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«ABSTRACT BOOK 5th Annual International Conference on Philosophy 31 May 2010 & 1-3 June 2010 Athens, Greece Edited by: Gregory T. Papanikos First ...»

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Athens Institute for Education and Research




5th Annual International Conference on Philosophy

31 May 2010 & 1-3 June 2010

Athens, Greece

Edited by:

Gregory T. Papanikos

First Published in Athens, Greece by the Athens Institute for Education and Research.

ISBN: 978-960-6672-70-5

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored, retrieved system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the written permission of the publisher, nor be otherwise circulated in any form of binding or cover.

8 Valaoritou Street Kolonaki, 10671 Athens, Greece www.atiner.gr ©Copyright 2010 by the Athens Institute for Education and Research. The individual essays remain the intellectual properties of the contributors.

  2 Table of Contents Preface Gregory T. Papanikos

1. The Semantics, Pragmatics, and Ontology of Fiction Fred Adams

2. Knowing the Sophist: An Encountering with the Law Hagit Aldema

3. Influence of Philosophy on Islamic Mysticism Sousan Alerasoul, Monirossadat Pourtolami, Monireh Sayyid Mazhari and Roohieh Naziripour

4. Descartes, Luther and the Fifth Lateran Council Aderemi Artis

5. Sustainability, Science, and Ethics:

A New Paradigm for Global Change Ignacio Ayestaran

6. Autonomy as a Moral Virtue Neera Badhwar

7. Schopenhauer as Internal Critic of Kant:

Holding Kant to a Deterministic Conception of the Inclinations Ryan Beaton

8. Plato On Rhetoric – Neoplatonic Interpretations Bettina Bohle

9. The Role of Sociological Assumptions in the Construction of Ethical Theories Marcos G. Breuer

10. True City – True Soul Paul Carelli

11. The Folk Psychology of Free Will: An Argument against Compatibilism Gregg Caruso

12. The Transvaluatıon of Representatıon Kieran Anthony Cashell

13. H.L.A. HART: The Separation of Law and Morals Sule Sahin Ceylan

14. Truth, Proof and Axiomatic Independence - Turning to Algorithm for an Explication of Wittgenstein’s Philosophy of Mathematics Pak Kiu Chow

15. The Idea of Colonial Conquest and Christian Evangelization According to its Aristotelian Echoes in Suarez and Vieira Rui Manuel Coimbra Goncalves

16. Thoughts by the Sea, Reflections on Happiness Louis Colombo

17. Euripides and Plato on

–  –  –

22. Perceptual Knowledge and Perceptual Discrimination:

A Puzzle for McDowell Andrea Giananti

23. The Myth of Gyges and the Possibility of Altruism Chrysoula Gitsoulis

24. Why there is ‘no such thing as a Language’: Chomsky’s Mistake Patricia Hanna

25. Heidegger’s Ontological Coordination (Gleichschaltung) of Temporality and Language Richard A. Hearn

26. Phenomenal Concepts and the Mode of Presentation Problem Emmett L. Holman

27. Another Paradox of Williamson's Margin for Error Rahmani Hossein and Davood Hosseini

28. Tyranny in the Corner: Structural Violence and Human Agency Marina Kaneti

29. Aristotle on Moral Responsibility and the Situationist Challenge Panos Kapetanakis

30. A Comparative Study of the Role of Harmony in the Thoughts of Confucius and Plato on the Cultural Cultivation of Music Mei-Yen Lee

31. Hume and Ancient Philosophy Peter Loptson

32. ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΊΑ: Word-concept Vasily Vasilievitch Markhinin

33. Friendship and the Common Life: Happiness in a Modern Polis Philip Matthews

34. Does God Have Free Will?

Hugh J. McCann

35. Does Preference Determine Action? A Defense of Davidson’s Principle, P1 Michael Michaelakis

36. The Problem with the Censor Elizabeth A. Murray

37. Ontology that Matters: Binding Relations Giuseppe Naimo

38. Metaphysics of Power and End of Play in Nietzsche's Philosophy Rouhieh Naziripour

39. Cultural Models in Adaptation and Argumentation Will Newsome

40. An Adverbial Interpretation of Pragmatism Carol Nicholson

41. A and B-Theories of Time: A Debate Nathan Oaklander

42. Connectionist Semantics, Feature Processing, and the Interpretability of Dimensions in State-Space Ian O'Loughlin

43. Merleau-Ponty’s Doctrine of Objects Henry Pietersma

44. The Evolution of Knowledge - A Unified Naturalistic Approach to Evolutionary Epistemology Taking into Account - The Impact of Information Technology and the Internet Stefan Pistorius   4  

45. Being as the Set of All Things Donald V. Poochigian

46. The Role of Theoretical Mysticism in Solving some Philosophical Controversies Monirossadat Pourtolami, Monireh Seyed Mazhari, Sousan Alerasoul and Roohieh Naziripour

47. Epictetus and the Ethics of Perception Scott Rubarth

48. A New Interpretation of Plato’s Crito Nicholas Sars

49. Plotinus on Art and Knowledge Monireh Sayyid Mazhari, Sousan Alerasoul and Monirossadat Pourtolami

50. The Necessity of the “Necessary Connection” of Mind and Body:

Revisiting Kant’s Metaphysics to Save Science Irmgard Scherer

51. A Phenomenology of Child Play Audrey Skrupskelis

52. Metaphysics and Semantics of Folk Psychology Krzysztof Swiatek

53. Structural Norms versus Neuroscientific Facts Elzbieta Szymanska-Swiatek

54. Reconceiving Philosophy as Bodily Discipline: Clues from Master Zhu John Thompson

55. The Perplexity of New Beginnings: The Will and the Foundation of Freedom Camila Vergara

56. Rorty and the Linguistic Turn Timo Vuorio

57. Intergenerational Rights: A Philosophical Examination Makoto Usami

58. Compassion and Well-being: An Aristotelian – Buddhist Perspective Andy Wallace

59. Paradoxicality of Institution, De-Institutionalization or the CounterInstitutional in Classical Chinese Chan Buddhist Thought Youru Wang

60. Middle Path Aristotle and Buddhism Manasvini Yogi

61. Nietzsche and Women Julian Young

62. Two Notions of Rigidity Marian Zouhar

–  –  –

  This abstract book includes all the abstracts of the papers presented at the 5th Annual International Conference on Philosophy, 31 May 2010 & 1-3 June 2010, organized by The Philosophy Research Unit of the Athens Institute for Education and Research (AT.IN.E.R.). In total there were 62 papers and 63 presenters, coming from 19 different countries (Australia, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia, South Korea, Spain, Turkey, UK and USA). The conference was organized into 21 sessions that included areas such as 19th and 20th Century Philosophy, Metaphysics and Epistemology, Ancient Philosophy, Philosophy of Religion, Eastern Philosophy, Ethics, Islamic Philosophy e.t.c. As it is the publication policy of the Institute, the papers presented in this conference will be considered for publication in one of the books of ATINER.

The Institute was established in 1995 as an independent academic organization with the mission to become a forum where academics and researchers from all over the world could meet in Athens and exchange ideas on their research and consider the future developments of their fields of study. Our mission is to make ATHENS a place where academics and researchers from all over the world meet to discuss the developments of their discipline and present their work. To serve this purpose, conferences are organized along the lines of well established and well defined scientific disciplines. In addition, interdisciplinary conferences are also organized because they serve the mission statement of the Institute. Since 1995, ATINER has organized close to 150 annual international conferences and has published over 100 books. Academically, the Institute is organized into four research divisions and

–  –  –

and undertakes various small and large research projects.

I would like to thank all the participants, the members of the organizing and academic committee and most importantly the administration staff of ATINER for putting this conference together.

Gregory T. Papanikos Director

–  –  –

The lecture will focus on the moment of the interlocutors' parricide in Plato's Sophist, a moment in which they encounter the law of Parmenides.

My reading will be supported by some of the principles Heidegger draws in his course on the Sophist, as well as relate to his article, "What is Metaphysics" (Heidegger 1993). This essay will outline the relationship between negation and notbeing as Heidegger discusses it in his aforementioned article, through an examination of the interlocutors' attempts to know the sophist in the Sophist. As I would like to show, their attempts to know the sophist are inherently bound with the relation Heidegger draws between negation and not-being.

My interpretation of the parricide is supported by psychoanalytic thought which considers it a myth that describes the becoming of the subject; a becoming that is perceived in the context of this lecture as the becoming of the philosopher's knowledge concerning the sophist.

According to psychoanalytic thought, the subject is established as such via an encounter with the law (Freud 1989: Totem and Tabu). This encounter embodies an impossible relation between the subject and the law; an impossibility that is structural, namely, that it cannot be fixed into a positive and reciprocal content relation between the subject and the law, which establishes him as such.

The significance of the reading of this specific dialogue is to try to outline the relation of philosophy to the sophist which can be considered as its other. Thus, the lecture will try to direct toward the general question regarding the complicated relation between dialectic and rhetoric which is referred throughout Plato's writing.

–  –  –

Notwithstanding the fact that there are differences between philosophers and mystics in terms of principles, end and methods, Islamic philosophy has had a significant impact on Islamic mysticism. This impact is in three fields of ontology, the method of verification and transferring mystical findings, and the relation between human being and God.

1. In the field of ontology: the main subject and the aim of Islamic mysticism is pondering over God's essence in respect to His names and attributes in terms of reaching God. Despite the fact that Islamic mysticism presupposes personal union of being and considers the created world as manifestations of God and does not deem an independent existence for creatures, it does not ignore ontology and introduces a philosophical ontological system using philosophical terms.

2. In the field of proving and transferring the mystical findings: Since mystics' knowledge was personal, visionary and un –transferable, they were usually condemned. However, Ibn Arabi’s effort and the mystics after him in terms of using logical reasoning helped Islamic mystics to make their internal and spiritual findings impersonal and convey to others resulting in introducing mysticism as a science. The mystic through rational description of envisioned reality, using philosophical language with a mystical content and through using rational reasoning for mystical findings has benefited from philosophy.

3. In the field of the relation between man with God: There is an affectionate relation between the creator and the creature with the consequential movement of passionate longing towards the Absolute perfect Beauty, God, in the lower degrees.

The theoretical account of this perfectionist movement and its stages is influenced by the philosophical views of Aristotle, Plotinus and Suhrewardi.

–  –  –

In the letter of dedication to his Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes presents his work as the fulfillment of the bull produced by the eighth session of the Fifth Lateran Council under pope Leo X. This has not gone unnoticed by scholars, and a number of recent works on Descartes have given attention to the question of how Descartes’ thoughts in the Meditations relate to the Council’s bull. More specifically, these scholars have investigated how Descartes’ treatment of the immortality of the soul relates to the competing doctrines on the soul attacked by the Lateran Council, namely, Alexandrism and Averroism. Recent commentators have largely agreed both that Descartes failed in his attempts to defeat the competing doctrines on the soul or provide a coherent account of the character and grounds of the soul’s immortality, and that the immortality of the soul is the chief topic of interest in the Council’s bull as it relates to the Meditations. If one accepts these conclusions, then one must also accept that Descartes failed in his attempts to carry out the bull of the Fifth Lateran Council, and, moreover, that the church might well have been correct in placing his work on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, at least according to its own standard of judgment. However, I argue that the main purpose of the eight session was to assert the doctrine of “single truth” against that of “double truth,” and so deny that philosophy has access to truths distinct from or potentially at odds with the truths of faith. I further suggest that the misunderstanding of the meaning of the bull can at least in part be traced to the writings of Martin Luther, and, finally, conclude that Descartes was in fact successful in carrying out the edicts of the Council’s bull.

–  –  –

Since 2001, there is a debate about the core research questions of Sustainability Science (Kates RW, et al., ‘Sustainability Science’, 2001, Science, vol. 292, no. 5517, pp. 641-642). A Sustainability Science research program has begun to take shape that transcends the concerns of its foundational disciplines and focuses instead on understanding the global change and the complex dynamics that arise from interactions between human and environmental systems.

In 2001 this group of leading natural scientists, social scientists, and policy analysts from around the world, outlined the core questions of the field. Central questions (Clark WC, “Sustainability Science: A room of its own”, 2007, PNAS, vol.

104, no. 6, pp. 1737-1738) include the following:

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