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JULY 2014





Thesis Submitted to Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Govrnment, Universiti Utara Malaysia, in Fl~lfillment the Requirement for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy of Kolej Undang-Undang, Kerajaan dan Pengajian Antarabangsa (College of Law, Government and International Studies) Universiti Utara Malaysia


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In presenting this thesis in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the Universiti Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisor or, in her absence, by the Dean of Centre for Graduate Studies. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material from my thesis.

Requests for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis, in

whole or in part should be addressed to:

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Malaysia ABSTRAK Pelancongan telah dianggap sebagai satu strategi untuk menjana faedah ekonomi dan untuk membangunkan masyarakat setempat dari segi ekonomi dan sosial. Walau bagaimanapun, untuk terus kekal, pelancongan memerlukan banyak penglibatan dan sokongan daripada masyarakat setempat. Manakala cabaran yang paling besar kepada kerajaan ialah mendapatkan penyertaan dan penerimaan masyarakat tempatan terhadap pembangunan pelancongan. Cabaran ini jelas kelihatan di negara Yaman yang dilihat sebagai salah sebuah negara Islam yang paling konservatif kerana nilai-nilai dan budaya Islam, dan sifat berpuak-puak yang bertentangan dengan amalan pelancong barat. Kajian ini meneliti pengaruh sikap penduduk terhadap pembangunan pelancongan dalam masyarakat konservatif Pulau Socotra, Yaman dengan; menentukan pengaruh nilai-nilai Islam penduduk setempat terhadap pembangunan pelancongan, menentukan pengaruh ciri-ciri sosio-demografi sikap penduduk ke atas pembangunan pelancongan, menentukan pengaruh kepentingan peribadi daripada pelancongan kepada penduduk setempat terhadap pembangunan pelancongan dan menentukan pengaruh pengetahuan tentang pelancongan kepada sikap penduduk mengenai pembangunan pelancongan. Data dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan kaedah kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Sebanyak 359 jawapan soal selidik yang boleh digunakan telah dikumpul dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan pelbagai teknik statistik. Di samping itu, 20 temu bual dengan ketua dikalangan penduduk tempatan juga dijalankan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan negatif antara nilai-nilai Islam masyarakat konservatif Pulau Socotra dengan sikap mereka terhadap pembangunan pelancongan. Hasil kajian juga merumuskan ciri-ciri sosiodemografi, kepentingan peribadi melalui pelancongan dan pengetahuan tentang pelancongan mempunyai hubungan positif dengan sikap masyarakat setempat terhadap pembangunan pelancongan. Kajian ini telah memperluas literatur mengenai sikap penduduk terhadap pelancongan dengan mengenengahkan nilai-nilai Islam Yaman sebagai pembolehubah baharu dalam memahami persepsi dan sikap masyarakat terhadap pelancongan. Di samping itu, ia memberi sumbangan yang penting dalam literatur berkaitan pengurusan dan metodologi, terutamanya yang berkaitan dengan pemahaman sikap penduduk terhadap pelancongan, khususnya dalam masyarakat konservatif seperti masyarakat Yaman. Kajian ini juga mencadangkan beberapa cara bagaimana kerajaan dan pembuat dasar di Yaman boleh memberikan sumbangan bagi memajukan pelancongan. Akhir sekali, kajian ini juga mencadangkan kajian lanjutan terrnasuklah kajian tentang faktor-faktor lain yang boleh mempengaruhi pendapat dan persepsi penduduk tempatan terhadap pelancongan.

Kata kunci: Nilai-Nilai Islam di Yaman, Pulau Socotra, Sikap Penduduk Terhadap Pelancongan, Yaman


Tourism has been considered as a strategy to generate economic benefits and to develop the local community, economically and socially. However, tourism requires a lot of participation and support by the local community to be sustained. Getting participation and acceptance from local community is perhaps the greatest challenge to the national government. This challenge seems apparent in Yemen which is viewed as one of the most conservative Islamic countries, where Islamic values and culture, and the tribal conventions come in contradiction to the Western tourists' practices. This study investigates the influence of residents' attitudes toward tourism development in a conservative community of Socotra Island in Yemen by determining the influence of Islamic values on the residents' attitudes toward tourism development, investigating the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on the residents' attitudes on tourism development, assessing the influence of personal benefits from tourism on the residents' attitudes toward tourism development, and examining the influence of knowledge about tourism on the residents attitudes on tourism development. Data was collected using quantitative and qualitative methods.

A total of 359 usable questionnaire responses were collected and analyzed by using a variety of statistical techniques. In addition, 20 interviews with local leaders were conducted. The result shows a negative relationship between the residents' Islamic values and their attitudes toward tourism development in a conservative community of Socotra Island. The findings also indicate that social demographic characteristics, personal benefits from tourism, and knowledge about tourism have positive relationships with residents' attitudes toward tourism development. This study extends the literature on residents' attitudes toward tourism by highlighting Yemeni Islamic values as a new variable in understanding community perceptions and attitudes toward tourism. In addition, it provides important managerial and methodological contributions to the literature, particularly with regards to the understanding of the residents' attitudes toward tourism, specifically in a conservative community such as Yemeni community. Recommendations are given on how government and policy makers in Yemen can make contributions to develop tourism. Finally, the study suggests further studies including investigating other factors that may influence the residents' opinions and perceptions on tourism.

Keywords: Residents' Attitudes Toward Tourism, Socotra Island, Yemen, Yemeni Islamic Values Acknowledgement In the name of Allah, the most Gracious and the most Merciful. I am grateful to the Almighty Allah for giving me to opportunity to complete my PhD thesis. May peace and blessing of Allah be upon His beloved Prophet Mohammad (SAW), his family, companions and followers. The completion of this research would not have been possible without the assistance and support of a number of people. I would like to take this opportunity to thank those people who have greatly contributed from the inception to the final stages of this study. I would like to extend my appreciation to my supervisor, Dr. Nor Ashikin Mohd Nor and Prof. Dr. Azilah Kasim, for their thorough supervision, encouragement and willingness to support me throughout this study.

I am very grateful to Prof. Dr. Zainab Khalifah and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shaharuddin Tahir. They were very kind during the viva and during period of the correction.

Additionally their comments have helped to improve this work.

I would like to take this opportunity to thank Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shaharuddin Tahir, who shared with me his great knowledge and offered a great deal of guidance and advice which enabled me to complete the correction for my thesis. My deepest and never- ending gratitude goes to all my family members especially my waif, my kids Abdulqader, Khalid, Safiyah and Lyan, brothers Mohammad, Dr. Yasser and Fahmi and sisters Am Tamer and Am Ahmed and my friend Nabil Mohammad for giving me undivided support and eternal prayers for me always.

Table of Contents

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1.0 Introduction This study aims to investigate the factors that influence of residents7 attitude towards tourism development in Socotra Island, Yemen. Hence, the introductory chapter focuses on the background of the study, the problem statement of the study, the research questions, the research objectives, the scope of the study, the significance of the study, key terms definitions definitions, and the thesis outline.

1.1 Background Tourism has been for a long time recognized as an important form in economic development in developing countries, contributing to foreign exchange earnings, gross domestic product and employment opportunities (de Kadt, 1979). According to January 20 14 UNWTO World Tourism Barometer, international tourist arrivals grew by 5% in 2013, reaching a record 1,087 million arrivals. Despite global economic challenges, international tourism results were well above expectations, with an additional 52 million international tourists travelling the world in 2013. For 2014, LINWTO forecasts 4% to 4.5% growth and this is again, above the long term projections (UNWTO, 2014). In 2013, the global Travel & Tourism industry's total contribution to GDP grew by 3.0%, faster than other global sectors such as manufacturing, retail and financial and public services, outperforming overall GDP growth for the third consecutive year (WTTC, 2014).

Tourism was defined by UNWTO in its Understanding Tourism: Basic Glossary as "Tourism a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement

of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or The contents of the thesis is for internal user only References Ahmed, S. (1986). Understanding residents reaction to tourism tarketing strategies.

Journal of Travel Research, 25 (2), 13-18.

Akama, J. S., & Kieti, D. (2007). Tourism and socio-economic development in developing countries: a case study of Mombasa Resort in Kenya. Journal o f Sustainable Tourism, 15 (6), 735-748.

Akarapong, U. (2006). Attitude of local residents on tourism impacts: A case study of Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai. Proceeding 12th Asia PaciJc Tourism Association and 4th APacCHRIE Joint Conference, June 26-29 2006, Hualien, Taiwan.

Akis, S., Peristianis, N., & Warner, J. (1996). Residents' attitudes to tourism development: The Case of Cyprus. Tourism Management, 17 (7), 48 1-494.

Akkawi, M. (2010). Resident attitudes towards tourism development in conservative cultures: The Case of Qatar, Master thesis publishes. University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Aldubaibi, Y. (2013). Tourists positive attitude to visit Socotra. Retrieved from http://www.alkhabarnow.net/news/33O 13/2013/011301.

Alexander, S.E. (2002). Resident attitudes towards conservation and Black Howler Monkeys in Belize: The Community Baboon Sanctuary. Environmental Conservation,27(04), 34 1-350.

Al-Farid, S. (2004). Promoting small and micro rural enterprise (SMRE), through pro- poor Ecotourism policies in developing countries. Institutional Research final report. Yemen, Sana'a.

Allen, L. R., Hafer, H. R., Long, P. T., & Perdue. R. R. (1993). Rural residents' attitudes toward recreation and tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 31 (4), 27-33.

Allen, L. R., Long, P. T., Perdue, R. R., & Kieselbach. S. (1988). The impact of tourism development on resident's perception of community life. Journal of Travel Research, 2 7 (I), 16-2 1.

Al-Nini, A. (2009) Tourism in Yemen recent challenge and future vision. Ministry of Tourism. Yemen.

Alomaisi, M. (2013). Arab and foreigners visit to Socotra island. Retrieved from http://www.26sept.info/newspaper/2013/march/l696/6086-18/38953-20 13html.

Al-omari, M. (20 10). Tourism and Yemenifuture between development capabilities and collapse dangerosiy. Ministry of Tourism. Yemen.

Alsagher, 0. (2009). 101 Things to see and do in Yemen: Top tips to make your trip truly memorable, Sana'a: Yemen Tourism Promotion Board.

Al-Shami, N. (2010). Ecotourism in Yemen, Sana'a: Yemen Tourism Promotion Board.

Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Knopf, R. C., & Vogt, C. A. (2005). Resident perception of community tourism impacts. Annals of Tourism Research, 32 (4), 1056-1 076.

Andereck, K.L. & Vogt, C.A. (2000). The relationship between residents' attitudes towards tourism and tourism development options. Journal of Travel Research 59,27-36.

Andriotis, K. (2005). Community Groups' Perceptions of and Preferences to Tourism Development - Evidence from Crete. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 29(1): 67-90.

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