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«DEVELOPMENT OF TIME-HISTORY AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING BRIDGE RESPONSE TO BARGE IMPACT LOADING By DAVID RONALD COWAN A ...»

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DEVELOPMENT OF TIME-HISTORY AND RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING BRIDGE RESPONSE TO BARGE IMPACT

LOADING

By

DAVID RONALD COWAN

A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL

OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

© 2007 David Ronald Cowan To Zoey Elizabeth.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Completion of this dissertation and the accompanying research would not have been feasible without the support and guidance of a number of individuals. First, the author wishes thank Dr. Gary Consolazio for his continual support in this endeavor. He has offered invaluable knowledge and insight throughout the course of this research.

The author also wishes to thank his supervisory committee: Dr. Ronald Cook, Dr. Kurtis Gurley, Dr. Trey Hamilton, Dr. Nam-Ho Kim, and Dr. Michael McVay, who have each contributed valuable insight into multiple aspects of this research. Furthermore, the author wishes to thank Mr. Henry Bollmann and Mr. Lex Collins for their continual leadership and support.

Others deserving of thanks for their support and contributions include Alex Biggs, Long Bui, Michael Davidson, Daniel Getter, Jessica Hendrix, Ben Lehr, Cory Salzano, and Bibo Zhang. The author wishes to thank his friends and family for their support and encouragement.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

page ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Motivation

1.3 Objectives

1.4 Scope of Work

2 BACKGROUND

2.1 Vessel-Bridge Collision Incidents

2.2 Review of Experimental Vessel Impact Tests

2.3 Design of Bridges According to the AASHTO Barge Impact Provisions

2.3.1 Selection of Design Vessel

2.3.2 Method II: Probability Based Analysis

2.3.3 Barge Impact Force Determination

3 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FROM ST. GEORGE ISLAND BARGE IMPACT TESTING

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Overview of Experimental Test Program

3.3 Overview of Analytical Research

3.3.1 FB-MultiPier Models

3.3.1.1 FB-MultiPier Pier-1 model

3.3.1.2 FB-MultiPier Pier-3 model

3.3.1.3 FB-MultiPier Bridge model

3.3.2 Finite Element Simulation of Models

3.3.2.1 Impact test P1T7

3.3.2.2 Impact test P3T3

3.3.2.3 Impact test B3T4

3.4 Comparison of Dynamic and Static Pier Response

3.5 Observations

4 BARGE FORCE-DEFORMATION RELATIONSHIPS

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Review of the Current AASHTO Load Determination Procedure

4.3 High-Fidelity Finite Element Barge Models

4.3.1 Jumbo Hopper Barge Finite Element Model

4.3.2 Tanker Barge Finite Element Model

4.4 High-Fidelity Finite Element Barge Crush Analyses

4.4.1 Finite Element Barge Bow Crush Simulations

4.4.2 Development of Barge Bow Force-Deformation Relationships

4.4.3 Summary of Barge Bow Force-Deformation Relationships

5 COUPLED VESSEL IMPACT ANALYSIS AND SIMPLIFIED ONE-PIER TWO-SPAN

STRUCTURAL MODELING

5.1 Coupled Vessel Impact Analysis

5.1.1 Nonlinear Barge Bow Behavior

5.1.2 Time-Integration of Barge Equation of Motion

5.1.3 Coupling Between Barge and Pier

5.2 One-Pier Two-Span Simplified Bridge Modeling Technique

5.2.1 Effective Linearly Independent Stiffness Approximation

5.2.2 Effective Lumped Mass Approximation

5.3 Coupled Vessel Impact Analysis of One-Pier Two-Span Bridge Models

6 APPLIED VESSEL IMPACT LOAD HISTORY METHOD

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Development of Load Prediction Equations

6.2.1 Prediction of Peak Impact Load from Conservation of Energy

6.2.2 Prediction of Load Duration from Conservation of Linear Momentum..............156 6.2.3 Summary of Procedure for Constructing an Impact Load History

6.3 Validation of the Applied Vessel Impact Load History Method

7 IMPACT RESPONSE SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Response Spectrum Analysis

7.2.1 Modal Analysis

7.2.2 General Response Spectrum Analysis

7.2.2.1 Modal Combination

7.2.2.2 Mass Participation Factors

7.3 Dynamic Magnification Factor (DMF)

7.4 Impact Response Spectrum Analysis

7.5 Impact Response Spectrum Analysis for Nonlinear Systems

7.5.1 Load Determination and DMF Spectrum Construction

7.5.2 Structural Linearization Procedure

7.6 Validation and Demonstration of Impact Response Spectrum Analysis

7.6.1 Event-Specific Impact Response Spectrum Analysis (IRSA)Validation.............199 7.6.2 Design-Oriented Impact Response Spectrum Analysis Demonstration...............201





8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

8.1 Concluding Remarks

8.2 Recommendations

8.2.1 Recommendations for Bridge Design

8.2.2 Recommendations for Future Research

LIST OF REFERENCES

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

–  –  –

3-1 Summary of forces acting on the pier during test P1T7

3-2 Dynamic and static analysis cases

4-1 Barge material properties

6-1 Impact energies for AVIL validation

6-2 Maximum moments in all pier columns and piles

7-1 Impact energies for IRSA validation

7-2 Maximum moments for all columns and piles for event-specific IRSA validation with SRSS combination

7-3 Maximum moments for all columns and piles for event-specific IRSA validation with CQC combination

7-4 Maximum moments for all columns and piles for design IRSA demonstration with SRSS combination

7-5 Maximum moments for all columns and piles for design IRSA demonstration with CQC combination

7-6 Mass participation by mode for design IRSA

–  –  –

2-1 Collapse of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge in Florida (1980) after being struck by the cargo ship Summit Venture

2-2 Failure of the Big Bayou Canot railroad bridge in Alabama (1993) after being struck by a barge flotilla

2-3 Collapse of the Queen Isabella Causeway Bridge in Texas (2001) after being struck by a barge flotilla

2-4 Collapse of an Interstate I-40 bridge in Oklahoma (2002) after being struck by a barge flotilla

2-5 Reduced scale ship-to-ship collision tests conducted by Woisin (1976)

2-6 Instrumented full-scale barge-lock-gate collision tests

2-7 Instrumented 4-barge lock-wall collision tests

2-8 Instrumented 15-barge lock-wall collision tests

2-9 Barge tow configuration

2-10 Design impact speed

2-11 Bridge location correction factor

2-12 Geometric probability of collision

2-13 Probability of collapse distribution

2-14 AASHTO relationship between kinetic energy and barge crush depth

2-15 AASHTO relationship between barge crush depth and impact force

2-16 Relationship between kinetic energy and impact load

3-1 Overview of the layout of the bridge

3-2 Schematic of Pier-1

3-3 Schematic of Pier-3

3-4 Test barge with payload impacting Pier-1 in the series P1 tests

3-5 Series B3 tests

3-6 Pier-3 in isolation for the series P3 tests

3-7 Pier-1 FB-MultiPier model

3-8 Pier-3 FB-MultiPier model

3-9 Bridge FB-MultiPier model

3-10 Schematic of forces acting on Pier-1

3-11 Resistance forces mobilized during tests P1T7

3-12 Schematic of forces acting on Pier-3

3-13 Resistance forces mobilized during tests P3T3

3-14 Schematic of forces acting on Pier-3 during test B3T4

3-15 Resistance forces mobilized during tests B3T4

3-16 Comparison dynamic and static analysis results for foundation of pier

3-17 Comparison of dynamic and static analysis results for pier structure

4-1 Force-deformation results obtained by Meier-Dörnberg

4-2 Relationships developed from experimental barge impact tests conducted by MeierDörnberg (1976)

4-3 AASHTO barge force-deformation relationship for hopper and tanker barges

4-4 Hopper barge dimensions

4-5 Tanker barge dimensions

4-6 Hopper barge schematic

4-7 Hopper barge bow model with cut-section showing internal structure

4-8 Internal rake truss model

4-9 Use of spot weld constraints to connect structural components

4-10 A36 stress-strain curve

4-11 Barge bow model with a six-foot square impactor

4-12 Tanker barge bow model

4-13 Crush analysis models

4-14 Hopper barge bow force-deformation data for flat piers subjected to centerline crushing

4-15 Hopper barge bow force-deformation data for flat piers subjected to corner-zone crushing

4-16 Tanker barge bow force-deformation data for flat piers subjected to centerline crushing

4-17 Relationship of pier width to engaged trusses

4-18 Hopper barge bow force-deformation data for round piers subjected to centerline crushing

4-19 Hopper barge bow force-deformation data for flat piers subjected to corner-zone crushing

4-20 Gradual increase in number of trusses engaged with deformation in round pier simulations

4-21 Elastic-perfectly plastic barge bow force-deformation curve

4-22 Peak barge contact force versus pier width

4-23 Peak barge contact force versus pier width

4-24 Comparison of truss-yield controlled peak force versus plate-yield controlled peak force

4-25 Design curve for peak impact force versus flat pier width

4-26 Comparison of low diameter peak force versus large diameter peak force

4-27 Design curve for peak impact force versus round pier diameter

4-28 Initial barge bow stiffness as a function of pier width

4-29 Barge bow deformation at yield versus pier width

4-30 Barge bow force-deformation flowchart

5-1 Barge and pier modeled as separate but coupled modules

5-2 Permanent plastic deformation of a barge bow after an impact

5-3 Stages of barge crush

5-4 Unloading curves

5-5 Generation of intermediate unloading curves by interpolation

5-6 Flow-chart for nonlinear dynamic pier/soil control module

5-7 Flow-chart for nonlinear dynamic barge module

5-8 Treatment of oblique collision conditions

5-9 OPTS model with linearly independent springs

5-10 Full bridge model with impact pier

5-11 Peripheral models with applied loads

5-12 Displacements of peripheral models

5-13 OPTS model with lumped mass

5-14 Tributary area of peripheral models for lumped mass calculation

6-1 Barge bow force-deformation relationship

6-2 Inelastic barge bow deformation energy

6-3 Two degree-of-freedom barge-pier-soil model

6-4 Peak impact force vs. initial barge kinetic energy using a rigid pier assumption.................167 6-5 Peak impact force vs. initial barge kinetic energy using an effective barge-pier-soil stiffness

6-6 Impact load histories

6-7 Construction of loading portion of impact force

6-8 Construction of unloading portion of impact force

6-9 AVIL procedure

6-10 AASHTO load curve indicating barge masses and velocities used in validating the applied load history method

6-11 Barge bow force-deformation relationship for an impact on a six-foot round column......174 6-12 Impact load history comparisons

6-13 Moment results profile for the new St. George Island Causeway Bridge channel pier

7-1 Time history analysis of a structure

7-2 Time-history versus modal analysis

7-3 Modal analysis

7-4 Dynamic magnification of single degree-of-freedom system

7-5 Dynamic magnification factor for a specific impact load history

7-6 Dynamic magnification factor

7-7 Specific dynamic magnification factor for a low-energy impact vs. a broad-banded design spectrum

7-8 Evolution of the dynamic magnification spectrum from short to long duration loading......213 7-9 Definition of the short and long-period transition points

7-10 Period of impact loading

7-11 Short-period transition point data

7-12 Long-period transition point data

7-13 Evolving design DMF spectrum

7-14 Event-specific and design DMF spectra for varying impact energies

7-15 Impact response spectrum analysis procedure

7-16 Static analysis stage of IRSA

7-17 Transformation of static displacements into modal coordinates

7-18 Dynamic magnification factor as a function of structural period

7-19 Combination of amplified dynamic modal displacements into amplified dynamic structural displacements

7-20 Nonlinear impact response spectrum analysis procedure

7-21 Nonlinear impact response spectrum analysis procedure

7-22 Barge bow force-deformation relationship for an impact on a six-foot round column.......227 7-23 Event-specific IRSA validation

7-24 Moment results profile for the new St. George Island Causeway Bridge channel pier

7-25 Design-oriented IRSA demonstration

7-26 Moment results profile for the new St. George Island Causeway Bridge channel pier

–  –  –



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