«byterian Church of Korea by Hyeok-Su Chae A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Knox College and the Pastoral Department of the Toronto School of ...»
Analysis of the Present Curriculum: The Kingdom of God,
and Proposal for the Future Curriculum
of the Presbyterian Church of Korea
A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Knox College and the Pastoral Department of the
Toronto School of Theology
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of
Philosophy in Theology
awarded by the University of St. Michael’s College
© Copyright by Hyeok-Su Chae 2014
Analysis of The Present Curriculum: The Kingdom of God, and Proposal for the Future Curriculum of the Presbyterian Church of Korea Hyeok-Su Chae Doctor of Philosophy University of St. Michael's College 2014 Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the present curriculum of the Presbyterian Church of Korea (PCK), and to propose a new curriculum for the future. In 2001, facing the new millennium, the PCK published the current curriculum, “The Kingdom of God: Calling and Responding.” This curriculum was based on the theories of three scholars. It used broad concepts of curriculum developed by Yong-Soo Koh based on the educational theory of Maria Harris, Reformed Church theology by Myung-Yong Kim, and cultural insights by Sung-Hee Lee based on the Korean context. This thesis analyzes the curriculum from three perspectives: educational, theological, and cultural. It examines the congruence between these foundational theories and their application in the written curriculum.
Several questions arise from educational, theological, and cultural perspectives. From an educational perspective, is the PCK curriculum true to the broad and holistic curriculum understanding of Maria Harris on which the curriculum was based? From a theological perspective, does this curriculum integrate the theological identity of the Reformed (Presbyterian) Church? From a cultural perspective, has this curriculum adequately considered the unique Korean cultural context?
ii This thesis answers these questions by examining the PCK curriculum based on its foundational theories and the Korean context. Applying three perspectives (educational, theological, and cultural) to the principles guiding the PCK curriculum and to the actual curriculum materials, this thesis identifies the null curricula, inadequacies, and aspects in which the written curriculum deviates from the foundational theories. In conclusion, based on these analyses, this thesis finds practical steps to solve the incongruence between foundational theory and the written curriculum. Returning to Maria Harris's educational curriculum theory and Reformed Church theology, theoretical bases for a new PCK curriculum which has educational, theological, and cultural perspectives are proposed. Furthermore, this thesis provides contextual proposals for Korean religious education in the post-modern, post-colonial, and glocalized era.
Many people have sacrificed their time to help and support me. When I felt I was walking down a lonely path, the Holy Spirit gave me the wisdom to know that. During the time I was working my thesis, there were many tears which people shed when they prayed for me. I really know that and I will not forget it. Specifically, I appreciate my wife Young Rhee Yi because I would not have finished my thesis without her help. She yielded all of her time for me and cared for my lovely children. I do not forget the encouragement of my daughters, Zion and Clara Eugene, and my son, John Francis. Too often, I did not have enough time to play with them. I also thank my mother Kwae Hee Ryoo who prayed for me every day. She is my spiritual role model, showing me how to resist suffering with faith. My father Jun Ue Chae and brother Soo Man Chae also gave me much advice and encouragement. My father-in-law Jacob Kwang Nam Lee and mother-in-law Soon Hui Kim prayed to God for my family and me many times. These prayers gave birth to me and my thesis. How can I express my appreciation to them?
I appreciate Ms. Lorna Hutchinson, Christie Bentham, Nancy Mathewson, and Heather Elliot, and Rev. Willard Pottinger, my grace-filled proofreaders of Knox College. I also appreciate the final editor of my thesis, Rev. Dr. Sarah Travis.
Without the spiritual guidance of my former professors and pastors, Rev. Dr. Kyoo Min Lee, Rev. Dr. Hae Yong Yoo, Dr, Mary Elizabeth Moore, Rev. Dr. Young -Soo Koh,Rev. Dr.
Myung-Yong Kim, Rev. Dr. Sung-Hee Lee, Rev. Dr. Do-il Kim, Dr. Keum-Hee Yang, Rev. Dr.
Sang Jin Park, Rev. Dr. Seung Joong Joo, Rev. Dr. Un Yong Kim, Rev. Dr. Shin-Geun Jang, Rev. Dr. Choon Soon Lee, Rev. Dr. Tae Bum Kim, Rev. Dr. Chang Hak Oh, Rev, Jong Mo Koo, Rev. Ik Mo Yang, and Rev. Kyung Won Cho, I could not have borne the lonely journey.
advisor, Dr. Nam Soon Song. In addition, I thank my thesis committee, Fr. Dr. Mario D' Souza, Rev. Dr. Paul Scott Wilson, Dr. Pamela Couture, and Rev. Dr. Timothy Son.
I would like to give thanks to church members of Waldolf Calvary Korean Presbyterian and Vision Presbyterian churches in USA, Yaegerin, Mahnmin, Yaedalm, Yumkwang Presbyterian churches in Canada, and Dong-san, So-mang, Shinchon, Sam-duck, KookWoo, Daemin Presbyterian churches in Korea.
In closing, I express my appreciation to teacher, Kwang Min Koh and anonymous Sunday school teachers who gave me unlimited dedication and trust.
Even though they helped me, without God's Grace, I would not have written my thesis.
Sole Deo Gloria!
1. Thesis Statement
2. Thesis Structure
Chapter One: The Kingdom of God Curriculum
1. The Present Curriculum of the Presbyterian Church of Korea (PCK): The Kingdom of God: Calling and Responding
1.1. A Short History of the Curricula of the PCK
1.1.1. The Uniform Lesson Series Curriculum (~1970)
1.1.2. The Bible and Life Curriculum (1970-1980)
1.1.3. The Word and Life Curriculum (1981-2000)
1.1.4. The Kingdom of God Curriculum (2001-Present)
1.2. The Composition of the Present PCK Curriculum, Kingdom of God
1.3. Layout of the High School Lesson Books
1.4. Why Focus on the High School Lesson Books in Curriculum Analysis?............ 20
2. Foundational Theories of the Curriculum
2.1. Foundational Education Theory of the Curriculum
2.1.1. The Educational Purpose of Christian Education
2.1.2. The Understanding of Curriculum
2.1.3. The Educational Theme
2.1.4. Educational Scope
2.1.5. The Educational Contexts
vi 2.1.6. The Educational Process
2.1.7. Educational Methods
2.2. Foundational Theology of the Curriculum
2.2.1. The Identity of Reformed Church Theology in Korea
2.2.2. The Characteristics of Reformed Church Theology in Korea
2.2.3. Theological Understanding of Human Beings
2.2.4. The Theological Theme of the Curriculum: 'The Kingdom of God'.............. 48
2.3. Cultural Understanding of the Curriculum
2.3.1. Localized and Globalize Society
2.3.2. Information-oriented Society
2.3.3. Diversification and Personalization-oriented Society
Chapter Two: Current Contexts of Korea
1. Ecclesial Contexts
1.1. Secularization and Immorality in the Korean Church
1.2. The Separation between Church and Society
1.3. Spiritual Interest in the Church
1.4. The Crisis of the Reformed Church's Identity and Appearance of Heresies........ 67
2. Church Educational Contexts
3. Socio-Political Contexts
3.1. High-tech and "Glocalization"
3.2. Political Context as a Divided Country
3.3. Suicide Problem
4. Religio-Cultural Contexts
4.5. Relations between Christianity and Other Religions
Chapter Three: Analysis from the Educational Perspective
1. Understanding of the Curriculum
1.1. Foundational Theory
1.2. Written Curriculum
2.1. Foundational Theory
2.2. Written Curriculum
4. Teaching Methods
5.1. Foundational Theory
5.2. Written Curriculum
Chapter Four: Analysis from the Theological Perspective
1. Presbyterian Identity
1.1.God's Lordship and Rule
1.1.1. Foundational Theology
1.1.2. Written Curriculum
1.2. Glory to God Alone (Soli Deo Gloria)
1.2.1. Foundational Theology
1.2.2. Written Curriculum
1.3. By Scripture Alone (Sola Scriptura)
1.3.1. Foundational Theology
1.3.2. Written Curriculum
1.4. Discipline for A Pious Life: Sanctification
1.4.1. Foundational Theology
1.4.2. Written Curriculum
1.5. Completion of Creation
1.5.1. Foundational Theology
1.5.2. Written Curriculum
2. The Reformed Church's Understanding of Human Beings
2.1. Foundational Theology
2.2. Written Curriculum
3. Theological Theme: 'The Kingdom of God'
3.1. The Concept of 'the Kingdom of God'
3.1.1. Foundational Theology
ix 3.1.2. Written Curriculum
3.2. The Scope of 'the Kingdom of God'
3.2.1. Foundational Theology
3.2.2. Written Curriculum
3.3. The Characteristic of 'the Kingdom of God'
3.3.1. Foundational Theology
3.3.2. Written Curriculum
4. Insufficient part and Null Curriculum form a Theological Perspective................. 144
4.1. Insufficient Contextualized Theology
4.2. Korean Theology as a Null Curriculum
Chapter Five: Analysis from a Cultural Perspective
1. The Curriculum and Korean Culture
1.1. Foundational Theory
1.2. Written Curriculum
4. Null Curriculum
4.1. Inner Context as a Null Curriculum
4.2. Intra Context as a Null Curriculum
Chapter Six: Educational Theories of Maria Harris
1. The Characteristics of Educational Theory
2. Methodology: Religious Imagination
3. Understanding of the Relationship between Learner and Teacher
4. Spiritual Education
5. The Curriculum Design
5.1. What is Curriculum?
5.2. Harris's Definition of Curriculum
5.3. Harris's Understanding of Curriculum
5.4. Harris's Principles of Curriculum Design
Chapter Seven: Toward Building a New PCK Curriculum
1. Practical Proposals for Congruence
1.1. The Practical Reasons for the Incongruence
1.2. Practical Steps to improve Congruence
2. Proposals for the Application of Foundational Theory
2.1. Educational Proposals based on Maria Harris's Educational Theories............. 194 xi 2.1.1. Applying Harris's Broad Understanding of Curriculum to the Korean Context
2.1.2. Applying Harris's Five Classical Activities to the Korean Context............... 195 2.1.3. Applying Harris's Aesthetic Teaching Approach to the Korean Context....... 202
2.2. Theological Proposals
2.2.1. Building the Reformed Church Identity
2.2.2. Building a Sound Ecological Approach through an Understanding of Human Beings
2.2.3. Building A Right Conception of the Kingdom of God
2.3. Cultural Proposals
Table 1. Chart for Cycle of Lesson Books
Table 2. Applying Harris's Five Activities to the Five stages of The Kingdom of God Curriculum
Table 3. Total Number of Children in the Korean Protestant Church
Table 4. Chart of High Rank of Suicide Rates of the OECD Countries
Table 5. Educational Scope and Educational Purposes
Table 6. The Scope of the Foundational Theory of the PCK Curriculum
Table 7. Gender References in the Contents of the Lesson Books for Youth
Table 8. Lesson Titles and Bible Contents
Table 9. The Layout of Visual and Audible Materials of the Lesson Books
xiiiLIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1. Movie Poster of Forest Gump
Figure 2. Movie Poster of 200 Pounds Beauty
Figure 3. Musical Score from The Thorn Birds
Figure 4. Leonardo da Vinci’s The Last Supper
Figure 5. Michelangelo Buonarroti’s Expulsion from Paradise
Figure 6. Picture of Henri Jozef Machiel Nouwen and Movie Poster of The Devil Wears Prada
In 2001, entering the new millennium, the Presbyterian Church of Korea (PCK)1 published a new curriculum entitled “The Kingdom of God: Calling and Responding.” Since its publication, I have used this curriculum for Christian education in churches in Korea,2 and in Korean immigrant churches in the United States and Canada. During that time, I have wondered in what ways this curriculum differed from earlier curricula. Specifically, I questioned whether this curriculum was adequate for Korean churches3 in the new millennium, because most of the pictures and stories used as examples in the curriculum represented the Western world. To what extent does this curriculum really reflect the Korean context and the Korean Presbyterian Church?
The theories, which framed the foundation of the curriculum, were provided by several individuals. These include Christian education scholars who offered educational curriculum theory, a theologian who defined denominational identity, and a local pastor who described the future of the Korean church and society. As I explored the curriculum, I began to wonder: Does this curriculum adequately apply these scholars' foundational theories?