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«ARUGULA CROP PRODUCTION IN ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGIONS: NUTRITIONAL VALUE, POSTHARVEST QUALITY, AND SUSTAINABILITY IN CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS by ...»

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ARUGULA CROP PRODUCTION IN ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGIONS:

NUTRITIONAL VALUE, POSTHARVEST QUALITY, AND SUSTAINABILITY IN

CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENTS

by

Jeffrey Muir Hamilton

_________________________________

Copyright © 2009 Jeffrey Muir Hamilton

A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the

GRADUATE INTERDISCIPLINARY PROGRAM IN

ARID LANDS RESOURCE SCIENCES

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements For the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

In the Graduate College

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

2009 2

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

GRADUATE COLLEGE

As members of the Dissertation Committee, we certify that we have read the dissertation prepared by Jeffrey Muir Hamilton

entitled Arugula Crop Production in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions:

Nutritional Value, Postharvest Quality, and Sustainability in Controlled Environments and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy _______________________________________________________________________ Date: 19 October 2009 Jorge M. Fonseca _______________________________________________________________________ Date: 19 October 2009 Charles F. Hutchinson _______________________________________________________________________ Date: 19 October 2009 Stuart Marsh _______________________________________________________________________ Date: 19 October 2009 Michael J. Ottman Final approval and acceptance of this dissertation is contingent upon the candidate’s submission of the final copies of the dissertation to the Graduate College.

I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

________________________________________________ Date: 19 October 2009 Dissertation Director: Jorge M. Fonseca 3

STATEMENT BY AUTHOR

This dissertation has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirements for an advanced degree at The University of Arizona and is deposited in the University Library to be made available to borrowers under rules of the Library.

Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgment of source is made. Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder.

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First and foremost, is my blatant public admission that, had I understood the totality of the processes involved in my pursuit of a doctoral degree, I may not have attempted the task (i.e., I failed to perform a risk assessment prior to my leap). If it were not for my inherently optimistic character (a gift from my mother), completion of this task would not have been tenable (i.e., common sense did not rule the day). And perhaps had it not been for a deep (and irrational) background in competitive (that was from my father) long distance swimming, running, skiing and cycling I might have stood aside at one of the many overlooks on a rather long and rough road to admit fatigue (further proof of my irrationality). This open admission, should not be construed as a statement that my efforts were for naught, nor that I am not worthy of such a goal, for what I encountered in the process includes not just experiences and knowledge gained but an immense appreciation of how little I know as a nascent scientist, how little is really known within the natural sciences (outside of probabilities), and how much hubris resides within the vast field encompassed by the term natural sciences. While the above is my acknowledgement of my human fallibility, I need to express heartfelt gratitude to the very gracious Jorge Fonseca for financial support, encouragement and humanity, for Bill McCloskey’s all too practical suggestions, and to Mike Ottman for his ever-humble responses to my unending questions that negated my methodological competence. On a very tangible level I am very grateful to Chieri Kubota for providing me complete and unrestricted access to her research facilities and to that bastion of humility, Mark Kroggel, for guided me through

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For all, whose ego permits acknowledgment of the hand of randomness in human success, and who contribute to our free-market society through self-achievement.

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To a total stranger, N. N. Taleb1, whose insightful essays made me realize that I am not the only stranger in a strange land (with apologies to R. Heinlein2); who reawaked my appreciation for the insights of K. Popper3, and reminded me to not take science too

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N.N. Taleb, Ph.D.; Essayist, statistician, risk engineer and trader.

1 R.L. Heinlein; Novelist, short story author, essayist, and screenwriter (1907 – 1988).

2

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LIST OF IMAGES……………………………………………………………….. 10 LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………………. 11 LIST OF TABLES………………………………………………………………... 12 ABSTRACT………………………………………………...…………………….. 13 CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION……………………...……………………….. 15 Origins……………………...………………………………………………….. 15 Background………………...………………………………………………….. 16 Plant defense and nutrition……………………………………………….. 17 Abiotic factors……………………………………………………………... 18 Sustainable agriculture…………………………………………………… 19 Arugula as a model crop…………………………………………………. 20 Background summary…………………………………………………….. 21 Research Objectives and Approach…………………………………………. 22 Dissertation Format…………………………………………………………… 25 CHAPTER II: 2006 PRELIMINARY TRIAL…………………………………. 27 Preliminary trial title…………………………………………………………. 27

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Preliminary trial rationale……………………………………………………. 28 Preliminary trial objectives…………………………………………………… 30 Preliminary trial materials methods…………………………………………. 30 Preliminary trial results and discussion………………………………………33 Preliminary trial conclusion and future research…………………………… 36 CHAPTER III: PRESENT STUDY……………………………………………. 37 Summaries………………………………………………………………………37 Conclusions from present study…………………………………….…………41 Future Research. …………………………………………………….……….. 43 REFERENCES……………….……………………………………………………64

APPENDIX A: EFFECT OF SALINE IRRIGATION WATER ON

ANTIOXIDANTS IN THREE HYDROPONICALLY GROWN LEAFY

VEGETABLES: DIPLOTAXIS TENUIFOLIA, ERUCA SATIVA, AND

LEPIDIUM SATIVUM………………………………………………………………… 82 Abstract…………………………………………………………………………. 83 Introduction…………………………………………………………………….. 84 Materials and Methods…………………………………………………………. 87 Results and Discussion…………………………………………………………. 92

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Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………. 106 Literature Cited……………………………………………………………….… 107 Tables……………………………………………………………….………….. 118 Figures……………………………………………………………….…………. 120

APPENDIX B: YIELD, PHOTOSYNTHETIC RATE AND LEAF WATER

POTENTIAL RESPONSES TO SALINITY TREATMENTS IN THREE

CRUCIFERS: ERUCA SATIVA, DIPLOTAXIS TENUIFOLIA, AND

LEPIDIUM SATIVUM…..………………………………………...….……………...... 130 Abstract…………………………………………………………...….…………. 130 Introduction…………………………………………………………..…………. 132 Materials and Methods………………………………………………..……….... 135 Results…………………………………………………………...….………..…. 139 Discussion…………………………………………………………..……..……. 141 Conclusions…………………………………………………………..…………. 149 Acknowledgements………………………………………………..…………..... 150 References……………………………………………..……………..…………. 151 Tables……………………………………………..……………..…………...…. 159

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APPENDIX C: REDUCED LIGHT EFFECTS ON NUTRITIONAL CONTENT

IN LEAFY GREENS (ERUCA SATIVA, DIPLOTAXIS TENUIFOLIA, AND

LACTUCA SATIVA) IN ARIDIC PRODUCTION REGIONS…………………… 172 Abstract…………………………………………………………...….…………. 172 Introduction…………………………………………………………..………… 174 Materials and Methods………………………………………………..………... 176 Results…………………………………………………………...….………..…. 180 Discussion…………………………………………………………..……..…… 182 Conclusions…………………………………………………………..………… 187 Acknowledgements………………………………………………..………….... 187 References……………………………………………..……………..………… 188 Tables……………………………………………..……………..…………...… 196

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Image 1. The two Arugulas leaf detail…………………………………………….

. 45 Image 2. Diplotaxis tenuifolia in field plot……………………………….……….. 46 Image 3. Diplotaxis tenuifolia leaf detail………………………………………….. 47 Image 4. Mature Eruca sativa in field plot……………………………………….. 48 Image 5. Mature Eruca sativa leaf detail………………………………………….. 49 Image 6. Crucifer flower cluster detail……………………………………………. 50 Image 7. Garden Cress, Lepidium sativum………………………………………… 51 Image 8. Ebb and flow irrigation system………………………………………….. 52 Image 9. Seedling tray detail………………………………………………………. 53

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Figure 1. 2006 Preliminary Trial 1 total phenolics……………………………….

. 55 Figure 2. 2006 Preliminary Trial 2 total phenolics………………………………... 56 Figure 3. 2006 Preliminary trial 1 vitamin C……………………………………… 57

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Table 1. Yuma Agricultural Center Climate Data 2007 – 2008……………………59 Table 2.

Campus Agricultural Center Climate Data 2008………………………… 60 Table 3. Campus Agricultural Center Climate Data 2006………………………… 61 Table 4. Controlled Environment Agricultural Center Data 2008………………… 62

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Plant responses to abiotic stress are neither singular nor linear. The research represented within this dissertation was intended to evaluate selected biochemical and physiological responses in two Arugulas (Images 1– 5), to agronomic interventions designed to mitigate extreme environmental abiotic factors, characteristic of arid agricultural production regions. Plant stress responses were investigated under field conditions and within controlled environments (CE), during the course of a preliminary trial and three independent studies, all four directly related.

The preliminary trial evaluated harvest and postharvest nutritional content (i.e., antioxidants) of two Arugulas, Eruca sativa (L.) Cav. ssp. sativa (P. Mill.) and Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC cv. Sylvetta; grown under field conditions in the semi-arid upper Sonoran Desert. In this trial, we defined baseline harvest and postharvest antioxidant values for the Arugulas, cultivated in a semi-arid environment.

The initial study, conducted within a CE utilizing a water recycling system, evaluated changes in the nutritional value of three specialty leafy cruciferous vegetables: D.

tenuifolia, E. sativa and Lepidium sativum; when subjected to increasing salinity levels in the nutrient solution. It was concluded that, when specific Crucifers are irrigated with moderately high levels of salinity, neither harvest nor postharvest nutritional values are compromised.

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parameters (e.g., yield and photosynthetic rate) in the three Crucifers to salinity, within the CE. This research provided guideline salinity values where yields did not decline, and encourages growers to consider water resources compromised by salinity and nutrient solution recycling.



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