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«by Zhenhua Huang A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Mechanical Engineering) ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

3D LASER HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY MEASUREMENTS

by

Zhenhua Huang

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment

of the requirements for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

(Mechanical Engineering)

in The University of Michigan

2006

Doctoral Committee:

Associate Professor Albert J. Shih, Co-Chair

Professor Jun Ni, Co-Chair

Professor Elijah Kannatey-Asibu Jr

Professor Jianjun Shi

Adjunct Assistant Professor John Patrick Spicer © Zhenhua Huang 2006 All rights reserved To my beloved family, especially my wife Mingmin Zhu and my daughter Cindy Huang.

ii Acknowledgements I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my advisors Dr. Albert Shih and Dr. Jun Ni for their continuous guidance and education not only on my research but also on my moral maturity. Dr. Shih and Dr. Ni spent tremendous time from their busy schedules teaching me word by word how to write good papers and how to give good presentations. They also coached me through many trivial details how to treat other people well and how to be a good man. The significant efforts from Dr. Shih and Dr. Ni to secure my financial support are highly recognized.

The kind helps from all the other committee members, Dr. Jianjun Shi, Dr. Elijah Kannatey-Asibu Jr, and Dr. Pat Spicer, are greatly appreciated.

I am grateful to Mr. Dwight Carlson, Mr. Ron Swonger, and many other gentlemen from Coherix Inc. for their generous and unreserved technical supports. They not only provided me the opportunity to use their advanced equipment but also created the environment for me to learn the in-depth knowledge about this exciting technology.

The Engineering Research Center for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems directed by Professor Yoram Koren generously sponsored this research. And through the active involvement of many activities in ERC, my academic and social skills have been improved significantly. This precious experience in ERC will be treasured through the rest of my life.

The advanced measurement group directed by Robert Waite in DaimlerChrysler helped me initiate this exciting research area and provided me the access to their state-of- the-art instruments. The CogniTens Ltd. under Eyal Mizrahi also offered a lot of measurement help. Professor Jack Hu generously offered me the opportunities to use his devices for my research experiments. I thank them all.

iii My family, especially my wife Mingmin, always stood behind me throughout the four year PhD study, no matter up or down. Without their supports, I could not make this dissertation happen.

–  –  –

Dedication

Acknowledgements

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Appendices

Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. Research motivations and goals

1.2. Laser holographic interferometry for powertrain components measurement......... 3

1.3. Feasibility study of 3D optical systems for engine head measurement.................. 4

1.4. Overview of research

Chapter 2. Hologram Registration for 3D Precision Holographic Interferometry Measurement

2.1. Introduction

2.2. Hologram registration

2.2.1. Translation

2.2.2. Tilt and shift correction

2.2.3. Rotation

2.2.3.1. Rotation identification

2.2.3.2. Rotation correction

2.3. Accuracy evaluation of hologram registration

2.3.1. Accuracy evaluation procedures

2.3.2. Example I -- wheel hub

2.3.3. Example II -- engine head combustion deck surface

2.4. Concluding remarks

Chapter 3. Phase Unwrapping for Large Depth-of-Field 3D Laser Holographic Interferometry Measurement of Laterally Discontinuous Surfaces

3.1. Introduction

3.2. Region-referenced phase unwrapping

v 3.2.1. Principle

3.2.2. Segmentation and patching

3.3. Masking, dynamic segmentation and phase adjustment

3.3.1. Phase wrap identification on boundary pixels

3.3.2. Masking and recovery

3.3.3. Dynamic segmentation

3.3.4. Phase adjustment for thin boundary regions with phase wrap

3.4. Example

3.4.1. Phase unwrapping results

3.4.2. Effect of W and Wo on computational efficiency

3.4.3. Convergence

3.5. Concluding remarks

Chapter 4

Laser Holographic Interferometry Measurement of Cylinders

4.1. Introduction

4.2. Mathematical model

4.2.1. System design

4.2.2. Mathematical deduction

4.2.2.1. Geometric relation definition

4.2.2.2. Format of measurement data

4.2.2.3. Data conversion

4.2.3. Cylindricity evaluation

4.2.4. Registration adjustment

4.3. Calibrations

4.4. Examples

4.4.1. Simulations

4.4.1.1. Cylindricity measurement

4.4.1.2. Calibration

4.4.1.3. Error analysis

4.4.2. Experiment

4.4.2.1. System configurations

4.4.2.2. Adjustments

4.4.2.3. Measurement results

vi 4.4.2.4. Processing

4.5. Concluding remarks

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Future Work

5.1. Conclusions

5.2. Future work





5.2.1. Performance improvement of cylindricity measurement

5.2.2. Error analysis of geometrical form evaluation for high definition measurements

Appendices

References

vii List of Figures

Fig. 1.1. Examples of automotive powertrain and wheel assembly components: (a) engine head, (b) automatic transmission valve body, (c) wheel hub, and (d) wheel rotor............. 8 Fig. 1.2. Measurement size and tolerance requirement for automotive components. [1]... 9 Fig. 1.3. Top view of a V6 engine head combustion deck surface.

Fig. 1.4. Flatness measurement results by: (a) Zeiss CMM, model UPMC CARAT 850/1200 with a scanning probe, (b) laser holographic interferometer Coherix Shapix 1000, and (c) stereovision system CogniTens Optigo 200.

Fig. 2.1. Measurement regions and variables used for hologram registration: (a) Measurement A and (b) Measurement B. In this research, W = 1024, p = 0.293 mm, and pW = 300 mm

Fig. 2.2. Wheel hub: (a) isometric view, (b) top view, and (c) close-up view of the dent marked in solid rectangle in (b).

Fig. 2.3. Measured holograms of the wheel hub: (a) intensity and (b) phase of Measurements A and B

Fig. 2.4. Correlation matrix C of Measurements A and B of the wheel hub................... 28 Fig. 2.5. Registered hologram of the wheel hub: (a) phase and (b) intensity.................. 29 Fig. 2.6. 3D profile measurement of the wheel hub: (a) registered measurement hm(i, j) and (b) standard measurement hs(i, j).

Fig. 2.7. Difference between hs(i, j) and hm(i, j) of the wheel hub.

Fig. 2.8. Effect of the area of the overlapped region on the error erms.

Fig. 2.9. Overview of a V6 engine head combustion deck surface.

Fig. 2.10. 3D profile of the engine head combustion deck surface: (a) registered measurement and (b) CMM measurement

Fig. 3.1. Artificially created phase map: (a) 3D true phase map without phase wrap and (b) 3D wrapped phase map.

Fig. 3.2. The automatic transmission valve body: (a) isometric view and (b) top view.. 49 Fig. 3.3. Detection of phase wrap at pixel (i, j): (a) surrounding four pixels and (b) reference region surrounding the pixel.

Fig. 3.4. Measured phase map with phase wrap for the automatic transmission valve body

viii Fig. 3.5. Close-up view of the region S1 in Fig. 3.4 as an example of the boundary pixels with decreased noise robustness in the detection of phase wrap: (a) before phase unwrapping, (b) after phase unwrapping and before recovery, and (c) after phase unwrapping and recovery

Fig. 3.6. Segmentation: (a) static segmentation of the region S2 in Fig. 3.4, (b) close-up view of the region S4 in Fig. 3.6(a), and (c) dynamic segmentation of the region S2 in Fig.

3.4

Fig. 3.7. Definition of the boundary width pm: (a) two boundary regions and (b) the condition with pixels on the top side close to the left side of the segment

Fig. 3.8. Example of the dynamic segmentation of region S3 in Fig. 3.4 (W = 50, Wo = 20, and T = 6 pixels).

Fig. 3.9. Phase unwrapping of the automatic transmission valve body: (a) unwrapped phase map without adjustment, (b) close-up view of the region S5 in (a), (c) close-up view of the region S6 in (a), (d) unwrapped phase map after adjustment, (e) close-up view of the region S΄5 in (d) after adjustment, and (f) close-up view of the region S΄6 in (d) after adjustment

Fig. 4.1. Conceptual system design of the laser holographic interferometry system: (a) flat object measurement and (b) cylindricity measurement

Fig. 4.2. 3D illustration of the geometric relations in the mathematical model for the cylindricity measurement with the laser holographic interferometry system

Fig. 4.3. 3D illustration of four simulated laser holographic interferometry measurements of the cylinder with O0 = (0, 0, 0.5) mm, D0 = (0, 1, 0), O2 = (0, 0, –1) mm, D2 = (0.0995, 0.9950, 0), R = 12.5 mm, and S = 12 mm (O1 = (0, 0, 1) mm and D1 = (0, 0.9988, 0.0499) at the 0º angular position of the cylinder): (a) at 0º angular position, (b) at 90º angular position, (c) at the angular position of 180º, and (d) at the angular position of 270º of the cylinder.

Fig. 4.4. Generated cylinder surface profile from the simulated data (cylindricity =

7.9×10-7 mm).

Fig. 4.5. The cylindricity measurement error distribution simulated by the Monte Carlo method

Fig. 4.6. System configurations of the cylindricity measurement.

Fig. 4.7. Height measurement of the master cylinder at the angular position of 333.140º:

(a) 2D color map, (b) height profile along Line1 from left to right in (a), and (c) height profile along Line 2 from top to bottom in (a)

Fig. 4.8. Height measurement of the master cylinder at the angular position of 62.227º: (a) 2D color map, (b) height profile along the Line 1 from left to right in (a), and (c) height profile along the Line 2 from top to bottom in (a)

Fig. 4.9. Height measurement of the master cylinder at the angular position of 149.988º:

(a) 2D color map, (b) height profile along the Line 1 from left to right in (a), and (c) height profile along the Line 2 from top to bottom in (a)

ix

Fig. 4.10. Height measurement of the master cylinder at the angular position of 244.377º:

(a) 2D color map, (b) height profile along the Line 1 from left to right in (a), and (c) height profile along the Line 2 from top to bottom in (a)

Fig. 4.11. 3D illustration of the final estimation of the master cylinder

Fig. 5.1. Master cylinder with negligible cylindricity errors and precisely rectified grooves

Fig. B.1. Plane light wave distribution in space at a time spot. [5]

Fig. B.2. Diagram of the laser holographic interferometer: (a) configuration of the machine and (b) scheme of the optical measurement unit in (a).

Fig. B.3. Optical configurations of the laser holographic interferometer under research.

Fig. B.4. Valve body surface flatness measurement by the laser holographic interferometer

Fig. B.5. Step gage for performance evaluation: (a) overview and (b) CAD model..... 117 Fig. B.6. Target value measurement of the step heights by Taylor Hobson contact profilometer

Fig. B.7. 3D profile of the step gage measured by the laser holographic interferometer.

Fig. B.8. An automotive automatic transmission valve body for performance evaluation.

Fig. B.9. 3D profile of the automotive automatic transmission valve body measured by the laser holographic interferometry

Fig. C.1. Geometric form evaluation based on the measurement data with the part and measurement variations.

Fig. C.2. Simulated part variation of profile 4 without measurement errors: (a) 3D profile and (b) histogram of height distribution.

Fig. C.3. Simulated part variation of profile 1 without measurement errors: (a) 3D profile and (b) histogram of height distribution.

Fig. C.4. Simulated part variation of profile 2 without measurement errors: (a) 3D profile and (b) histogram of height distribution.

Fig. C.5. Simulated part variation of profile 3 without measurement errors: (a) 3D profile and (b) histogram of height distribution.

Fig. C.6. Simulated part variation of profile 5 without measurement errors: (a) 3D profile and (b) histogram of height distribution.

x List of Tables

Table 3.1.

Computational time for phase unwrapping of the automatic transmission valve body example (892 x 842 pixels)

Table 3.2.

Minimum Wo for phase unwrapping without divergence in the automatic transmission valve body example.

Table 4.1.

The cylindricity measurement error due to the parameter estimation............ 80 Table B.1. Plane distance measurements of the step gage by the laser holographic interferometer

Table B.2. Gage R&R evaluation of the laser holographic interferometer................... 113 Table C.1. Standard deviation of reference plane coefficients for flatness evaluation.. 134 Table C.2. Flatness evaluation error analysis of different methods

xi List of Appendices

Appendix A. Comparison Matrix of Six 3D Measurement Systems …………………98 Appendix B. Laser Holographic Interferometry and Performance Evaluation …………99 Appendix C. Flatness Evaluation for High Definition Measurements…………………121

–  –  –

1.1. Research motivations and goals Automotive manufacturers are continually challenged by the needs to improve product quality and reduce warranty cost. Effective measurement methods are required to assure the precision and accuracy of component manufacturing, assembly, and testing.

For automobile bodies and sub-assemblies, the optical measurement technologies have revolutionized the dimensional quality monitoring and control in the past two decades.



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