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«THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKPLACE INCIVILITY AND THE INTENTION TO SHARE KNOWLEDGE: THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF COLLABORATIVE CLIMATE AND PERSONALITY ...»

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKPLACE INCIVILITY AND

THE INTENTION TO SHARE KNOWLEDGE:

THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF COLLABORATIVE CLIMATE AND

PERSONALITY TRAITS

A DISSERTATION

SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

BY JiHyun Shim

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Rosemarie Park, Advisor August, 2010 © JiHyun Shim 2010 i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to acknowledge those who have contributed to the success of this dissertation. Without the support from these individuals, this lonely journey would have been much more difficult for me to complete.

I would like to express the deepest appreciation to my advisor, Dr. Rosemarie Park, for her unending support, patience and encouragement. Without her guidance and persistent help, this dissertation would not have been possible. I would also like to thank my committee members, Dr. Alexandre Aldichvilli, Dr. Bradley Greiman, Dr. James Brown and Dr. Michelle Duffy for letting me have their time, guidance, and insights which ultimately led me to produce better dissertation.

I am heartily thankful to all my dear colleagues and friends for consistently inspiring, stimulating and supporting me. I especially thank all the Korean HRD community in the University of Minnesota, Dr. Baekyoo Joo, Dr. SungJun Jo, Dr. Sohee Park, Dr. JungHo Jeon, Sunyoung Park, HeaJun Yoon, ChangWook Jung, YooJeung Jang, SeJin Heo, JungRok Oh, SeokJu Hwang, ChanKyun Park, and DaeSeok Chae. I am also thankful to my dear friends, HyunJoo Shin, SeoHee Sohn, HeaWon Ju, YeJin Hong, JaeEun Jeon, Jiyeon Lee, HeeJung Kim, HyungSeok Yoo, JongWon Lee, EunSoon Lee, YeonBo Jung who have each believed in me throughout this entire process. I would not have been able to face all the challenges in Minnesota without them and I rejoice in this accomplishment because of them.

Finally, but most importantly, I would like to thank my entire family, foremost my parents, PyungTeak Shim and HeeChul Shin for their emotional and financial support ii for me to be able to complete my journey. Through my entire life, they have been consistently believing me, supporting me and loving me. I would also like to express my hearty gratitude to my two loving sisters, TaeYoen Shim and EunJin Shim and brotherin-law, ChangMin Choi. I offer my regards and blessing to all of my family members who support

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The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and the intention to share knowledge. Additionally, this study explores the moderating effect of collaborative climate and individual personality traits on the relationship between them. The data were obtained from twenty-two Korean companies. The survey consisted of five sections used to measure the experience of workplace incivility, the intention to share knowledge, collaborative climate, individual personality, and demographics. In total, 494 surveys were returned out of 600, and 476 were cleaned for data analysis (79.3%).

Reliability tests, correlations, hierarchical multiple regressions and ANOVAs were employed to investigate the research hypotheses. The results of this study showed a negative relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and the intention to share knowledge. Additionally, this study showed the moderating effect of an individual personality trait, conscientiousness, on the relationship between the experience of workplace incivility and the intention to share knowledge. More specifically, conscientious people are more likely to share knowledge, in spite of the experience of workplace incivility.

Implications for future research include further development of workplace incivility measurement tools for Korean settings. Additionally, there are plenty of areas to be explored in order to show the ill effects of workplace incivility, such as leadermember relationships, employee engagement, and organizational citizenship behaviors.

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sessions about the concept of workplace incivility, and developing interventions for workplace incivility to prevent its prevalence in organizations. For victims to report

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List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………... ix List of Figures …………………………………………………………………………… x CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION.....…………………………………………………….. 1 Research Problem ……………………………………………………………………… 1 Research Purpose and Research Question …………………………………………….. 4 Qualifications of the Researcher ……………………………………………………….. 5 Significance of Study ………………………………………………………………….. 6 Definitions of Terms …………………………………………………………………... 7 Overview of Methodology …………………………………………………………….. 9 Organization of the Study …………………………………………………………….. 10 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………… 10 CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW ……………………………………………… 12 Workplace Incivility ……………………………………………………………….….. 13 Knowledge Sharing …………………………………………………………………… 18 Theoretical Foundations and Hypotheses of the Research …………………………… 23 Collaborative Climate: Situational variable …………………………………………... 25 Personality Traits: Individual variables ………………………………………………. 30 Hypothesized Model ………………………………………………………………….. 33 Employee Segregation in Korean Companies.……………………………………….. 34 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………… 36 CHAPTER III: METHOD ……………………………………………………………... 38 Research Methodology ……………………………………………………………….. 38 Data Collection Procedure ……………………………………………………………. 38 vii Sample Demographics ………………………………………………………………... 39 Measurement Instrument ……………………………………………………………... 41 Workplace Incivility ………………………………………………………………… 41 Intention to Share Knowledge ………………………………………………………. 42 Collaborative Climate …………………………………………………………..…… 43 Personality ……………………………………………………….………………….. 44 Translation Procedure ………………………………………………………………… 47 IRB Approval ……………………………………………………………………….… 48 Data Analysis …………………………………………………………………………. 49 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………… 50 CHAPTER IV: RESULTS …………………………………………………………….. 51 Measurement Model Assessment …………………………………………………….. 52 Descriptive Statistics, Reliabilities, and Correlations ………………………………… 53 Hierarchical Multiple Regressions Analysis ……………………………………….…. 54 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) ……………………………………………………… 57 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………… 59 CHAPTER V: DISCUSSION AND LIMITATIONS ……….………………………… 60 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………….. 60 Workplace Incivility …………………………………………………………………. 61 Collaborative Climate and Individual Personality …………………………………... 62 Moderating Effect of Individual Personality- Conscientiousness …………………… 63 Workplace Incivility in Korean Companies …………………………………………. 65 Limitations ……………………………………………………………………………. 66 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………… 67 CHAPTER VI: IMPLICATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS …………………………… 69 viii Implications …………………………………………………………………………... 69 Academic Implications ……………………………………………………………… 69 Practical Implications ……………………………………………………………….. 70 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………... 73 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………….…….. 76 APPENDIX ………………………………………………………………….………… 90 APPENDIX A……………………………………………………………….………... 90 APPENDIX B ……………………………………………………………..………….. 94 APPENDIX C ………………………………………………………………..……… 104 ix List of Tables Table 1. Demographic Information …………………………………………………… 40 Table 2. Survey Questions used to answer the Research Questions ………………….. 45 Table 3. Evaluation of the Measurement Model ……………………………………… 52 Table 4. Means, Standard Deviations, Reliabilities, and Subscale Zero-order Inter Correlations...…………………………………………………………………. 53 Table 5. Hierarchical multiple regression results for intention to share knowledge ….. 55 Table 6. Post-Hoc Test Results for Employee Type and Company Size ……………... 58 x List of Figures Figure 1. Research Model …………………………………………………………….. 33 Figure 2. Moderating Effect of Conscientiousness on the relationship between the Experience of Workplace incivility and Intention to Share Knowledge …… 64

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Increasing numbers of researchers are paying attention to the causes and consequences of workplace incivility, with Baron and Neuman’s (1998) work serving as a classic study. These researchers found that most violence in the workplace does not take the form of direct and physical assault, but rather operates on a subtle and indirect or direct level of action. Defined as low intensity deviant behavior with ambiguous intentions to harm the target, workplace incivility is characteristically rude discourse, oftentimes displaying a lack of regard for others in violation of workplace norms for mutual respect (Andersson & Pearson, 1999). Due to both the current interest and the practical limitations of conducting field research in the area of management, the majority of works related to workplace incivility are theoretical. According to Andersson and Pearson (1999), social exchange theory (Blau, 1964) provides a theoretical framework for studying workplace incivility, which is seen as escalating and reciprocal in nature, namely a “tit-for-tat” pattern.

Following the work of Andersson and Pearson (1999), other researchers such as Pearson, Andersson, and Porath (2000), Johnson and Indvik (2001), Lim and Cortina (2005), and Pearson and Porath (2005) tried to provide a theoretical framework in order to identify the antecedents and consequences of workplace incivility. Their works are significant in terms of reporting its seriousness to the public and capturing researchers’ attention to investigate the issue further. However, there are very few empirical studies that report how workplace incivility distorts organizational dynamics and functions.

Consequently, very few practitioners have realized the critical need to manage workplace incivility and to design and implement active prevention efforts in the workplace.

Therefore, there is an urgent need to conduct an empirical research study on the effects of workplace incivility on organizational functioning, which is critical to organizational survival.

This study investigates the relationship between workplace incivility and knowledge sharing, in order to show how workplace incivility affects critical organizational functions. This study focuses on knowledge sharing: as a source of competitive advantage, knowledge sharing is a critical element for an organization’s survival. In contrast to workplace incivility, knowledge sharing has received a great deal of attention. Comparing the quantity of studies focusing on the facilitators of knowledge sharing, however, there are few studies that attempt to determine the barriers to knowledge sharing in the workplace (Riege, 2005). Most previous studies in knowledge sharing automatically assume a positive and friendly workplace that produces trust and intimacy, which are important in facilitating knowledge sharing between members;

however, trust and intimacy are not normally given without any effort (Guzman, 2008).

Therefore, it is important to determine the barriers to knowledge sharing and to prevent them from developing in organizations so that more active knowledge sharing can take place. In this study, workplace incivility is studied as one of the possible barriers that prevents active knowledge sharing among members by destroying optimal social relationships among employees and by reducing trust and intimacy.



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