«THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Platform Lifecycle Support using Set-Based Concurrent Engineering CHRISTOFFER E. LEVANDOWSKI Department ...»
THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
Platform Lifecycle Support
using Set-Based Concurrent Engineering
CHRISTOFFER E. LEVANDOWSKI
Department of Product and Production Development
CHALMERS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY
Gothenburg, Sweden 2014
Platform Lifecycle Support using Set-Based
CHRISTOFFER E. LEVANDOWSKIISBN 978-91-7597-084-4 © CHRISTOFFER E. LEVANDOWSKI, 2014 Doktorsavhandling vid Chalmers tekniska högskola Ny serie nr. 3765 ISSN 0346-718X Department of Product and Production Development Chalmers University of Technology SE-412 96 Gothenburg Sweden Telephone + 46 (0)31-772 1000
The cover illustration graphically portrays the philosophy of Systems Theory. It shows a system of systems with input and several outputs, controls and mechanisms, and how it all inevetably affect each other. It portrays both the solutions and problems adressed in this thesis.
Printed by Chalmers Reproservice Gothenburg, Sweden 2014 Abstract Product development companies strive to provide their customers with high quality products, more quickly than their competitors, using as few resources as possible. One way of managing all three aspects at the same time is to reuse old, quality assured designs and knowledge in new products. A common way to do that is to create a platform with designs that are reusable in many different products.
Traditionally, research on platforms has focused on finding ways to provide manufacturing with a low number of parts to be able to increase utilization of expensive production equipment. However, reuse of parts does not benefit all businesses, especially those where customer requirements continuously change. To cut development lead-time, other types of reuse are necessary. The use of platforms based on core technologies and re-configurable systems as platform elements may provide the necessary support. They enable reuse on a more
level, reusing technologies, requirements and concepts rather than ready designed parts. This thesis elaborates on support for working with the type of platforms that are integrated across the lifecycle of a product.
The studies in this thesis show that platform approaches in literature today do not cover the need to support holistic platform development across all stages of a lifecycle.
As a solution, configurable system elements are used to model platforms and the links between the lifecycles. The development processes and models may be further infused with set-based concurrent engineering to provide a framework for efficient development.
These principles are integrated into the models and the processes to enhance the ability to manage the complex relationships within and between parts of the platform throughout the lifecycle.
Further, development platforms may be supported by a Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)architecture for engineering-to-order configuration, but it can also serve as a tool to learn about the knowledge gaps that need to be filled to get a product that meets requirements.
Keywords: product development, platform-based development, set-based concurrent engineering, product lifecycle management, configurable components.
i ii Acknowledgements This thesis was carried out at the department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden. I would like to express my sincere thanks to my supervisor Professor Hans Johannesson who gave me the opportunity to pursue my own ideas, providing me with guidance when I needed it. Also, thank you Professor Johan Malmqvist, my co-supervisor, for your eye-opening comments and for posing the difficult questions.
I would like to thank my co-authors Marcel Michaelis, Dag Raudberget, Anders Forslund, Dag Bergsjö and Daniel Corin Stig for the moments of inspiration and creativity and for sharing the moments of pure pain. To Roger Jiao at Georgia Institute of Technology and Kevin Otto at Singapore University of Technology and Design, thank you for accommodating me and letting me propel my research through your guidance.
Funding for these visits, and my research in general comes from the Wingquist Laboratory VINN Excellence Centre under the umbrella of the Production Area of Advance at Chalmers. The Centre is supported by VINNOVA, the Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems. This support is greatly appreciated.
I would further like to direct my thanks to the people from our industrial partners, which I have had the pleasure to make acquaintances with during our studies. Thank you everybody at GKN Aerospace, Volvo Cars and Emerson Rosemount Tank Radar who has participated in our studies and assisted in making them happen, especially Ola Isaksson who helped to provide intriguing spot on cases for testing my work.
The time at PPU would not have been the same without my lovely colleagues. The quirky, intelligent, and inspiring discussions during coffee breaks have made it easier to get up in the morning. I am especially grateful to Anders Forslund, Marcel Michaelis and Ola Wagersten whom I have depended on heavily during the last few years. This would not have been possible without you.
I would like to thank my parents, siblings, my old friends and my new friends for supporting me through happiness, agony, success and failure. A special thanks goes out to my grand parents who always believed in me. Finally, my most sincere thanks go to Helena for keeping me straight when I had the world on my shoulders.
Christoffer Levandowski Gothenburg, September 2014
Paper A. Levandowski, C., Edholm, P., Ekstedt, F., Carlsson, J., Söderberg, R. and Johannesson, H., 2011, “PLM Architecture for Optimization of Geometrical Interfaces in a Product Platform”, International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference - ASME IDETC/CIE 2011, Washington DC, USA.
Paper B. Levandowski, C., Forslund, A., Söderberg, R., and Johannesson, H., 2012 “Platform Strategies from a PLM Perspective - Theory and Practice for the Aerospace Industry”, 53rd Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials and Co-located Conferences - AIAA/ASME, Honolulu, HI, USA.
Paper C. Levandowski, C., Corin Stig, D., Bergsjö, D., Forslund, A., Högman, U., Söderberg, R., and Johannesson, H., 2013, “An Integrated Approach to Technology Platform and Product Platform Development,” Concurrent Engineering, 21(1), pp. 65-83.
Paper D. Levandowski, C., Forslund, A., Söderberg, R., and Johannesson, H., 2013, “Using PLM and Trade-Off Curves to Support Set-Based Convergence of Product Platforms”, International Conference on Engineering Design – ICED 2013, Seoul, South Korea.
Paper E. Michaelis, M.T., Levandowski, C., and Johannesson, H., 2013 “Set-Based Concurrent Engineering for Preserving Design Bandwidth in Product and Manufacturing System Platforms”, Proceedings of ASME IMECE 2013, Paper No. 63624, San Diego, CA USA.
Paper F. Levandowski, C., Michaelis, M.T., and Johannesson, H., 2014, “Set-Based Development Using an Integrated Product and Manufacturing System Platform”, Concurrent Engineering, 22(3), pp. 234-252.
Paper G. Levandowski, C., Raudberget, D., and Johannesson, H., 2014, “Set-Based Concurrent Engineering for Early Phases in Platform Development”, International Conference on Concurrent Engineering - CE2014, September 8-10, Beijing, China.
Paper H. Levandowski, C., Jiao, R., and Johannesson, H., 2014, “A Two-Stage Model of Adaptable Product Platform for Engineering-to-Order Configuration Design”, Submitted to Journal of Engineering Design.
Paper A: Christoffer Levandowski wrote the paper and created the PLM system architecture and process. Fredrik Ekstedt created the robustness optimization. All authors contributed in creating the case scenario. Johan Carlson, Rikard Söderberg and Hans Johannesson contributed with comments and feedback.
Paper B: Christoffer Levandowski did the literature analysis, wrote the paper and created the PLM system architecture and process. Christoffer Levandowski and Anders Forslund created the case scenario. Rikard Söderberg and Hans Johannesson contributed with comment and feedback.
Paper C: Christoffer Levandowski, Dag Bergsjö, Daniel Corin Stig and Anders Forslund and wrote the paper. Christoffer Levandowski led the writing, synthesized the theory and created the system architecture. Christoffer Levandowski, Daniel Corin Stig and Dag Bergsjö set up the case and did the analysis. Christoffer Levandowski, Dag Bergsjö, Daniel Corin Stig, Ulf Högman and Anders Forslund contributed to the empirical data. Rikard Söderberg and Hans Johannesson contributed with comment and feedback.
Paper D: Christoffer Levandowski wrote the paper and synthesized the theory.
Christoffer Levandowski and Anders Forslund elaborated the case and Anders Forslund performed the engineering analyses. Hans Johannesson and Rikard Söderberg contributed with comments and feedback.
Paper E: Christoffer Levandowski and Marcel Michaelis synthesized the theory and elaborated the example. They wrote, reviewed and edited the paper in close joint collaboration. Hans Johannesson contributed with comment and feedback.
Paper F: Christoffer Levandowski and Marcel Michaelis synthesized the theory and elaborated the example. Marcel Michaelis conducted the data collection for the industrial example. They wrote, reviewed and edited the paper in close joint collaboration. Hans Johannesson contributed with comments and feedback.
Paper G: Christoffer Levandowski and Dag Raudberget synthesized the theory and elaborated the example. They wrote, reviewed and edited the paper in joint collaboration. Hans Johannesson contributed with comments.
Paper H: Christoffer Levandowski wrote the paper and elaborated the example.
Christoffer Levandowski and Jianxin (Roger) Jiao synthesized the theory. Jianxin (Roger) Jiao and Hans Johannesson contributed with comments and feedback.
vi Additional Publications The following publications are related to the research presented in this thesis although not making a central contribution to the result.
Otto, K., Levandowski, C., Forslund A., Söderberg, R., and Johannesson, H., 2013, “Uncertainty Modeling to Enable Software Development Platforms that Can Automate Complex Mechanical Systems Design”, International Conference on Engineering Design – ICED 2013, Seoul, South Korea.
Levandowski, C., Bokinge, M., Malmqvist, J., and Johannesson, H., 2012 “PLM as Support for Global Design Reuse - Long Term Benefits and Immediate Drawbacks”, 9th International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management - PLM12, Montreal, Canada.
Bokinge, M., Levandowski, C., Johannesson, H., and Malmqvist, J., 2012, ”A Method to Identify Risks Associated with a PLM Solution”, The 9th International Conference on Product Lifecycle Management - PLM 12, Montreal, Canada.
Forslund, A., Söderberg, R., Lööf, J. and Levandowski, C., 2012, ”Robust Lifecycle Optimization of Turbine Components using Simulation Platforms”, The 28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences - ICAS 2012, Brisbane, Australia.
Bokinge, M., Levandowski, C., and Tidstam, A., 2011, “PLM and International Product Development,” Entering the Tiger’s Cave, D. Bergsjö, ed., Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, pp.
Bengtsson, K., Michaelis, M. T., Levandowski, C., Lennartson, B., and Johannesson, H., 2010, “Towards Sequence Planning Based on Configurable Product and Manufacturing System Platforms,” Proceedings of the 8th International Conference - NordDesign 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Edholm, P., Levandowski, C., Johannesson, H., and Söderberg, R., 2010, “Applied CC configuration in PDM/CAD environment,” INTECH 2010, Prague, Czech Republic.
x List of Abbreviations 3D........ Three-dimensional BOM.... Bill of Materials C........... Constraint CAD.... Computer Aided Design CAE..... Computer Aided Engineering CC........ Configurable Component CCM.... Configurable Component Modeler CE........ Concurrent Engineering CI......... Control Interface CS......... Composition Set CTO..... Configure-to-Order DRM.... Design Research Methodology DS........ Design Solution DSM.... Design Structure Matrix EB......... Electric Beam e.g......... exempli gratia (for the sake of example) et al...... et alii (and others) etc......... et cetera (and more) ETO..... Engineering-to-Order F-M...... Function-Means FEA...... Finite Element Analysis FR......... Functional Requirement IA......... Interaction iaio....... is an implementation of ICA...... Information Contents Assessment icb........ is constrained by i.e.......... id est (that is) IF.......... Interface iib......... is influenced by ipmb.... is partly met by IPS........ Industrial Path Solutions isb......... is solved by IT......... Information Technology iw......... interacts with LPD...... Lean Product Development LPT...... Low Pressure Turbine NASA.. National Space and Aeronautics Administration OTM.... Over-turning moment p........... page PDM.... Product Data Management PFMP.. Product Family Master Plan
xii Introduction “The world as we have created it is a process of our thinking. It cannot be changed without changing our thinking.”
- Albert Einstein Product development is all around us. The products that we use every day, such as the computers we are using in our work, the car that almost ran you over on your way to work, or the toaster that makes our bread crisp and delightful for breakfast are all results of product development. Often, companies have several thousand employees working with developing new products for the market; a market that is more or less unpredictable. The economic success of most companies depends on how well they are able to identify and interpret the needs of their customers and quickly create products that answer those needs and that can be manufactured at low cost (Ulrich and Eppinger, 2008).