WWW.DISSERTATION.XLIBX.INFO
FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials
 
<< HOME
CONTACTS



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 16 |

«By MAGALIE LANIEL A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

EXPLORATORY STUDY OF RFID APPLICATIONS FOR AIR CARGO OPERATIONS

By

MAGALIE LANIEL

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

2010 1 © 2010 Magalie Laniel 2 To all who guided me throughout my lifetime, making this milestone possible 3

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work has been carried out under the guidance of my advisor Dr. Jean-Pierre Émond. His brilliant ideas and suggestions more than helped shape this research. I will never be thankful enough for the opportunity and support that he gave me through all my studies. I feel very privileged and fortunate to have him as my advisor and want to thank him for believing in me.

I would also like to thank each of my committee members, Dr. Ray Bucklin, Dr.

Tom Burks, Dr. Daniel Engels and Dr. David Mikolaitis for their advice and contribution to my education thus far and in the future. Besides, I would like to express my thankfulness to Ismail Uysal who helped me extensively structure this dissertation and with whom I hope to have the pleasure to work with in the future.

I would like to send a special thank to Trevor Howard and all of Air Canada Cargo for their generous implication and participation to this research. Without their help, many experiments would have simply been impossible to achieve. Moreover, I want to send a warm recognition to everyone at Franwell for helping in any way they could and providing key equipment at critical times. Thank you for your trust and encouragement. I also want to thank Mr. Chris Noel from Sealed Air Corporation for providing temperature sensors in a timely manner and making my last experiment possible.

I would like to extend my gratitude towards my parents for their unconditional love and support regardless of distance and sacrifices. I would also like to thank my other half Martin for his patience, guidance and never ending revisions. Last but not least I would like to thank all my friends and colleagues for their support. Particularly Cecilia, it was such a pleasure to share this path together.

4

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Abstract

CHAPTER 1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

2 RFID IN AIR CARGO: A LITTERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

RFID Technology and Definitions

Radio Waves

Polarization of electromagnetic waves

Electromagnetic waves properties

RFID System Overview

Readers

Antenna

Tags

Frequencies

Air Cargo

Aviation History

Air Cargo Supply Chain

Air cargo warehouse operations

Unit load device (ULD)

Market

Materials in Commercial Aircrafts

Composites

Metals

Electrical Systems in Commercial Aircrafts

Temperature Profile in Commercial Aircraft

Aircraft Safety

Cargo security and monitoring

Fire detection

Technologies

RFID in Aviation

ISM Frequency and Aviation RFID Considerations

5 Aviation Applications

Passenger baggage sortation

Verification / authentication

Tracking and locating

Cargo

Cold chain

Wireless Interference

Electronic devices

RFID interference

RFID airworthiness policy

Concluding Remarks

3 AIR CARGO WAREHOUSE ENVIRONMENT AND RF INTERFERENCE............. 68

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Montreal Warehouse

Toronto Warehouse

Results and Discussion

433MHz

915MHz

2.45GHz

Conclusion

4 RADIO FREQUENCY PROPAGATION INSIDE THE CARGO HOLD OF A DC- 10 AIRCRAFT

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Test 1: Propagation Study

Data analysis

Statistical analysis

Test 2: Validation of Relation between Signal Strength and Tag Reads.......... 95 Data point comparison

Results and Discussion

Test 1: Propagation Study

Attenuation

Signal strength

Test 2: Validation of Relation between Signal Strength and Tag Reads........ 100 Conclusion

5 RADIO FREQUENCY INTERACTIONS WITH AIR CARGO CONTAINER

MATERIALS FOR REAL-TIME MONITORING

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Test 1

6 Test 2

Test 3

Results and Discussion

Test 1

433MHz

915MHz

2.45GHz

Test 2

Test 3

Conclusion

6 TEMPERATURE MAPPING INSIDE AIR CARGO CONTAINERS DURING AIRSIDE OPERATIONS

Introduction

Materials and Methods

Results and Discussion

During Flight

Before and After Flight

Conclusion

7 GLOBAL TRACKING SYSTEM FOR AIR CARGO SUPPLY CHAIN





Introduction

Typical Air Cargo Warehouse Operations

Typical Air Cargo Ramp Operations

Findings from this Study and Recommendations for RFID Tracking System Implementation

Passive and Active RFID Tags

ULD Materials

Frequency

Conclusion

8 GENERAL CONCLUSION

APPENDIX A DC-10 CARGO HOLD AND CARGO DOOR SPECS

B RADIO FREQUENCY ATTENUATION SURFACE PLOTS

C STATISTICAL ANALYSIS RESULTS FOR DC-10 RADIO FREQUENCY

PROPAGATION

D RADIO FREQUENCY SIGNAL STRENGTH PROPAGATION SURFACE

PLOTS

E UNIT LOAD DEVICES, TEMPERATURE GRAPHS AND POSITIONS................ 188

–  –  –

2-1 EPCglobal tag class structure

2-2 Permissible field strengths for RFID systems in accordance with FCC Part 15 (FCC, 2008).

2-3 Aircraft radio systems

3-1 Receiving antenna specifications

3-2 Minimum and maximum interference readings (in dBm) for six positions and three frequencies at the Montreal warehouse

3-3 Minimum and maximum interference readings (in dBm) for nine positions and three frequencies at the Toronto warehouse.

4-1 Specifications of the three RF systems used.

4-2 Calculated parameters for the attenuation equation (Eq. 4-5) and maximum allowed output power adjustment.

4-3 Averages and standard deviations of attenuation levels for each test.............. 104 4-4 Statistical analysis results for the effect of antenna location.

4-5 Statistical analysis results for the effect of antenna polarization.

4-6 Signal strength data for each test, averaged per vertical slice, and total cargo hold (Avg).

4-7 Table summarizing the recorded and adjusted power levels and read rates for circular and linear antennas across the 12 cross sectional planes.............. 106 5-1 Specifications of the six antennas used.

5-2 Signal strength measurements (dBm) for control (no sample), test 1.

Receiver antenna positions are measured from the emitting antenna.............. 128 5-3 Signal strength deviation, test 1. Receiver antenna positions are measured from the emitting antenna and sample materials are positioned at ............... 128 5-4 Signal strength measurements, plus signal strength deviation between material samples and control at three frequencies for test 2.

5-5 Signal strength measurement, test 3. Receiver antenna positions are measured from the emitting antenna.

–  –  –

6-1 Routes, aircraft and ULD specs from Toronto (YYZ).

6-2 Temperature comparison between heated and unheated cargo holds inside an Airbus 330.

7-1 Current processes as well as proposed RFID solutions for the air cargo supply chain (cargo acceptance part).

7-2 Current processes as well as proposed RFID solutions for the air cargo supply chain (cargo build-up part).

7-3 Current processes as well as proposed RFID solutions for the air cargo supply chain (cargo to/from the ramp section).

7-4 Current processes as well as proposed RFID solutions for the air cargo supply chain (cargo break-down and storage section).

7-5 Current processes as well as proposed RFID solutions for the air cargo supply chain (cargo delivery part).

C-1 Effects of frequency, antenna location and antenna polarization on attenuation levels of the complete dataset.

C-2 Effect of width on attenuation levels for each frequency, antenna location and polarization.

C-3 Effect of height on attenuation levels for each frequency, antenna location and polarization.

C-4 Effect of depth on attenuation levels for each frequency, antenna location and polarization.

–  –  –

1-1 Brief overview of the air cargo supply chain.

1-2 Some problems associated to the air cargo warehouse and aircraft operations.

1-3 Some questions associated with warehouse and aircraft air cargo operations.. 23 2-1 Electromagnetic spectrum

2-2 Different parts of a wave (Lahiri, 2006)

2-3 Example of an RFID system on conveyor belt.

2-4 Wave propagation for linear and circular polarization

2-5 Cargo warehouse floor plan and activity areas.

2-6 International flight temperature profile with both high-temperature excursions (during stopovers) and low-temperature excursions (in flight)

2-7 Example of a GSM/GPS capable RFID system for real time data acquisition (Schmoetzer, 2005).

3-1 Montreal cargo warehouse facility floor plan and interference reading points (numbered 1 to 6).

3-2 Toronto cargo warehouse facility floor plan and interference reading points (numbered 1 to 9).

3-3 Noise floor of spectrum analyzer at three different resolution bandwidths.......... 83 3-4 Worst case scenario for signal interference readings around 433MHz. Span:

10MHz, RBW: 10kHz, attenuation: 0dB, gain: 0dBi.

3-5 Worst case scenario for signal interference readings around 915MHz. Span:

50MHz, RBW: 10kHz, attenuation: 0dB, gain: 2.5dBi.

3-6 Worst case scenario for signal interference readings around 2450MHz. Span:

50MHz, RBW: 10kHz, attenuation: 0dB, gain: 8dBi.

4-1 Section of an aircraft fuselage (Airbus A380)

4-2 DC-10-30F from Arrow Cargo

–  –  –

4-4 Cargo hold dimensions and RF emitting antenna positions.

4-5 Data point positions in the 3x3 grid. Twelve 3x3 grids are measured long the length of the cargo hold, every meter.

4-6 Tag readability test configuration. Tyvek® sheet with 29 RFID tags (circled) covering half of the cargo hold cross section

4-7 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 433MHz, circular antenna and top end antenna position.

4-8 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 433MHz, circular antenna and center ceiling antenna position.

4-9 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 915MHz, circular antenna and top end antenna position.

4-10 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 915MHz, linear antenna and top end antenna position.

4-11 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 915MHz, circular antenna and center ceiling antenna position.

4-12 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 2.45GHz, circular antenna and top end antenna position.

4-13 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 2.45GHz, linear antenna and top end antenna position.

4-14 Attenuation surface plots for each vertical slice of 3x3 data point at 2.45GHz, circular antenna and center ceiling antenna position.

4-15 Distribution (in percentage) of each frequency tested, for circular antenna only and two antenna locations.

4-16 Comparison of the change in average power levels and tag read rates for both antennas through linear regression.

5-1 Diagram of the anechoic chamber setup for test 1. Four receiver antennas shown for illustrative purposes. One receiver antenna is used at a time.......... 130 5-2 Anechoic chamber set-up for test 2. A) The sample material is surrounded by foam absorber and placed one wavelength from the emitting antenna. B) The receiver antenna is taped behind the material sample.

6-1 ULD types and their respective tag positions.

–  –  –

6-3 Graph of averaged top and bottom tag temperatures during flight (gate to gate) for both short flights (1-2h) to and from Montreal (YUL).

6-4 Graph of averaged top and bottom tag temperatures during flight (gate to gate) for both medium-short flights (4-6h) to and from Vancouver (YVR)......... 142 6-5 Graph of averaged top and bottom tag temperatures during flight (gate to gate) for all 7-8h flights to and from London (LHR) or Frankfurt (FRA)............. 143 6-6 Graph of averaged top and bottom tag temperatures during flight (gate to gate) for the longest flight (9h) from London (LHR) to Vancouver (YVR)....... 143 6-7 Temperature profiles of all tags for ULDs AKH 1817 to and from Montreal...... 144 7-1 Overview of the air cargo operations where the circled steps represent suggested RFID reading points.

A-1 Standard cargo compartment and containers for model DC-10 series 10, 10CF, 30, 30CF, 40 and 40CF.

A-2 Forward cargo loading door, model DC-10 series 10, 10CF, 30, 30CF, 40 and 40CF.

Attenuation surface plot example – one slice of data (dBm)

B-1 B-2 Attenuation surface plot for 433MHz, top end antenna position and circular polarization.

B-3 Attenuation surface plot for 433MHz, center ceiling antenna position and circular polarization.

B-4 Attenuation surface plot for 915MHz, top end antenna position and circular polarization.

B-5 Attenuation surface plot for 915MHz, top end antenna position and linear polarization.

B-6 Attenuation surface plot for 915MHz, center ceiling antenna position and circular polarization.



Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 16 |


Similar works:

«COUPLED INVISCID-VISCOUS SOLUTION METHODOLOGY FOR BOUNDED DOMAINS: APPLICATION TO DATA CENTER THERMAL MANAGEMENT A Dissertation Presented to The Academic Faculty by Ethan E. Cruz In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology December 2015 Copyright © 2015 by Ethan E. Cruz COUPLED INVISCID-VISCOUS SOLUTION METHODOLOGY FOR BOUNDED DOMAINS: APPLICATION TO DATA CENTER THERMAL MANAGEMENT...»

«Ideas and considerations for detailed design and naming for Ōtautahi North Western Cluster of Schools A Ngāi Tūāhuriri Perspective An Example of Modern Māori Learning Environments and associated Cultural Identifiers Te Whare Maahunui Tuahiwi Marae Home of Ngāi Tūāhuriri Mana Whenua 1 Wednesday, 14 October 2015 Table of Contents Whāinga / Aim Kaupapa rapunga whakaaro / Philosophy Mana Whenua / Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri/ Mana Whenua Ngāi Tahu Whānui and Te Rūnanga o...»

«Exploring learning experiences and outcomes among cardiologists participating in a web conference workshop series. A thesis Presented to The Faculty of Education University of Ottawa In partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Carolyn E. Pullen October 9th, 2012 © Carolyn Pullen, Ottawa, Canada, 2012 EXPLORING PRACTICE CHANGE Abstract Opportunities for supporting physician continuing professional development (CPD) may exist through careful instructional...»

«Journal of Jewish Thought & Philosophy �� (�0�4) ��7-�63 brill.com/jjtp “But I Will Tell of Their Deeds”: Retelling a Hasidic Tale about the Power of Storytelling Levi Cooper Faculty of Law, Bar-Ilan University levicoops@gmail.com Abstract A famous Hasidic tale that depicts the decline of mysticism in Hasidic circles also bespeaks the power of storytelling. This study tracks the metamorphosis of this classic tale over a century of its retelling by writers—including Martin...»

«INVESTIGATION OF OPTICAL LOSS CHANGES IN SILOXANE POLYMER WAVEGUIDES DURING THERMAL CURING AND AGING A Dissertation Presented to The Academic Faculty by Shashikant G. Hegde In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology April 2008 COPYRIGHT 2008 BY SHASHIKANT G. HEGDE INVESTIGATION OF OPTICAL LOSS CHANGES IN SILOXANE POLYMER WAVEGUIDES DURING THERMAL CURING AND AGING Approved...»

«Ryerson University Digital Commons @ Ryerson Theses and dissertations 1-1-2012 Sound as Signifier: Communication and Expression Through the Sound of Clothing Tala Kamea Berkes Ryerson University Follow this and additional works at: http://digitalcommons.ryerson.ca/dissertations Part of the Fashion Design Commons, and the Philosophy Commons Recommended Citation Berkes, Tala Kamea, Sound as Signifier: Communication and Expression Through the Sound of Clothing (2012). Theses and dissertations....»

«Continuity and Discontinuity: The Temple and Early Christian Identity by Timothy Scott Wardle Department of Religion Duke University Date:_Approved: _ Joel Marcus, Supervisor _ Eric Meyers _ Lucas Van Rompay _ Christopher Rowe Dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Religion in the Graduate School of Duke University 2008 ABSTRACT Continuity and Discontinuity: The Temple and Early Christian Identity by Timothy...»

«A NUMERICAL STUDY OF TILLAGE TOOL WEAR DURING PLOWING OF SANDY SOIL by Gaurav S. Goel A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Mechanical Engineering Charlotte 2013 Approved by: Dr. Harish P. Cherukuri Dr. Ronald E. Smelser Dr. David C. Weggel Dr. Yogendra P. Kakad ii c 2013 Gaurav S. Goel ALL RIGHTS RESERVED iii ABSTRACT GAURAV S. GOEL. A numerical study of...»

«MODELING, DESIGN AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT A Dissertation Presented to The Academic Faculty by Thomas Heenan Bradley In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology December, 2008 Copyright © Thomas Heenan Bradley 2008 MODELING, DESIGN AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT OF FUEL CELL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT Approved by: Dr. David E. Parekh, Advisor Dr. William J. Wepfer School of...»

«GAS PHASE LASER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE NANOPARTICLES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS by PARIMAL V. BAPAT RENATO P. CAMATA, COMMITTEE CHAIR SUSAN L. BELLIS S. AARON CATLEDGE DERRICK R. DEAN YOGESH K. VOHRA A DISSERTATION Submitted to the graduate faculty of The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA 2011 GAS PHASE LASER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATE NANOPARTICLES...»

«INTERCONNECTS FOR FUTURE TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS—CONVENTIONAL CMOS WITH COPPER/LOW–κ AND BEYOND A Dissertation Presented to The Academic Faculty By Ahmet Ceyhan In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy in Electrical and Computer Engineering School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology December 2014 Copyright © 2014 by Ahmet Ceyhan INTERCONNECTS FOR FUTURE TECHNOLOGY GENERATIONS—CONVENTIONAL CMOS WITH COPPER/LOW–κ...»

«TIME DEPENDENT FREEZING OF WATER UNDER MULTIPLE SHOCK WAVE COMPRESSION By DANIEL H. DOLAN III A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY Department of Physics MAY 2003 c Copyright by DANIEL H. DOLAN III, 2003 All Rights Reserved c Copyright by DANIEL H. DOLAN III, 2003 All Rights Reserved To the Faculty of Washington State University: The members of the Committee appointed to examine the dissertation of...»





 
<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.