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«Mat. No. 9050 AN ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM INDUSTRIES (SMIs) IN BORNO STATE OF NIGERIA BY UMAR ...»

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Mat. No. 9050

AN ANALYSIS OF STRATEGIC FACTORS AFFECTING

THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM INDUSTRIES (SMIs)

IN BORNO STATE OF NIGERIA

BY

UMAR IBRAHIM,

B.SC, MBA, FIMC, FCIA, FCNA, FCTI

BEING A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE ST. CLEMENTS UNIVERSITY IN

PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF THE

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN MANAGEMENT.

MARCH 2008

DECLARATION

I, Umar Ibrahim, do hereby declare that this dissertation is entirely my own composition. All references made to works of other persons have been duly acknowledged.

……………………..

Umar Ibrahim APPROVAL This is to certify that this research work was carried out under strict supervision and has been approved for submission to the St Clement University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management.

………………………….. ……………………………… Project Supervisor Academic Adviser ……………………………………….

Administrator DEDICATION This Thesis is dedicated to the memory of my late father, Alhaji Ibrahim Majalam, who passed away on 29th October, 2006; and to his name-sake, Ibrahim-mujahid, who was one year old on Thursday, 28th February, 2008.

May the peace and mercy of God be on the soul of the departed and may he be admitted to al-jannatul- fir-dausi. Amiin

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Glory is to God, who has bestowed man with wisdom and intellect!

I wish to acknowledge, with gratitude, the St Clements University and its able Consultant/Academic Adviser in Nigeria, Professor David Iornem, for providing the opportunity, here in Abuja, for me to earn the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management from the University.

I thank most sincerely my dynamic academic counsellors and supervisors, namely, Dr. U.G. Moti of the University of Abuja and Professor David Iornem for their counselling, guidance, supervision and assistance during the course of the Ph.D programme. Their intellectual disposition and wide experience was brought to bear on, and greatly influenced, the output of this thesis.

I thank the Librarian and staff of President Kennedy Library, A.B.U., Zaria, National Library of Nigeria, Abuja, and the University of Maiduguri Library for their tremendous assistance. I also thank my friends and colleagues at the Universities of Abuja and Maiduguri for their assistance and guidance in the research work and in the writing of this Thesis I wish to also acknowledge the immense contribution of Manufacturers Association of Nigeria, National Association of Small and Medium Enterprises, the Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, and the Federal Ministry of Industry whose publications and materials shaped the conceptual framework and literature review for this project..

I thank my dear wife, Hajia Hadiza, and all my children for their support and encouragement and bearing with me during the long course of the programme.

I thank my Secretary, Mrs. Olaide O. Idowu and other secretariat staff of Department of Finance and Accounts of the Federal Ministry of Energy for typing the manuscript of this Thesis.

Above all, I thank God for His Bounties and Mercies.

ABSTRACT

The study “Analysis of strategic factors affecting the performance of Small and Medium Industries in Borno State of Nigeria” identifies the factors, problems, constraints, difficulties and challenges facing the small and medium industries (SMIs) in the State. The initial urge to undertake this study was provided by a group of manufacturing industries in Borno State that the researcher observed could hardly break-even. Even though the identification of the difficult operating environment, as causes of the inadequate performance was, at this stage, only speculative, it nonetheless point to the possible factors affecting the performance of the companies.

For this study, relevant literature materials were reviewed. A close-ended questionnaire was administered on 30 SMI to solicit their responses. Follow-up interviews were conducted with a view to obtaining additional information. The data collected from the survey were analysed to establish relationships between the various factors and issues considered, as well as their relative significance. Four hypotheses were tested using chisquare for independent samples and descriptive analysis.

The study found that SMI are affected by inadequate infrastructure such as power supply;

raw material shortage; lack of access to finance; shortage of competent personnel; the problems posed by trade liberalization and subsequent dumping of cheap foreign goods into the country; and the problems relating to policies, incentives and operating environment. Interestingly, the survey results indicate that SMI respond to and are affected by various macroeconomic policy variables instituted by Government.

The study concludes that high performance goals for SMI in term of products, exports, employment generation and contribution to GDP can only be achieved when SMI are provided with friendly policies and incentives and conducive operating environment;





improvements in infrastructure; enhanced peace and security. The SMI need to employ competent personnel that have right attitudes and high performance goals.

Many recommendations have emerged from the study. First, deliberate efforts are still needed on the part of Governments, Trade Associations, SMI and other stakeholders to nurture a climate that is conducive to successful and profitable operation of SMI. In particular, improvements in infrastructure such as constant supply of electricity, water, road and rail transportation systems are necessary. Secondly, loan facilities from banks and other funding schemes to SMI should include a provision of managerial assistance to SMI to upgrade management and technical skills. Other recommendations include the call on Government to take concrete actions to curb dumping, smuggling and importation of cheap foreign products; to harmonize taxes, charges and levies; to develop its industries and to encourage Nigerians to patronize products made by SMI and to privatize owned industries to enhance their efficiency and performance.

–  –  –

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Statement of the Problem

1.2 Aims and Objectives of study

1.3 Significance and Implications of the study

1.4 Research Methodology……………………………………………….4 1.5 Research Hypothesis and Confidence level………………………..6 1.6 Scope and Limitations of Study:…………………………………..…7 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 The Nature and Definitions of Small and Medium-Industries.........8 2.2 Characteristics of Small and Medium Industries in Nigeria……….18 2.3 Problems and Constraints of Small and Medium Industries in Nigeria…………………………………………………..22

2.4 The Nigeria’s Industrial policies and Incentives; and Macro-Economic Policy Variables for SMI Development……………….…42

2.5 Overview of the Development of Small and Medium Industries in Nigeria…………………………………………………..46 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

3.1 Area of study

3.2 Sample Size ………………………

3.3 Research Instruments/sources of Data

3. 4 Data Collection Methods

3.5 Data Analysis Procedure

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1 General Characteristics of SMI obtained from the survey..............56

4.2 Presentation and Analysis of Data on Common Problems Facing Small and medium Industries (SMI)

4.3 Presentation and Analysis of Data on Problems Facing Government controlled SMI

4.4 Presentation and Analysis of Data on Problems Encountered by Privately Owned SMI

4.5 Test of Hypothesis Number One on the significant difference Between Problems Faced by Government controlled and Private owned SMI

4.6 Presentation and Analysis of Data on the Application of Cost Control Techniques in SMI

4.7 Test of Hypothesis Number Two on the Use of cost control techniques by SMI

4.8 Test of Hypothesis Number Three on the relationship between the profit performance of SMI that use cost control techniques and those that do not

4.9 Presentation and Analysis of Data on the impact of macroeconomic variables on SMI………

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONLUSIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS,..…………………………………113

5.1 Summary of Findings

5.2 Conclusions……

5.3 Recommendations……………………

Bibliography

Appendix A: Letter of introduction

Appendix B: Questionnaire

Appendix C: Analysis of Response to Questionnaire..................138 List of Tables Page

1. Table on Local sourcing of raw materials for years 2002-2005……….23/4

2. Table on Energy Supply by NEPA/PHCN for years 2003-2006……..…..30

3. Table of Funding Requirements, Preferred and actual interest rates for years 2003-2006………………………………….………………..33

4. Table on Fabrics produced or imported into the Country from years 2000-2005……………………………………………………………….38

5. Table on Survey Results showing composition of SMI in Borno State…..56

6. Table on Common problems faced by SMI in Borno State…………….....59

7. Table on Analysis of problems of SMI by ownership……………..……….62

8. Table on Problems faced by Government controlled SMI………………...78

9. Table on Problem faced by privately owned SMI…………………….…….82

10. Table on Frequency of problems faced by SMI………………………........86

11. Table on the use of Cost Control Techniques by SMI……………………102

12. Table on the relationship between use of cost control techniques and profit performance………………………………………………………103

13. Table on the rate of responses to select macro economic variables…...107

–  –  –

1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM For socio-economic development of any country, a strong Industrial base is desirable.

The natural resources need to be developed and utilized both as input to industrial production and as direct products for the social well being of the citizenry.

Since Nigeria’s Independence in 1960, industrialization has been recognized as the critical factor to the economic transformation of the country. To achieve the desired result, Government had, for the past two and half decades, focused in its industrial policy mainly on the promotion and establishment of large-scale industries (LSIs) in pursuance of import substitution process. The promotion of Small and Medium Industries (SMIs), on the other hand, received relatively low direct Government investment, and was left to the initiatives of the private entrepreneur.

With the collapse of the oil prices in the mid 1980’s, many of Government promoted large scale industries found it difficult to source foreign exchange to import raw materials and machinery. This adversely affected capacity utilization, particularly, in the large-scale industries. This further necessitated a change in policy direction of Government towards private sector participation, promotion of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) and development of Small Scale Industries.

Thus, the 1988 Industrial Policy of Nigeria not only recognized the pivotal role of the private sector but shifted industrialization strategy from large scale industries to small and medium industries. Government’s main efforts therefore became directed towards the promotion of conducive environment for the growth and development of the sub-sector.

Since the present Civilian Administration came in 1999, it has put in place policy measures, schemes and support systems to develop the SME sub- sector and to make its products more competitive. Through the development of the SMIs, Government intended to achieve the main objectives of industrial growth and self-sufficiency; create employment;

enhance sustainable livelihood and reduce poverty; promote entrepreneurship, encourage transfer of technology and utilization of local resources and talents; mobilize savings and encourage capital accumulation; and integrate SMI with large scale industry (LSIs) and create linkages with other sectors of the economy.

In today’s Nigeria, industries, particularly small and medium -sized manufacturing industries (SMIs), operate under various conditions and constraints, which stand on the way to the achievement of organisational goals. There are, for example, high cost and shortage of materials, shortage of funds, inability to recruit competent staff. Due to its size, the individual firm neither has control over input factor costs or the prices at which it sells its output with the result that inefficient and high cost firms are forced out of business. This makes cost saving devices essential for economic survival. Gone were the days when owners of the businesses concerned themselves with returns, or employees with salaries and wages only;

their interests are now also focused on the efficient operation of the business and utilisation of invested resources.



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