy,’’ so that the advantages of globalization no longer bypass the continent.
I am grateful to two outstanding public servants, Anthony Lake and Christine Todd Whitman, for agreeing to chair this Task Force. They brought political insight, intellectual leadership, and a wealth of experience to a critical but often neglected set of issues. I would also like to thank the Task Force members, who came to this effort from many different backgrounds, for the purpose of advancing the shared interests of the United States and Africa. Project Directors Princeton N. Lyman, the Ralph Bunche senior fellow for Africa Policy Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations, and J. Stephen Morrison, director of the Africa Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), did a tremendous job in bringing the many issues and recommendations together into this report. I am grateful to them, as I am to the entire Task Force.
The Council was fortunate to have two distinguished Americans as chairs for this Task Force, Anthony Lake and Christine Todd Whitman, who brought broad experience and strong leadership to the work.
They recognized the growing importance of Africa to the United States and emphasized the need for this report to speak of that importance not only to policymakers but to the American public.
We also thank the members of the Task Force, who brought a wide variety of skills and knowledge to our deliberations. Throughout the past year, in meetings, written input, and many e-mail exchanges, they contributed to every aspect of the analysis, findings, and recommendations. Special thanks are also due to individual Task Force members who provided venues for previewing the report with business, philanthropic, and civic organizations, and for organizing two dynamic working groups on the promotion of private investment and the improvement of governance and institutions in Africa.
The Africa Advisory Board for the Council’s Africa Studies program provided the original inspiration and guidance for the establishment of the Task Force. Members of the committee later reviewed the draft report and provided other insights. Special thanks go to the board’s chairman, Vincent Mai, and its members: Franklin Thomas, Frank Ferrari, Kenneth Bacon, Kofi Appenteng, Walter Kansteiner, Peggy Dulany, Bryan Hehir, Gay McDougall, Alan Patricof, Antranig Sarkissian, Frank Savage, and Carl Ware.
The Task Force benefited significantly from the contributions made by Task Force observers and working group participants, who provided additional expertise and important input. The Task Force is also grateful xv xvi Acknowledgments to several persons outside the Task Force who contributed to the agenda and agreed to review the report at various stages. These included three members of the Council’s International Advisory Board: Khehla Shubane, Mark Chona, and Baba Gana Kingibe and Council member Frank G. Wisner. Also contributing in this regard were Professor Ephraim Isaac; Kenneth F. Hackett, executive director of Catholic Relief Services; and Jennifer Cooke, codirector of the CSIS Africa Program.
Council President Richard N. Haass gave strong support and encouragement for the creation of the Task Force, read drafts, and provided valuable recommendations for the report’s presentation and argumentation. The Task Force program’s Executive Director Lee Feinstein and Assistant Director Lindsay Workman, provided guidance throughout the Task Force process. Lee read numerous drafts, reviewed outreach plans, and recommended valuable changes to the structure of and recommendations in the report. Lindsay did yeoman’s work to provide much needed guidance and support throughout the process. Council staff members Lisa Shields, Irina Faskianos, and Anya Schmemann worked closely with us to develop an extremely active outreach program. And the Council’s publications team, Patricia Dorff and Molly Graham, were essential in putting this report in its final form.
We express our deepest appreciation to Cheryl Igiri, the Task Force’s research associate, for her tireless commitment to this project. And the Task Force could not have succeeded without the administrative support from Council on Foreign Relations interns Sayo Abayomi and Jeff Cary.
We are also deeply indebted to the CSIS Africa Program staff for their substantial and generous contribution in personnel and support throughout the life of this project. Special thanks are due to CSIS Research Associates Kelley Hampton and Nelly Swilla.
Finally, the Task Force and the Council appreciate the Ford Foundation’s generous financial support, which made this project possible. We are ever grateful to Susan Berresford and Michael Edwards for their encouragement.
ABC Abstinence, Be faithful, use Condoms ACOTA Africa Contingency Operations Training and Assistance ACRI African Crisis Response Initiative AGOA African Growth and Opportunity Act ANC African National Congress APRM African Peer Review Mechanism ART antiretroviral treatment ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations AU African Union CACF China-Africa Cooperation Forum CENTCOM U.S. Central Command CIA Central Intelligence Agency CJTF Combined Joint Task Force CNPC China National Petroleum Corporation COMESA Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa DDR Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration DFID UK Department for International Development DRC Democratic Republic of the Congo ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States EITI Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative EPA Environmental Protection Agency xx Acronyms
SME small and medium-sized enterprise SOCOM U.S. Special Operations Command SPLM Sudan People’s Liberation Movement TSCTI Trans-Sahara Counterterrorism Initiative UNAIDS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNITA National Union for the Total Independence of Angola USAID U.S. Agency for International Development USTDA United States Trade and Development Agency WTO World Trade Organization Task Force Report
IntroductionThe Council on Foreign Relations organized the Independent Task Force on U.S. Policy toward Africa because it is important for Americans to recognize that Africa has become of steadily greater importance to the United States and to global interests. The timing was fortuitous because in 2005 Africa rose to the top of the global agenda. Africa was the principle topic when the leaders of some of the world’s most powerful nations, the Group of Eight (G8), met in Gleneagles, Scotland, in July. A week earlier, Africa’s poverty was the focus of worldwide concerts witnessed by two billion people.
Yet, the focus of these events on Africa’s humanitarian needs, as vital and rewarding as such attention was, largely overlooked other critical ways in which Africa is important to the United States. The Task Force set about examining these other linkages to U.S. foreign policy objectives and the components of a more comprehensive U.S.
policy toward Africa. It concluded that a more comprehensive policy toward Africa is needed. The Task Force also believes that such a policy will better address Africa’s humanitarian needs by helping to bring about related policy changes and a more effective use of resources to hasten the continent’s integration into the global economy and the prospects for long-term economic growth.