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«REMAPPING THE STORY: FRANCO-ITALIAN EPIC AND LOMBARDIA AS A NARRATIVE COMMUNITY (1250-1441) by STEPHEN PATRICK MCCORMICK A DISSERTATION Presented to ...»

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REMAPPING THE STORY: FRANCO-ITALIAN EPIC AND LOMBARDIA AS A

NARRATIVE COMMUNITY (1250-1441)

by

STEPHEN PATRICK MCCORMICK

A DISSERTATION

Presented to the Department of Romance Languages

and the Graduate School of the University of Oregon

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

June 2011

DISSERTATION APPROVAL PAGE

Student: Stephen Patrick McCormick Title: Remapping the Story: Franco-Italian Epic and Lombardia as a Narrative Community (1250-1441) This dissertation has been accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in the Department of Romance Langauges by:

Barbara K. Altmann Co-Chairperson F. Regina Psaki Co-Chairperson Robert Davis Member Warren Ginsberg Member Leslie Zarker Morgan Outside Member and Richard Linton Vice President for Research and Graduate Studies/Dean of the Graduate School Original approval signatures are on file with the University of Oregon Graduate School.

Degree awarded June 2011 ii © 2011 Stephen Patrick McCormick iii

DISSERTATION ABSTRACT

Stephen Patrick McCormick Doctor of Philosophy Department of Romance Languages June 2011 Title: Remapping the Story: Franco-Italian Epic and Lombardia as a Narrative Community (1250-1441) Approved: _______________________________________________

Barbara K. Altmann, Co-Chair Approved: _______________________________________________

F. Regina Psaki, Co-Chair !

My dissertation focuses on the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Franco-Italian !

literary corpus. These texts, written in a hybrid French-Italianate language, include such works as the Entrée d’Espagne and, more famously, Marco Polo’s Le devisement dou monde.

Using postcolonial theory, I identify nationalist ideologies in modern scholarship that have marginalized the Franco-Italian tradition. This tradition exemplifies a medieval aesthetic of cultural and linguistic hybridity that defies modern constructs of national linguistic identity, border politics, and linguistic purity. My revisionist study argues the independent merit of medieval Lombard literature and replaces the national model with a mosaic of overlapping linguistic and cultural centers mapped according to their respective narrative communities. I use two Franco-Italian texts—a version of the Chanson de Roland and the Huon d’Auvergne

–  –  –

medieval Lombard works.

The Chanson de Roland exists in ten French versions. Following nineteenth-century textual emendation praxis, most modern editions are based on Oxford Bodelian Digby 23.

The Franco-Italian version of the Chanson de Roland (Biblioteca Marciana fr. IV [=225]), or Venice 4, has received little critical and editorial attention. I problematize the putative superiority of the Oxford manuscript and propose the theoretical apparatus necessary to reinterpret the Venice 4 text within its geo-social specificity, outside the textual borders of the modern printed literary classic.

Finally, I explore how each Huon d’Auvergne manuscript can function as a performance artifact which, because of its irreproducibility, must be considered an original document, not merely a component within a hierarchy of textual transmission. I examine how Andrea da Barberino later creates an authoritative, politicized reading of the Huon d’Auvergne by removing it from its manuscript matrix and placing it within the textual boundaries of chapters and books.

By de-stabilizing and de-centering notions of literary canon and linguistic purity, my study suggests new ways of interpreting not only minority medieval narrative traditions but also present-day hybrid language migrant narratives in both France and Italy.

–  –  –

NAME OF AUTHOR: Stephen Patrick McCormick

GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE SCHOOLS ATTENDED:

University of Oregon, Eugene, OR Università degli Studi di Padova, Padua, Italy Centre d’Etudes Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale, Poitiers, France Université de Nantes, Nantes, France University of Redlands, Redlands, CA

DEGREES AWARDED:

Doctor of Philosophy, Romance Languages, 2011, University of Oregon Master of Arts, Romance Languages, 2005, University of Oregon Bachelor of Arts, Romance Languages, 2000, University of Redlands

AREAS OF SPECIAL INTEREST:

Franco-Italian Epic Nineteenth-Century Medievalisms Middle Ages in Film and Science Fiction Musicology and Music in the Middle Ages

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE:

Graduate Teaching Fellow, University of Oregon, 2002-2006; 2008-2010 Instructor of English, British Institutes, Castelfranco Veneto, 2007-2008 Instructor of English, Coligny Cornet et Paul Eluard, Poitiers, France, 2006-2007

–  –  –

Instructor of French, Hawarden Hills Academy, Riverside, CA, 2000-2002

GRANTS, AWARDS, AND HONORS:

University of Oregon Doctoral Research Fellowship, University of Oregon, Full tuition remission and stipend for AY 2010-2011 Mary A. Wetzel Graduate Fellowship, University of Oregon, Conference Attendance in Geneva, Switzerland, 2009 Medieval Academy of America CARA Scholarship, Seminar on Medieval Codicology and Palaeography, University of New Mexico, 2006 Department of Romance Languages Summer Research Award, University of Oregon, Research in Poitiers, France, 2006 Department of Romance Languages Summer Research Award, University of Oregon, Research in Pienza, Italy, 2004

–  –  –





This dissertation was written by a community of friends, family, professors and colleagues, all of whom provided the necessary and invaluable support needed for the completion of this project. It is difficult to find the words to express my gratitude to Professors Barbara K. Altmann and Regina F. Psaki who, for the past nine years, have been a constant source of encouragement, guidance and inspiration along this long journey. My passion for the stories, humor and wisdom of the Middle Ages grew out of our many meetings in their offices and these moments will make for many of the fondest memories of my graduate school career.

I am forever indebted to their standards of excellence and their tireless commitment to my education; this dissertation would not have been possible without them. I would also like to express my special thanks to Professor Leslie Zarker Morgan. Our many phone conversations and our meetings in Baltimore, Geneva and Los Angeles have been critical to the success of this project. Her enthusiasm for Franco-Italian literature is contagious, and I owe many of this project’s insights to her encouragement and suggestions. I wish to also express my sincere appreciation to Professors Robert Davis and Warren Ginsberg, both of whom have offered invaluable suggestions and insight into language, teaching, philology, Chaucer and Dante. I owe a debt of gratitude to Professors Lori Kruckenburg and Nathalie Hester, whose charisma and guidance have been instrumental in my professional development. Deciphering medieval plainchant manuscripts and playing the part of messer Nicia in a play at the local coffee shop are only two of many lasting memories I owe to these two mentors. Although it is impossible

–  –  –

of four loyal friends - Andy, Emily, Jon and Rocky - must not go unmentioned.

I would like to thank the office staff of the Department of Romance Languages Christina, Linda and Zack - for attempting to make me stay organized, and I am especially indebted to the hard work of the faculty for making my graduate school experience challenging, exciting, enriching. I would also like to thank the Department of Romance languages for their funding over the past nine years and the generosity of the University of Oregon Graduate School, which has provided the necessary funding to carry out archival research in Italy. Finally, I wish to thank Dr. Furio Brugnolo at the Università degli Studi di Padova and the Biblioteca del Seminario Vescovile for generously making the necessary documents and manuscript available during my research trip to Padua, in Fall 2010.

–  –  –

I. WRITING NATION: FRANCO-ITALIAN STUDIES AND NATIONAL

LITERARY HISTORIOGRAPHIES

–  –  –

Toward a Geography of Narration

The Cycle of Narration

Source and Original Document

Source-as-Agent

Source-as-Performance

Source-as-Tradition

Locating the Lombard Narrative Community

III. WRITING AGAINST THE RULES: THE HYBRID LANGUAGE AESTHETIC

–  –  –

“Le plus delitable a lire”: French-as-Aesthetic

Horizontal and Vertical Interpretations of Linguistic Variance

Imagining Dante: A Horizontal Interpretation of Language Variance

“Triphario nunc existente nostro ydiomate”: Alternative Ways to Think About Language

The Hybrid Linguistic Subject and European Self-Fashioning

Independent Trajectories: Toward a Definition of ‘Lombardia’

Conclusion

IV. WRITING IN THE MARGINS: THE CHANSON DE ROLAND, VENICE,

BIBLIOTECA MARCIANA, MS. IV [=225]

The Reception History of Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, MS. IV [=225]............... 157 Nationalizing Programs: The Pre-eminence of Oxford Manuscript Digby 23...... 160 “La douce France” and Charlemagne Reconsidered

Narrating Beyond the Borders of Old French

Conclusion: Beyond the Borders of Book and Literacy

V. WRITING BETWEEN THE LINES: ANDREA DA BARBERINO’S UGO

D’ALVERNIA AND RECREATING THE HUON D’AUVERGNE

Codicological Description of the Huon Tradition: B and T..

Biblioteca del Seminario Vescovile, Padua

–  –  –

Manuscript Matrix and Diegesis

Narrative Borders: Oralizing vs. Literacy

VI. WRITING OUTSIDE THE LINES: THE PAST’S CHALLENGE TO THE ONE

LANGUAGE / ONE NATION PARADIGM

Present to Past

Past to Present

APPENDICES A. MANUSCRIPT SOURCES

B. GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

REFERENCES CITED

–  –  –

2.4 First of three bas-relief panels on the façade of the cathedral at Borgo San Donnino.

Milon and Berta act on their desire for one another while Charlemagne is away hunting.

2.5 Second of three bas-relief panels on the façade of the Cathedral at Borgo San Donnino. Berta and Milon flee Paris and travel by night through the wooded forest

–  –  –

3.1 Textual Production in French in Lombardia

4.1 Luc-Olivier Merson, Frontispiece to Gautier’s Édition populaire of the Chanson de Roland, 1881

5.1 Meregazzi stemma of the Huon manuscript tradition

5.2 Giacon stemma of the Huon manuscript tradition

–  –  –

5.3 (T 80r) Ynide kneels before the cross, blood flows from the hand of Jesus.

This folio is described by Pio Rajna in his transcription: “Ynida ai piedi del.

crocefisso.”

5.4 (P 46v) The only illumination space in P occurring during the Nida defense scene is placed immediately after the disfigurement of Sandin

5.5 (T 89r) Scribe indicates the omitted battle scene: “Mancha qui como Carlo Martelo andò a champo.”

5.6 (P 107r) Worm holes extend through the last gathering and into the penultimate

5.7 (P 110v) In P, line initials are struck through in red only in Huon’s dialogue with Lucifer, folios 110v, 111v, 112r

5.8 (P 111r) Initial D with face to highlight the hermeneutic prominence of this passage.

–  –  –

4.1 Textual variations between Oxford Digby 23 and Venice Marciana V4............. 172

5.1 Lexical agglutination in the first two folios of P

5.2 Narrative structure of the Ugo d’Alvernia

5.3 Narrative stucture of P

–  –  –

The role of French and of French narrative traditions on the Italian peninsula has a long history and has been the object of many studies, beginning especially with Paul Meyer and Joseph Bédier. 1 These scholars famously advanced the idea that French narrative traditions spread through the peninsula along pilgrimage and crusade routes, which, throughout the Middle Ages, facilitated the spread of the French chansons de geste and Arthurian legend to the very tip of the heel: the mosaic of Otranto portrays King Arthur himself. This testimony of Arthurian legend in the peninsula is especially notable since the mosaic predates by at least ten years the Arthurian romances of the champenois Chrétien de Troyes, one of the first author-figures writing in French. The Arthurian mosaic image in Otranto bears witness to the vibrant oral story-telling that occurred on travelers’ long journey to the Holy Land and beyond.

Later, literature written in the langue d’oïl thrived in at least three main centers on the peninsula: the Angevin court in Naples; Tuscany; and Lombardia, in Northeast Italy.

1Joseph Bédier, Les légendes épiques: Recherches sur la formation des chansons de geste (Paris: H.

Champion, 1926-1929); Paul Meyer, “De l’expansion de la langue française en Italie pendant le Moyen Âge,” in Atti della Sessione III: Storia della letteratura. Roma, aprile 1-9, 1903 (Rome: Salviucci, 1904), 61-104.



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