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EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PRAGMATISM AND AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY
COPYRIGHT © 2009 ASSOCIAZIONE PRAGMA
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PRAGMATISM
AND AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY
Rosa M. Calcaterra (Co-Executive Editor)
Roberto Frega (Co-Executive Editor)
Giovanni Maddalena (Co-Executive Editor)
Issue 1, vol. 6, 2014
ISSN: 2036-4091 2014, VI, 1
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PRAGMATISM AND AMERICAN PHILOSOPHY
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PRAGMATISM AND AMERICAN PHILOSOPHYCOPYRIGHT © 2009 ASSOCIAZIONE PRAGMA European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy
TABLE OF CONTENTSSymposia. The Reception of Peirce in the World Editors: Giovanni Maddalena (University of Molise), Alessandro Ballabio (University of Bogotà) R. M. Calcaterra, R. Frega, G. Maddalena, Introduction
Ch. Hookway, British Champions of Peirce
G. Maddalena, The Three Waves of Italian Reception of Peirce
M. Girel, Peirce’s Reception in France: just a Beginning
A. Hensoldt, Reception of Peirce in Poland
S. Freyberg, Peirce in Germany: A Long Time Coming
L. Santaella, Peirce’s Reception in Brazil
S. Barrena, J. Nubiola, The Reception of Peirce in Spain and the Spanish Speaking Countries
I. Mladenov, The First Steps of Peirce in Bulgaria.
From Ivan Sarailiev to Today
H. Rydenfelt, Peirce in Finland
B. Sørensen, T. Thellefsen, The Reception of Charles S. Peirce in Denmark
T. M. Bertilsson, Reception of Charles S. Peirce in Sweden and its Diaspora
C. A. Pechlivanidis, The History of Reception of Charles S. Peirce in Greece
F. Zalamea, Peirce’s Reception in Colombia
S. Atarashi, Peirce’s Reception in Japan
C. Legg, Peirce’s Reception in Australia and New Zealand
Essays S. Grigoriev, Normativity and Reality in Peirce’s Thought
O. Belas, Popular Science, Pragmatism, and Conceptual Clarity
Let Me Tell You a Story: Heroes and Events of Pragmatism Interview with Richard J. Bernstein
Bookreviews I. Levi, Pragmatism and Inquiry: Selected Essays, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012 (reviewed by G. Gava)
J. Ryder, The Things on Heaven and Earth, New York, Fordham University Press, 2013 (reviewed by A. Garcia Ruiz)
Rosa M. Calcaterra, Roberto Frega, Giovanni Maddalena Introduction The symposium “Peirce in the World” is a homage that EJPAP wants to pay to the Centenary of the death of the great American thinker Charles S. Peirce, one of the founding fathers of pragmatism. The idea of the symposium stems from observing that Peirce studies are nowadays spread out all over the world, and the scholarship that comes from outside the US is becoming more and more important in breadth and depth. This phenomenon is possibly the greatest change that happened to Peirce scholarship in the last decades from the last big congress on Peirce, the Sesquicentennial International Congress held in Harvard 1989. The Centenary Congress “Invigorating Philosophy for the 21st Century,” which will be held in Lowell in July 2014 will display this worldwide new reality.
We asked to some of the main figures of this story to tell how this huge movement took place, retracing all the steps back in time. Some of them decided to write the paper themselves, some decided to entrust younger scholars to this commitment in order to avoid the embarrassing situation of writing also about their own work. We left them free to decide the angle of the story from which they wanted to talk, and, except for a limited length, we did not impose any particular rule.
The result is that you will find a peculiar but very interesting volume. If you read the whole series of these short contributions, you will see how the knowledge of Peirce grew over the years outside America according to a variety of philosophical sensibilities. It is a patchwork of interrelated stories that tells about the world community of inquirers. We think that Peirce would have loved this effort, even though it is only a little sketch. However, this sketch offers you a further scholarly perspective on the history of Peirce’s pragmatism.
Christopher Hookway* British Champions of Peirce When the history of American philosophy in the nineteenth century can be written in great detail than hitherto, the important place of Charles S. Peirce as a pathfinder in every one of the many fields that his work touched will have to receive fuller recognition than has as yet been accorded to it.
This quotation is from “Charles Peirce’s Pragmatism,” a paper by John Henry Muirhead that was published in The Philosophical Review in 1930s. It is evidence that the value of Peirce’s work was recognized in the 1930s. But Peirce’s work had been recognized even earlier than this. One of the earliest indications of this was reflected in the fact that Mind had published a positive review of Peirce’s Illustrations of the Logic of Science. His works were also taken seriously in the following years.
Two thinkers had been especially effective in spreading the word of Peirce’s importance. One of these is Frank Ramsey, who worked extensively on induction and probability. He appealed to Peirce’s account of induction on several occasions.
Ramsey also drew attention to Peirce’s work on signs. In his review of Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Ramsey suggested that the book would have benefited from the use of Peirce’s distinction between types and tokens.
The second was Victoria, Lady Welby, a member of the Bloomsbury Group with great interests in semiotics, the theory of signs. She wrote several books defending “Significs.” Her correspondence with Peirce is a major source of information about Peirce’s writings on the theory of signs, and she worked hard to encourage the spread of Peirce’s work in the United Kingdom. One product of this is an extended discussion of Peirce’s work on signs in The Meaning of Meaning, an influential book by Ogden (the translator of the Tractatus) and I. A. Richards. Their book would have ensured that Peirce’s work was well known, even if it didn’t receive extended discussion and admiration in philosophical circles. Moreover, Peirce’s work on induction continued to be known, not least from the writings of Braithwaite’s Scientific Explanation: A study of Theory, Probability and Law in Science.
Peirce’s work was also known though the work of Muirhead’s The Platonic Tradition in Anglo-Saxon Philosophy: Studies in the History of Idealism in England and America. Muirhead was, for many years, Professor of Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. Peirce and Royce were the only American philosophers to deserve chapters, although Peirce had only one chapter while Royce had five.
Muirhead’s chapter on Peirce began with a section on the “Anti-Hegelian Reaction.” The chapter described Peirce’s logic and pragmatism as well as taking account of tychism, and devoting a section to the “Reconstruction” towards idealism. He was described as “a Germinal” thinker.
* University of Sheffield, UK [firstname.lastname@example.org] ISSN: 2036-4091 2014, VI, 1 Christopher hookway British Champion of peirCe After the 1930s, Peirce scholarship continued to prosper, but little of it was based in the United Kingdom. In the 1930s, W. B. Gallie wrote an elegant and valuable book on Peirce and Pragmatism, published by Penguin Books; I can testify to its role in introducing many young philosophers to Peirce’s work, but, under the influence of Wittgenstein and Oxford philosophy, few British philosophers were sufficiently stirred by pragmatism or pragmaticism for Peirce to become a major topic for research. We also see a growing interest in Ramsey’s work, particularly in Cambridge, to the degree that some people talk of the “Cambridge Pragmatists” in UK as well as those from Harvard.
During the 1950s and 1960s, British philosophy was dominated by Oxford philosophy and Wittgenstein, so that Peirce’s work was not much discussed. Things began to change in the 1970s. In the UK, in Warwick, Susan Haack wrote some influential papers on Peirce and began her work using pragmatist ideas for research, and she has continued to do so having moved to the USA. Christopher Hookway published three books on Peirce from 1985 to 2014. After a general study of Peirce’s philosophy, Peirce (1985), he wrote Truth Rationality of Pragmatism: Themes from Peirce (2002) and The Pragmatic Maxim Essays on Peirce and Pragmatism (2013).
These included discussions on the pragmatic maxim, both the formulation of Peirce’s pragmatic maxim and his reasons for accepting it. There were also papers on truth and on Peirce’s views about rational self-control. Haack has also supervised Ph.D.
students on Peirce, as has Hookway in Sheffield.
Giovanni Maddalena* The Three Waves of Italian Reception of Peirce Italy was one of the first places outside the US to manifest an interest in pragmatism.
However, the reception of Peirce has been discontinuous and asymptotic at the same time. It grew over the time getting closer and closer to a complete acknowledgement of what Peirce had really written, but there were many periods in which studies on Peirce seemed quite stuck or absent. For clarity sake I will divide this reception in three big generational waves.
1. The first wave: Leonardo
The first one is the one that coincides with the celebrated adventure of the journal Leonardo. Among the four Italian pragmatists (Papini, Prezzolini, Vailati, Calderoni), Vailati was the most aware of the relevance of Peirce’s ideas, even though he had not read that much: for sure he knew the pragmatist maxim and therefore we assume that he read the two papers from the Popular Science Monthly (they were also published in French and this increases possibilities), and he certainly read the article “What pragmatism is?” published on the Monist 1905. Based on the evidence of an envelope, we know that he corresponded once with Peirce but we do not have the content of the letter while we know the letter that Peirce sent to Papini, warning him about different ways of interpreting pragmatism, and the one to Calderoni, with several criticisms of Prezzolini, whose Leonardian pseudonym was Giuliano il Sofista. The distinctions among kinds of pragmatism was the heart of Calderoni’s fight on the Leonardo about the different species of pragmatism. From these documents critics have often drawn the conclusion that the Italian pragmatists were split between a “magic” (Prezzolini and Papini) and an “analytic” party (Vailati and Calderoni). As much as this distinction contains elements of truth, this reading is partial and misleading if considered complete. Sure enough, Vailati was Calderoni’s mentor and master and he used “we” to indicate the intellectual partnership with him. However, Vailati, who was around forty at the epoch of the Leonardo, assumed a role of intellectual teacher for all of them and he was clearly particularly fond of Papini. Papini himself, who was the real engine of the group, well defined the positions of all of them in a short note on the Leonardo, putting himself on the side of a full psychological appreciation of
pragmatism through James’s formula of the Will to Believe:
There are those (Calderoni) who maintain that many things cannot be grouped together under the same name; that genuine pragmatism is that of Peirce and simply consists * Università del Molise, Italy [email@example.com]