«MARBLE TRA SPORT I THE TIME OF THE SEVERA S: A EW A ALYSIS OF THE PU TA SCIFO A SHIPWRECK AT CROTO, ITALY A Dissertation by DANTE GIULIANO BARTOLI ...»
MARBLE TRA SPORT I THE TIME OF THE SEVERA S:
A EW A ALYSIS OF THE PU TA SCIFO A SHIPWRECK
AT CROTO, ITALY
DANTE GIULIANO BARTOLI
Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of
Texas A&M University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
August 2008 Major Subject: Anthropology
MARBLE TRA SPORT I THE TIME OF THE SEVERA S:
A EW A ALYSIS OF THE PU TA SCIFO A SHIPWRECKAT CROTO, ITALY A Dissertation by
DANTE GIULIANO BARTOLISubmitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
Chair of Committee, Deborah N. Carlson Committee Members, Christopher Konrad Cemal Pulak Shelley Wachsmann Head of Department, Donny L. Hamilton August 2008 Major Subject: Anthropology iii ABSTRACT Marble Tranport in the Time of the Severans: A New Analysis of the Punta Scifo A Shipwreck at Croton, Italy.
(August 2008) Dante Giuliano Bartoli, B.A., Università Statale degli Studi di Milano Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Deborah N. Carlson Five ancient shipwrecks have been found in the sea off Croton, in southern Italy, each carrying a marble cargo composed of massive blocks, column shafts, and smaller artifacts. Three of them were located while surveying the seafloor with a multibeam sonar, and the remaining two with the help of divers, in the summers of 2005 and 2006.
Two of the marble carriers are located in the bay of Punta Scifo and, therefore, are identified as the Punta Scifo A and Punta Scifo B shipwrecks, the remaining three take their names from the closest promontories: Punta Cicala, Capo Cimiti, and Capo Bianco.
The Punta Scifo A shipwreck was chosen as the main focus of this work because it contains a unique assemblage of marble artifacts; including 13 basins, 15 stands decorated with lions’ paws, 16 column shafts, 14 blocks, 6 statue pedestals, and one statuette of Eros and Psyche. Moreover, because the original discovery dates back to 1908, and in 1915 salvors raised 150 tons of marble artifacts, much information was in
column shafts date the shipwreck to the early third century A.D. The merchantman was ca. 30 m long and 10 m wide, with a cargo of marble items weighting ca. 200 tons.
The merchantman was loaded with its marble cargo in Asia Minor: all the items carried on board came from the quarries of Proconnesus and Docimium. The most likely point of departure was either Epheus or Miletus. While sailing toward the Strait of Messina, it is likely that a Grecale or Levante storm broke, and the helmsman was forced to look for shelter in the protected bay of Punta Scifo. Due to a change in wind direction a southerly Scirocco storm caused the ship to sink. Since the entire coastline south of Croton is totally unprotected to the south, there was no way for the crew to save their ship. Where the Punta Scifo A merchantman was destined remains unknown, although
This research project would not have been possible without the support of many passionate people—and a cat. First and foremost, I wish to thank my parents for their boundless financial and moral support during my years of graduate study at Texas A&M University. Heartfelt thanks also go to my brother Andrea, sisters Giulia and Serena, cousin Riccardo, and to Lilia Campana for their help before, during, and after each season of field work in Calabria.
Drs. Annalisa Zarattini and Francesco Prosperetti made possible my two field seasons of research in Croton. Without their interest, scientific coordination, and in-field supervision it would not have been possible to achieve all the research during those two seasons in Italy. It was also a great pleasure having Dr. Roberto Mazzoni in the field, both as a dive buddy and as a fellow archaeologist. He made our daily working operations efficient and productive.
I am grateful to the Institute of Nautical Archaeology (INA), RPM Nautical Foundation, and the Center for Maritime Archaeology and Conservation (CMAC) at Texas A&M University for covering the project’s expenses and providing much needed logistical support. In particular, RPM Nautical Foundation provided its two research ships Juno and Hercules, along with the technical skills to interpret the data collected in
2005. Special thanks go to professors Donny Hamilton, Kevin Crisman, and Filipe Viera de Castro for their unwavering support of my research in Italy since its very beginnings
I am deeply indebted to Dr. Deborah Carlson for her careful review and constructive criticism of each version of my dissertation manuscript. My dissertation and I have benefited from this healthy exchange; on more than one occasion, her insightful comments have impelled me to modify my point of view or reconsider my theories under a new light. Dr. Shelley Wachsmann contributed to substantially improve the style and readability of the final version of this manuscript, while Dr. Cemal Pulak provided valued suggestions concerning 16th-century Turkish nautical charts, and Dr. Christoph Konrad greatly helped to improve the portion of this work dealing with Roman history.
Special thanks go to my good friends Dr. Domenico Marino—for his detailed, insightful, and always enriching suggestions concerning the maritime history of Croton —and Luigi Cantafora—for sharing his memories of the underwater sites south of Croton. Dr. Damiano Milone provided on-site support with the loan of his barge to the expedition in 2006, and Dr. Giovanni Albini of La Fondiaria Insurance Company provided free coverage to all the expedition team members. Mr. Franco Colosimo, INA friend and supporter since the time of the Porticello excavation, opened his house in Calabria to all the team members, and made us understand what southern Italian hospitality means. Thanks also to Prof. Carlo Beltrame (Università Ca’ Foscari in Venice), Dr. Ayse Atauz, and Brett Phaneuf (ProMare Foundation), for their enthusiastic support of a new research season in Croton. I am hopeful that the work begun in this dissertation study will continue, perhaps as early as the summer of 2008.
Finally, I wish to thank my dear friends and colleagues, Alexis Catsambis, Sam
in the Nautical Archaeological Program and for all their support and companionship.
And last, but not least, a special thought goes out to Pallino, the sweet house cat who kept me company in College Station during the long, hot summer of 2007 when much of
The items mentioned in the Catalog of the Artifacts have been recorded using a system of three letters explained above, followed by a catalog number. Therefore, “BLC 1” identifies the first block located at Croton, “HPL 2” the second high pedestal decorated with lions’ paws located at the nautical museum of Capo Colonna, and so on. Every item
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
The Natural Environment of Croton: Present and Past
Calabria: Land with a Maritime Vocation?
The Two Coastlines and Their Cultural Prominence
The Forgotten Mountains of the Interior
Croton and Calabria in Antiquity: Silted Harbors, Sunken Islands, Treacherous Shoals
The Coastline in Antiquity: A Possible Reconstruction
The Scirocco Wind and the Final Moments of the Ships (Punta Scifo A, Punta Scifo B, Punta Cicala)
The 2006 Mapping Season
Results of the Studies
The Punta Scifo B Shipwreck
The Punta Cicala Shipwreck
The Capo Cimiti Shipwreck
The Capo Bianco Shipwreck
APPENDIX 1 CATALOG OF ARTIFACTS FROM THE PUNTA SCIFO ASHIPWRECK
APPENDIX 3 ANCIENT SOURCES
APPENDIX 4 DIOCLETIAN’S EDICT ON MAXIMUM PRICES
APPENDIX 5 ROMAN QUARRY INSCRIPTIONS
Figure 1 Southern Italy was divided into four regions during the time of Augustus
Figure 3 Santa Maria di Leuca, the Gulf of Tarentum, Croton, and Capo Colonna
Figure 4 A solitary Doric column of the Greek Temple of Hera Lacinia at Capo Colonna
Figure 5 Minimum and maximum distances, in kilometers, from coast to coast and north to south, in Calabria
Figure 8 Topographical map of Calabria, showing mountains, plains and main rivers
Figure 9 Detail of Piri Reis’ 1521 nautical chart showing the coastline between Capo Colonna and Le Castella.
(Image after Ökte 1988, 1034).
Figure 10 The city of Croton with its castle, harbor, and islets at the entrance as they appear on Piri Reis’ nautical chart.
(Image after Ökte 1988, 1030)
Figure 12 Aerial view of Le Castella, published in 1975.
(Image after Schmiedt 1975, 57, fig. 23)
Figure 16 The entrance to the Croton Archaeological Museum is flanked by the two largest marble basins from the Punta Scifo A shipwreck, LAB 2-3
Figure 17 Period photograph showing the artifacts raised from Punta Scifo A, unloaded on the dock of Croton.
(Photo after Paoletti 1994, 529, fig. 69)
Figure 19 The 2005 survey area, extending from the River Neto’s estuary to Praialonga
Figure 24 The tiny dinghy, towed from the shore and filled with tools and supplies
Figure 26 Multibeam image of the Punta Scifo A and B marble carriers, 179 m apart
Figure 29 Three-dimensional digital rendering of part of the largest marble elements from Punta Scifo A
Figure 32 (a) To the left a labrum with rounded rim, two side-handles, low foot, and squared support from the House of Lucretius Fronto in Pompeii. (Detail after Cain 1985, Taf. 1,2).
(b) To the right a different type of labrum, from the House of Venus on the Shell in Pompeii. (From Panetta 2004, 310)................ 110 Figure 33 A Roman labrum with a richly decorated rim, body, and supports.
(Drawing after Deonna 1938, 54)
Figure 34 LAB 3 with part of the inner edge of the rim already rounded.......... 113 Figure 35 Bronze throne and footstool from Assyria, ca. 888 B.C (Image from Litchfield 1899, 3)
Figure 36 Table decorated with lions’ paws, Archaic Greek Age (Image from Litchfield 1899, 9)
Figure 37 Greek relief of sixth or fifth century B.C. of a throne decorated with lions’ paws (Image from Litchfield 1899, 10).......... 120 Figure 38 Statuette of the goddess Fortuna standing on a globe from Herculaneum, and a candelabrum from Pompeii.
(Images from Monaco 1884, figs. 94 and 115)
Figure 39 Candelabrum with Eros holding an oil-lamp, from Herculaneum.
Tripod from Pompeii (Images from Monaco 1884, figs. 116 and 121d)
Figure 40 Hydria in bronze, from Herculaneum (Image from Monaco 1884, fig. 143)
Figure 42 (a) Statue pedestal in the courtroom of the medieval castle of Baiae 125 (b) Unfinished side of the pedestal
Figure 43 Marks left from a statue’s feet in a pedestal from Baiae
Figure 44 Façade of the Temple of Hadrian at Ephesus.
(Image after Ward-Perkins 1977, p.282, fig. 349)
Figure 45 (a) To the left a statue of Eros and Psyche.
(Picture from Brenk 1999, 71,1)
(b) To the right a statuette of Eros leaning on a torch.
(Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome)
Figure 46 Marble tiles from the temple of Hera Lacinia. (Naval Museum, Capo Colonna)
Figure 47 Marble shipwrecks in the Mediterranean
Figure 48 Location of the quarries of white and colored marbles, granites, and porphyries mentioned in the text, in the Roman Empire............ 171 Figure 49 (a) To the left a typical Proconnesian sarcophagus with garlands, imported to Rome in a half-finished state; its decoration was never completed. (Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome)
(b) To the rigth fragments of a sarcophagus with garlands, of probable Proconnesian origin, from the sea of Capo Piccolo........ 173
Table 1 Coordinates of the area surveyed in 2005
Table 2 Dimensions and tonnage of the marble blocks and slabs from the Punta Scifo B wreck site. (INA data merged with data from Freschi 1987, 41-3)
Table 3 Dimensions and tonnage of six blocks from the Punta Cicala shipwreck
Table 4 Dimensions and tonnage of the column shafts from Capo Cimiti, in meters and Roman feet
Table 5 Dimensions and tonnage for the Capo Bianco shipwreck.
(Data from Freschi 1991, 8-10; 48-9)
Table 6 Dimensions and tonnage of the Punta Scifo A’s marble items still on the seafloor
Table 8 Diameter, length, and proportion between the column shaft base and its height, in meters and Roman feet
Table 9 Number and lengths of column shafts of Roman Imperial age.
(After Barresi 2002, 70)
Table 10 The Punta Scifo A columns according to Proconnesian size-groups.
(After Asgari 1992, 74)
Table 11 Dimensions and tonnage of the marble blocks from Punta Scifo A.. 106 Table 12 Diameter (at the rim and base) and height of the marble basins cataloged in 2005-2006, in meters and Roman feet
Table 14 Dimensions of the pedestals, arranged to highlight the relation between heights and diameters