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«Charlotte Delphine Botter Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for degree of PHILOSOPHIAE DOCTOR (PhD) Faculty of Science and ...»

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Seismic Imaging of Fault Zones

A synthetic workflow to study the impact of faults on

seismic images

by

Charlotte Delphine Botter

Thesis submitted in fulfilment of

the requirements for degree of

PHILOSOPHIAE DOCTOR

(PhD)

Faculty of Science and Technology

Department of Petroleum Engineering

University of Stavanger

N-4036 Stavanger

NORWAY

www.uis.no

©2016 Charlotte Delphine Botter

ISBN: 978-82-7644-648-7

ISSN: 1890-1387

PhD thesis no. 293 Preface This thesis is submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Philosophiae Doctor (PhD) at the University of Stavanger (UiS), Norway.

The work was carried out between January 2012 and March 2016 while I was enrolled in a PhD program in the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, at UiS. My PhD was funded by the Research Council of Norway through the project “Seismic Imaging of Fault Zones” (NFR-PETROMAKS project no. 210425/E30). My main supervisor is Dr. Nestor Cardozo (UiS) and my co-supervisors are Drs. Isabelle Lecomte (NORSAR), Stuart Hardy (ICREA and University of Barcelona) and Alejandro Escalona (UiS). Collaboration was also established with Drs. Gaynor Paton (ffA Geosciences) and Atle Rotevatn (University of Bergen). One year of my PhD was devoted to teaching “Well logging” at the bachelor level for three large classes in the Department of Petroleum Engineering (UiS). These teaching duties were funded by the Department of Petroleum Engineering.

During my PhD, I have been a representative of the PhD candidates at UiS through the UiS Doctoral Community (UiSDC), as a board member in 2013 and as president in 2014. I also have organised the Department PhD seminar since 2014.

This research has resulted in one published article and two manuscripts submitted a couple of months before the dissertation’s submission. I have presented my work at several conferences. This thesis is structured as scientific paper-based and consists of two chapters. The first chapter introduces the general problem, motivation, objectives, methodology, results, and conclusions. The second chapter is the collection of the three papers forming the main body of the thesis. The appendices provide supplementary material and conference abstracts.

Charlotte Botter Stavanger, March 18th 2016 i ii Abstract Although typically interpreted as 2D surfaces, faults are 3D narrow zones of highly and heterogeneously strained rocks with petrophysical properties differing from the host rock. Fault zones have been extensively studied in outcrop, but in the subsurface they have barely been explored, mainly because they have low signal-to-noise ratio on seismic, are often at the limit of seismic resolution, and are rarely drilled and cored. To evaluate the potential of seismic data for imaging fault structure and properties, we introduce a forward seismic modelling workflow consisting of four steps: fault modelling, elastic properties definition, seismic modelling, and seismic interpretation. This workflow is applied to normal faulting in siliciclastic sequences.

In the first paper, we implement the workflow using a methodology consisting of a discrete element model (DEM) of faulting, empirical relations to modify the initial acoustic properties of the model based on volumetric strain, a ray-based algorithm simulating pre-stack depth migration (PSDM) results, and interpretation and correlation of the seismic and input properties. This methodology is applied in 2D to a large-scale (100 m displacement) normal fault in a sandstone-shale sequence at reservoir depths, for two DEM particlesize resolutions, one finer than the other. Both simulations produce realistic fault geometries and strain fields, with the finer particle-size model displaying narrower fault zones and fault linkage at later stages. Seismic imaging and resolution of these two models are highly influenced by illumination direction and wave frequency. At high wave frequencies, there is a direct correlation between seismic amplitude variations and the input acoustic properties after faulting.

The second paper uses the same methodology, but in 3D for a normal fault with large displacement in a sandstone-shale sequence for two cases, one with constant fault displacement and another with linearly variable displacement along strike. High frequencies on seismic images show the impact of the fault on the offset and distortion of the reflectors. In the variable faultslip model, the fault has less impact as the displacement decreases, and the fault tipline can be interpreted. We extract fault geobodies using an adapted attributebased workflow. The geobody for the constant fault displacement model iii corresponds to an inner high-deformation area within the fault zone, while in the variable fault-slip model the geobody captures better the entire fault zone.

Finally in the third paper, we illustrate the workflow using an outcropbased simulated fluid flow model from the Delicate Arch Ramp (Utah), to study the impact of relay ramps and their fluid composition on seismic data. Changes in porosity in the fault damage zones are visible in the oil-saturated model at the beginning of the simulation, whereas the water-oil contacts have stronger impact on seismic at later stages. We extract volumes corresponding to the two faults and the relay ramp from the three seismic cubes with an adapted tuning of the attribute-based workflow. By varying input and imaging parameters, we also show reservoir and acquisition conditions that affect the resolution of the relay ramp seismic image.





Through this interdisciplinary research, we show the potential of seismic data for specific fault characterisation, as well as the tuning of acquisition and processing parameters, and interpretation routines required to map faults and their associated deformation. This research has major implications for hydrocarbon exploration and production, storage of subsurface waste, and hydrogeological and geothermal systems.

iv Acknowledgments I would like to express my greatest gratitude to my supervisor Dr Nestor Cardozo for all the help, guidance and support during the four years of my PhD. Thank you for always having time to meet, discuss and review my work. Also, I really appreciate the social environment you created, particularly with dinners at your place with your wife Ann Elisabeth Laksfoss Hansen.

Thanks to all my co-supervisors Drs Isabelle Lecomte, Stuart Hardy and Alejandro Escalona, and co-authors Drs Gaynor Paton and Atle Rotevatn, for the many discussions, feedback and help that guided me through my research.

You have been a great source of inspiration and intellectual stimulation.

I would like to thank all my colleagues at the Department of Petroleum Engineering, and mainly everyone from the Petroleum Geoscience Engineering (PGE) group, for providing a very good work environment. Special thanks to Andreas Habel for always providing quick solutions to IT problems, to Lisa Jean Bingham for being a great coordinator within the PGE, and to Jim Brown for proofreading my thesis. Since I started my PhD, I have interacted with many people from other groups who were enthusiastic to learn about my research, in particular Drs Skule Strand, Aly Hamouda and Merete Vadla Madland. Special thanks to my dear friends from the PGE group, with whom I shared an office at some point, Thanusha Naidoo, Sanne Lorentzen, Wenxia Wang and Dora Marín, for the daily interaction and debates, and to all the PhD candidates at the department for all the lunches and discussions. Thanks to all the members of the UiS Doctoral Community (UiSDC) who became my close friends during my two years on the board, Drs Izaskun Muruzábal-Lecumberri and Kristian Thorsen, Martin Vogt Juhler, Aya Kusumawardhani and Hanne Egenæs Staurseth.

Thanks to all my friends who made Stavanger a good place to live. And last but not least, thanks to my parents Joan Younès and Marc Botter, to my sisters Margaux, Rafaëlle, Marion and Alexia, to my grand-parents Liliane Younès and René Botter, to Sylvie Botter and to the rest of my family, for all the love and support.

vviTable of contents

Preface

Abstract

Acknowledgments

Table of contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Papers

Conference extended abstracts

Conference oral presentations

Abbreviations

Chapter 1

1 Introduction

2 State of the art regarding seismic characterisation of faults....... 6 2.1 Characterisation of faults in seismic

2.2 Attribute-based techniques

3 Motivation and potential techniques

3.1 Use of seismic data

3.2 Use of forward modelling methods

3.2.1 Seismic modelling

3.2.2 Fault models

3.2.2.1 Outcrop models

3.2.2.2 Seismic-based geomodels

3.2.2.3 Mechanical models

3.2.3 Rock elastic properties

4 Objectives and workflow

4.1 Objectives

4.2 Workflow

vii 5 Methodology

5.1 DEM

5.2 Changes of properties due to strain

5.3 PSDM simulator

6 Synthesis of the publications

6.1 Paper 1: DEM 2D

6.2 Paper 2: DEM 3D

6.3 Paper 3: Delicate Arch Ramp

7 Discussion and conclusions

7.1 Seismic data for characterisation of faults as volumes...............31 7.2 From seismic data to geological interpretation

7.3 Impact of seismic resolution

7.4 Limitations

7.5 Implications

8 Perspectives – Future work

9 References

Chapter 2

PAPER 1

PAPER 2

PAPER 3

Appendices

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Appendix 4

viiiList of Figures

Figure 1: Examples of fault zones in outcrop

Figure 2: Examples of fault zones in seismic

Figure 3: Workflow

Figure 4: Example of the DEM

Figure 5: Changes of porosity and P-wave velocity with volumetric strain.. 26 Figure 6: Illustration of the PSDM simulator.

Figure 7: Impact of particle size on fault architecture

Figure 8: Low frequency examples

Figure 9: Seismic amplitude versus porosity and oil saturation.................. 161 List of Tables Table 1: Impact of strain and fracturing on seismic velocities

Table 2: Approximate changes in P- and S-wave velocities and porosity.... 18

–  –  –

Paper 1:

From mechanical modeling to seismic imaging of faults: a synthetic workflow to study the impact of faults on seismic.

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle & Escalona, Alejandro 2014, Marine and Petroleum Geology, 57, 187-207 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2014.05.013.

Paper 2:

Seismic characterisation of fault damage in 3D using mechanical and seismic modelling.

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle; Paton, Gaynor & Escalona, Alejandro Submitted to Marine and Petroleum Geology, January 2016.

(First submitted in May 2015 to AAPG bulletin)

Paper 3:

The impact of faulting and fluid flow on seismic images of a relay ramp.

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Lecomte, Isabelle; Rotevatn, Atle & Paton, Gaynor Submitted to Petroleum Geoscience, thematic set on fault and top seals, February 2016.

–  –  –

Extended abstract 1:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle & Escalona, Alejandro Mechanical modelling and seismic imaging of fault zones.

EAGE Fault and Top Seals Conference, Montpellier 2012; 2012/10/01-03.

Accepted for oral presentation

Extended abstract 2:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle;

Escalona, Alejandro; Cooke, Nicholas & Paton, Gaynor From Geomechanical Modelling to Seismic Imaging of 3D Faults.

Conference proceedings. 76th EAGE Conference & Exhibition. EAGE 2014 ISBN 978-90-73834-89-7.

Accepted for oral presentation

Extended abstract 3:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Lecomte, Isabelle; Rotevatn, Atle & Paton, Gaynor The effect of fluid flow in relay ramps on seismic images.

EAGE Fault and Top Seals Conference, Almerìa 2015; 2015/09/20-24.

Accepted for oral presentation Received Award for Best Young Presenter Information published on geoforskning.no and in two paper journals: GEO Energy & Ressurser 18. Årgang nr 7, 2015 and First Break Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2015 xiii xiv Conference oral presentations

Lofotenseminaret i petroleumsgeofysikk 2012:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle & Escalona, Alejandro Mechanical modelling and seismic imaging of fault zones.

Lofotenseminaret i petroleumsgeofysikk 2012; 2012/08/15-17

Tectonic Studies Group Annual Conference 2014:

Cardozo, Nestor; Botter, Charlotte; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle;

Escalona, Alejandro.

From mechanical modelling to seismic imaging of faults.

Tectonic Studies Group-Annual Conference 2014; 2014/01/06-08

AAPG International Conference & Exhibition 2014:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle;

Escalona, Alejandro ; Cooke, Nicholas & Paton, Gaynor From geomechanical modelling to seismic imaging of 3D faults.

AAPG International Conference & Exhibition 2014; 2014/09/14-17

NGF Vinterkonferansen 2015:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Hardy, Stuart; Lecomte, Isabelle;

Escalona, Alejandro & Paton, Gaynor From geomechanical modelling to seismic imaging of 3D faults.

NGF Vinterkonferansen 2015; 2015/01/12-14

Petroleum Research School of Norway (NFiP) PhD Seminar 2015:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Lecomte, Isabelle; Rotevatn, Atle & Paton, Gaynor The effect of fluid flow in relay ramps on seismic images.

Annual (NFiP) PhD Seminar November 26th, 2015.

Force Geophysical Lunch & Learn Seminar 2016:

Botter, Charlotte; Cardozo, Nestor; Lecomte, Isabelle; Hardy, Stuart; Paton, Gaynor; Escalona, Alejandro & Rotevatn, Atle Seismic imaging of fault zones.



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