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«RECYCLED BRICK MASONRY AGGREGATE CONCRETE: USE OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES FROM DEMOLISHED BRICK MASONRY CONSTRUCTION IN STRUCTURAL AND PAVEMENT GRADE ...»

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RECYCLED BRICK MASONRY AGGREGATE CONCRETE:

USE OF RECYCLED AGGREGATES FROM DEMOLISHED BRICK MASONRY

CONSTRUCTION IN STRUCTURAL AND PAVEMENT GRADE PORTLAND

CEMENT CONCRETE

by

Tara Lani Cavalline

A dissertation submitted to the faculty of

The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Infrastructure and Environmental Systems Charlotte

Approved by:

_________________________________

Dr. David C. Weggel _________________________________

Dr. Helene A. Hilger _________________________________

Dr. Vincent O. Ogunro _________________________________

Dr. Brett Q. Tempest _________________________________

Dr. John A. Diemer _________________________________

Dr. Howie Fang ii ©2012 Tara Lani Cavalline

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

iii ABSTRACT TARA LANI CAVALLINE. Recycled brick masonry aggregate concrete: use of recycled aggregates from demolished brick masonry construction in structural and pavement grade portland cement concrete. (Under the direction of DR. DAVID C.

WEGGEL) Reuse of construction waste as aggregates is becoming increasingly popular for a number of environmental and economic reasons. In this study, structural- and pavementgrade portland cement concrete (PCC) mixtures were developed using crushed recycled brick masonry from a demolition site as a replacement for conventional coarse aggregate.

Prior to developing concrete mixtures, testing was performed to determine properties of whole clay brick and tile, as well as the crushed recycled brick masonry aggregate (RBMA). Concrete mixtures exhibiting acceptable workability and other fresh concrete properties were obtained, and tests were performed to assess mechanical properties and durability performance of the hardened concrete. Results indicated that recycled brick masonry aggregate concrete (RBMAC) mixtures can exhibit mechanical properties and durability performance characteristics comparable to that of structural- and pavementgrade PCC containing conventional coarse aggregates. Based on current North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) requirements, the suitability of RBMAC for use in pavement applications was evaluated, and the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide procedure was used to compare the potential performance of RBMAC pavement to conventional PCC pavement. Results indicated that RBMAC provides acceptable performance in pavement applications, where its thermal properties produce thinner pavement sections than PCC. This research gives designers a first look at some of the

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I would like to acknowledge a number of individuals and entities for their contributions to this research work. I greatly appreciate the guidance and support offered by my advisor, Dr. David C. Weggel, P.E, and by the other members of my Committee, Dr. John Diemer, Dr. Helene Hilger, P.E., Dr. Vincent Ogunro, Dr. Brett Tempest, and Dr. Howie Fang. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-FG26-08NT01982, and this support is greatly appreciated. D.H. Griffin Companies obtained, transported, and processed the material used in this research, and have been instrumental in making this work possible. I would particularly like to thank Mark Greene of D.H. Griffin Crushing and Grading for his assistance throughout the duration of this project.

I extend thanks to Research Assistants Jeff Berryman, Jeremy Calamusa, Colby Heitbrink, and Devin Secore for their help with batching and testing concrete. I would also like to thank Mike Moss and Dr. Katherine Weaver for their assistance in the laboratories.

I’d like to thank my Mom (Dorothy Krize), Bob and Pam Cavalline, and David and Gail Lewyn for both their encouragement and help with the kids. Thank you to my Dad, Dan Krize, who was with me every step of the way. Most importantly, I would like to thank Matt, Avery, and Evan Cavalline for their support. Matt and Avery, thank you so much for making it possible for me to do this work. And thanks, Evan, for being

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2.1.3 Forecast for Use on a Local, Regional, and National Scale 12

2.2 General Overview - Use of Brick and Recycled Brick Masonry as 13 Aggregate in Portland Cement Concrete

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2.3.3 Pozzolanic Reactions and Microstructural Characteristics of 39 Brick Aggregate Concretes and Mortars

2.4 Potential for Widespread Acceptance and Use of Brick Aggregate 41 Concretes and Mortars

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7.2 Potential Use of Recycled Brick Masonry Aggregate Concrete in 165 Current North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) Pavement Applications

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7.2.2 Qualification of Recycled Brick Masonry Aggregate for Use 168 in NCDOT Portland Cement Concrete Applications 7.2.3 Challenges and Barriers to Use of Recycled Brick Masonry 172 Aggregate Concrete in NCDOT Pavement Applications

7.3 Potential Use of Recycled Brick Masonry Aggregate Concrete in 175 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design

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7.3.4 Sensitivity of Slab Thickness to Thermal Property Inputs in 199 M-EPDG for Recycled Brick Masonry Aggregate Concrete and Natural Aggregate Concrete

7.4 Proposed Test Pavement Utilizing Recycled Brick Masonry 208 Aggregate Concrete in Charlotte, North Carolina

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FIGURE 3-4: Demolished brick masonry from Idlewild Elementary 55 School, stockpiled at D.H. Griffin Crushing and Grading, prior to being crushed into aggregate.

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FIGURE 3-6: After falling from the conveyor belt, recycled brick 56 masonry aggregate was shoveled into barrels and returned to UNC Charlotte laboratories.

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FIGURE 3-8: Coefficient of thermal expansion testing of brick. 62 FIGURE 3-9: C-Therm Technologies TCi thermal conductivity testing 64 apparatus.

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FIGURE 6-1: Reference studs mounted in cylinder used for coefficient of 111 thermal expansion testing.

FIGURE 6-2: Mechanical strain gage used to measure length change of 112 cylinder during testing to determine coefficient of thermal expansion.

FIGURE 6-3 TCi apparatus used for determining thermal conductivity. 115

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FIGURE 6-7: Abrasion testing using the rotary cutter method. 121 FIGURE 6-8: Apparatus used to determine the depth of abrasion. 122 FIGURE 6-9: Vacuum saturation of rapid chloride permeability test 123 specimens.

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FIGURE 6-12: Conditioning of test specimens for surface resistivity 127 testing at low temperatures.

FIGURE 6-13: Average compressive strength results for BAC 5.0. 132 FIGURE 6-14: Average compressive strength results for BAC 6.0. 133 FIGURE 6-15: Average compressive strength results for BAC 6.1. 133 FIGURE 6-16: Average compressive strength results for BAC 6.2. 134 FIGURE 6-17: Contaminant particles are visible in the fractured surface 135 of a compressive strength test cylinder.

FIGURE 6-18: Surface Resistivity versus temperature for RBMAC. 159 FIGURE 7-1: Sensitivity of slab thickness to CTE input in M-EPDG for 202 RBMAC and conventional PCC pavements.

FIGURE 7-2: Sensitivity of slab thickness to thermal conductivity input 204 in M-EPDG for RBMAC and conventional PCC pavements.

FIGURE 7-3: Sensitivity of slab thickness to heat capacity input in 207 M-EPDG for RBMAC and conventional PCC pavements.

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FIGURE A-5: Thermal conductivity test results for clay tile. 259 FIGURE A-6: Thermal conductivity test results for mortar. 260 FIGURE A-7: Samples of crushed brick, mortar, and clay tile, for heat 260 capacity testing.

FIGURE A-8: Typical output spreadsheet of TGA, with associated heat 261 capacity calculations.

FIGURE C-1: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 274 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 5.0, 3 day tests.

FIGURE C-2: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 274 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 5.0, 7 day tests.

FIGURE C-3: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 275 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 5.0, 28 day tests.

FIGURE C-4: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 275 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 5.0, 90 day tests.

FIGURE C-5: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 276 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.0, 3 day tests.

FIGURE C-6: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 276 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 5.0, 3 day tests.

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FIGURE C-8: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 277 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 5.0, 3 day tests.

FIGURE C-9: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 278 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.1, 3 day tests.

FIGURE C-10: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 278 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.1, 7 day tests.

FIGURE C-11: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 279 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.1, 28 day tests.

FIGURE C-12: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 279 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.1, 90 day tests.

FIGURE C-13: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 280 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.2, 3 day tests.

FIGURE C-14: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 280 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.2, 7 day tests.

FIGURE C-15: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 281 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.2, 28 day tests.

FIGURE C-16: Test specimen used for compressive strength, modulus of 281 elasticity, and Poisson’s ratio testing, RBMAC mixture BAC 6.2, 90 day tests.

FIGURE C-17: Typical splitting tensile strength test specimens. 282 FIGURE C-18: Several splitting tensile strength test specimens. 283

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FIGURE C-20: Typical test specimens used for modulus of rupture 284 testing, and subsequently, abrasion resistance testing and air and water permeability testing.

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FIGURE C-30: Typical air and water permeability test specimens after 297 testing.

FIGURE C-31: Typical test specimens used for abrasion resistance testing 297 (three specimens in front of photo) and air and water permeability testing (two specimens in rear of photo).

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FIGURE D-6: M-EPDG reliability summary for proposed RBMAC test 326 pavement.

FIGURE D-7: M-EPDG input summary for proposed conventional PCC 327 (control) test pavement.

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TABLE 3-2: Results of ASTM C136 sieve analysis testing of RBMA and 78 RCA produced from Idlewild Elementary School.

TABLE 3-3: Results of ASTM D4791 flat and elongated particle testing. 79

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TABLE 3-5: Properties of recycled aggregates from Idlewild Elementary 82 School demolition waste, compared to properties of a locally manufactured lightweight aggregate and a local normalweight natural aggregate.

TABLE 5-1: Trial RBMAC mixture proportions and test results. 97 TABLE 5-2: Baseline RBMAC mixture proportions and test results. 99 TABLE 6-1: Equilibrium densities of the baseline RBMAC mixtures. 128 TABLE 6-2: Mechanical properties of the baseline RBMAC mixtures. 131 TABLE 6-3: Actual versus predicted splitting tensile strengths. 137

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TABLE 6-5: Coefficient of thermal expansion of 1:6 concretes made with 143 different aggregates (adapted from Neville 1995).

TABLE 6-6: Typical ranges for coefficients of thermal expansion for 145 common components of concrete and of concrete made using these materials (from ARA 2004).

TABLE 6-7: Results of thermal conductivity testing of BAC 6.2. 146

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TABLE 6-10: Average Air Exclusion Rates (AER) and average Water 151 Absorption Rates (WAR).

TABLE 6-11: Abrasion resistance of HPC concrete mixtures (from 153 Goodspeed et al. 2012).

TABLE 6-12: Average abrasion resistance of baseline RBMAC mixtures 154 using the rotary cutting device method (ASTM C944).

TABLE 6-13: Results of Rapid Chloride Ion Permeability Test. 156

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TABLE 7-1: Testing of aggregates for use in portland cement concrete 167 required by 2012 NCDOT Standard Specifications.

TABLE 7-2: Required characteristics of coarse aggregates used in 169 portland cement concrete (from NCDOT 2012).

TABLE 7-3: M-EPDG Level 1 input parameters and test protocols for 183 new and existing PCC pavements (from AASHTO 2008).

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TABLE 7-6: M-EPDG inputs for conventional PCC (using local granite 187 aggregate) and for RBMAC.

TABLE 7-7: JPCP inputs varied in M-EPDG analysis of conventional 190 PCC and RBMAC pavements.

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TABLE 7-11: Sensitivity of slab thickness to CTE input in M-EPDG for 201 RBMAC and conventional PCC pavements.

TABLE 7-12: Sensitivity of slab thickness to thermal conductivity input 203 in M-EPDG for RBMAC and conventional PCC pavements.

TABLE 7-13: Sensitivity of slab thickness to heat capacity input in 206 M-EPDG for RBMAC and conventional PCC pavements.

TABLE 7-14: Performance criteria used in M-EPDG design of test 210 pavement and selected limits and reliability levels.

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TABLE 7-16: Layer thicknesses for proposed RBMAC test pavement and 216 control pavement.



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