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«Committee in charge: ˘ Tajana Simuni´ Rosing, Chair c Kenny C. Gross Rajesh Gupta Tara Javidi Andrew B. Kahng Dean Tullsen 2009 Copyright Ay¸e ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO

Efficient Thermal Management for Multiprocessor Systems

A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the

requirements for the degree

Doctor of Philosophy

in

Computer Science and Engineering

by

Ay¸e Kıvılcım Co¸kun

s s

Committee in charge:

˘

Tajana Simuni´ Rosing, Chair

c

Kenny C. Gross

Rajesh Gupta

Tara Javidi

Andrew B. Kahng

Dean Tullsen 2009 Copyright Ay¸e Kıvılcım Co¸kun, 2009 s s All rights reserved.

The dissertation of Ay¸e Kıvılcım Co¸kun is approved, s s and it is acceptable in quality and form for publication

on microfilm and electronically:

Chair University of California, San Diego 2009 iii

DEDICATION

To my parents and my sister.

iv

EPIGRAPH

For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for nature cannot be fooled.

—Richard P. Feynman v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Signature Page.............................. iii Dedication................................. iv Epigraph................................. v Table of Contents............................. vi List of Figures.............................. viii List of Tables............................... x Acknowledgments............................. xi Vita and Publications.......................... xiv

Abstract

of the Dissertation....................... xvi

Chapter 1 Introduction................................ 1

1.1 Temperature-Induced Challenges................. 2

1.2 Thesis Contributions........................ 3

Chapter 2 Temperature and Reliability Simulation................ 7

2.1 Related Work............................ 7

2.2 Phase-Based Reliability Simulation................ 9 2.2.1 Long-

–  –  –

I would like to thank my advisor, Dr. Tajana Simunic Rosing, for her guidance during my PhD. I must also thank my doctoral committee, Dr. Kenny Gross, Dr. Rajesh Gupta, Dr. Tara Javidi, Dr. Andrew B. Kahng, and Dr. Dean Tullsen for their valuable feedback and contributions.

My internship at Sun Microsystems during my PhD has been an invaluable experience, and I appreciate the help, support, and the enjoyable working environment my colleagues at Sun have provided. I especially thank the System Dynamics Characterization and Control team at Sun, including Dr. Keith Whisnant. I am also grateful to Dr. David Atienza and Dr. Giovanni De Micheli, as it has been a pleasure to work with them during the summers I spent at EPFL and afterwards.

I cannot thank Dr. Yusuf Leblebici enough for his contributions to my academic career since my early years in college, and for his insightful advice during critical times.

I also thank Dr. Brad Calder for his guidance when I was trying to find my research direction.

I would like to thank all my lab mates, co-authors, and friends at UC San Diego, especially Gaurav Dhiman, Shervin Sharifi, Giacomo Marchetti, Edoardo Regini, Priti Aghera, Raid Ayoub, Richard Strong, Kresimir Mihic, and the Architecture Lab folks for their friendship and contributions to my research during my PhD years. I thank also my professors at Sabanci University, Turkey, for inspiring me to pursue an academic career.

I have been surrounded with an exceptional circle of friends, and would like to thank especially Ozge Cavus, Fikriye Kurban, Selim Guncer, Didem Turker, Hasim Mardin, Vuslat and Beste Nazilli, Deniz Kebabci, and Justin Burke for their support, tolerance, and for sharing the ups and downs. I thank Denis Dondi for his love and companionship, and for his patience during stressful times.

The greatest thanks are for all of my family, who had my best interest in their hearts at all times, who loved, supported and motivated me. I feel extremely lucky to have such a big and wonderful family. I am dedicating this thesis to my parents, Nermin Sungar and Umur Coskun, and my sister, Dr. Safak Coskun, for they have always encouraged my curiosity and my ambition to follow my dreams. They have made me the person I am today, taught me to believe in myself, and reminded me what is important in life.

xi The research that forms the basis of this dissertation has been funded in part by Sun Microsystems, UC MICRO, Center for Networked Systems (CNS) at UCSD, Cisco, Qualcomm, MARCO/DARPA Gigascale Systems Research Center, NSF MRI Greenlight #0821155, and NSF CCF #0916127.

The text of Chapter 2 is in part a reprint of the material from the paper, Ayse K. Coskun, Richard Strong, Dean Tullsen and Tajana Rosing, “Evaluating the Impact of Job Scheduling and Power Management on Processor Lifetime for Chip Multiprocessors”, in Proceedings of SIGMETRICS/Performance 2009–Joint International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, 2009. The dissertation author was the primary researcher and author, and the co-authors involved in the publication [22] directed, supervised, and assisted in the research which forms the basis for that material.





The text of Chapter 3 is in part a reprint of the material from the paper, Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Keith Whisnant and Kenny Gross, “Static and Dynamic Temperature-Aware Scheduling for Multiprocessor SoCs”, in IEEE Transactions on VLSI, September 2008. The dissertation author was the primary researcher and author, and the co-authors involved in the publication [21] directed, supervised, and assisted in the research which forms the basis for that material.

The text of Sections 4.1 and 4.3 are in part reprints of the material from the papers, Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing and Keith Whisnant, “Temperature Aware Task Scheduling in MPSoCs”, in Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), 2007, and Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Keith Whisnant and Kenny Gross, “Static and Dynamic Temperature-Aware Scheduling for Multiprocessor SoCs”, in IEEE Transactions on VLSI, September 2008. The dissertation author was the primary researcher and author, and the co-authors involved in the publications [17] and [21] directed, supervised, and assisted in the research which forms the basis for that material.

The text of Sections 4.2 and 4.3 are in part a reprint of the material from the paper, Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing and Kenny Gross, “Temperature Management in Multiprocessor SoCs Using Online Learning”, in Proceedings of Design Automation Conference (DAC), 2008. The dissertation author was the primary researcher and author, and the co-authors involved in the publication [19] directed, supervised, and assisted in the research which forms the basis for that material.

The text of Chapter 5 is in part a reprint of the material from the papers, Ayse xii K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, and Kenny Gross, “Utilizing Predictors for Efficient Thermal Management in Multiprocessor SoCs”, in IEEE Transactions on CAD, 2009, and Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing and Kenny Gross, “Proactive Temperature Balancing for Low Cost Thermal Management in MPSoCs”, in Proceedings of International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), 2008. The dissertation author was the primary researcher and author, and the co-authors involved in the publications [20] and [15] directed, supervised, and assisted in the research which forms the basis for that material.

The text of Section 6.3.1 is in part a reprint of the material from the paper, Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Jose Ayala, David Atienza and Yusuf Leblebici, “Dynamic Thermal Management in 3D Multicore Architectures”, in Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), 2009. The dissertation author was the primary researcher and author, and the co-authors involved in the publication [18] directed, supervised, and assisted in the research which forms the basis for that material.

The text of Section 6.3.1 is in part a reprint of the material from the paper, Ayse K. Coskun, Andrew B. Kahng and Tajana Simunic Rosing, “Temperature- and Cost-Aware Design of 3D Multiprocessor Architectures”, in Proceedings of Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD), 2009. The dissertation author was the primary researcher and author, and the co-authors involved in the publication [16] directed, supervised, and assisted in the research which forms the basis for that material.

–  –  –

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, and Kenny Gross. “Utilizing Predictors for Efficient Thermal Management in Multiprocessor SoCs”. IEEE Transactions on CAD, To appear in 2009.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Keith Whisnant and Kenny Gross. “Static and Dynamic Temperature-Aware Scheduling for Multiprocessor SoCs”. IEEE Transactions on VLSI, vol.16 no.9, pp. 1127-1140, Sept. 2008.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Kresimir Mihic, Yusuf Leblebici and Giovanni De Micheli. “Analysis and Optimization of MPSoC Reliability”. Journal of Low Power Electronics (JOLPE), vol.2 no.1, pp.56-69, April 2006.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Jose Ayala and David Atienza. “Modeling and Dynamic Management of 3D Multicore Systems with Liquid Cooling”. To appear in IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC), October 2009.

Francesco Zanini, Ayse K. Coskun, David Atienza and Giovanni De Micheli. “Optimal Multi-Processor SoC Thermal Simulation via Adaptive Differential Equation Solvers”.

To appear in IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI-SoC), October 2009.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Rosing and Andrew B. Kahng. “Temperature- and Cost-Aware Design of 3D Multiprocessor Architectures”. Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design (DSD), pp. 183-190, 2009.

Ayse K. Coskun, Richard Strong, Dean Tullsen and Tajana Rosing. “Evaluating the Impact of Job Scheduling and Power Management on Processor Lifetime for Chip Multiprocessors”. SIGMETRICS/Performance 2009–Joint International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, pp.169-180, 2009.

xiv Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Jose Ayala, David Atienza and Yusuf Leblebici.

“Dynamic Thermal Management in 3D Multicore Architectures”. Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), pp. 1410-1415, 2009.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing and Kenny Gross. “Proactive Temperature Balancing for Low Cost Thermal Management in MPSoCs”. Proceedings of International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), pp. 250-257, 2008.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing and Kenny Gross. “Proactive Temperature Management in MPSoCs”. Proceedings of International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), pp. 165-170, 2008.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing and Kenny Gross. “Temperature Management in Multiprocessor SoCs Using Online Learning”. Proceedings of Design Automation Conference (DAC), pp. 890-893, 2008.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Keith Whisnant and Kenny Gross. “Temperature-Aware MPSoC Scheduling for Reducing Hot Spots and Gradients”. Proceedings of Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conference (ASPDAC), pp. 49-54, 2008.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing and Keith Whisnant. “Temperature Aware Task Scheduling in MPSoCs”. Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), pp. 1659-1664, 2007.

Satish Narayanasamy, Ayse K. Coskun and Brad Calder. “Transient Fault Prediction Based on Anomalies in Processor Events”. Proceedings of Design Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), pp. 1140-1145, 2007.

Ayse K. Coskun, Tajana Simunic Rosing, Yusuf Leblebici and Giovanni De Micheli.

“A Simulation Methodology for Reliability Analysis in Multi-Core SoCs”. Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI (GLSVLSI), pp. 95-99, 2006.

–  –  –

High temperatures and large thermal variations on the die create severe challenges in system reliability, performance, leakage power, and cooling costs. Designing for worst-case thermal conditions is highly costly and time-consuming. Therefore, dynamic thermal management methods are needed to maintain safe temperature levels during execution. Conventional management techniques sacrifice performance to control temperature and only consider the hot spots, neglecting the effects of thermal variations.

This thesis focuses on developing performance-efficient techniques to achieve safe and balanced thermal profiles on multiprocessor system-on-chips (MPSoCs).

Modeling performance, temperature, and reliability of MPSoCs with high accuracy and reasonable simulation time is a challenge, because we need to keep track of instruction-level activities and also simulate sufficiently long real-time execution to have meaningful reliability estimates. The first contribution of this thesis is a fast simulation framework, which evaluates reliability of runtime policies or design-time decisions accurately in a matter of hours—whereas traditional architecture-level simulators would have to run for days.

Job scheduling on an MPSoC has a significant impact on temperature and reliability. For systems with a priori known workloads, this thesis proposes a scheduling optimization method which outperforms other static energy or temperature management techniques in terms of reducing thermal hot spots and gradients. However, having an accurate design-time workload estimate is not possible for most systems. This work introduces dynamic techniques to address runtime variations in workload. The key aspects of these dynamic techniques are low-performance impact and adaptation capability.



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