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«A Technique for Rapid Prediction of Aftbody Nozzle Performance for Hypersonic Launch Vehicle Design A Thesis Presented to The Academic Faculty by ...»

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A Technique for Rapid Prediction of Aftbody Nozzle

Performance for Hypersonic Launch Vehicle Design

A Thesis

Presented to

The Academic Faculty

by

John Edward Bradford

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy in Aerospace Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

June 2001

Copyright© 2001 by John E. Bradford

A Technique for Rapid Prediction of Aftbody Nozzle

Performance for Hypersonic Launch Vehicle Design

Approved:

__________________________________________

John R. Olds, Chairman __________________________________________

Dimitri N. Mavris, Thesis Commitee __________________________________________

Stephen M. Ruffin, Thesis Commitee __________________________________________

David R. Komar, Reading Commitee __________________________________________

Amy Pritchett, Reading Commitee Date Approved by Chairman __________________

Music for the Masses…

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to everyone who has aided in my education and research over the years. Primarily, I would like to thank my advisor and mentor, Dr. John Olds, for giving me the opportunity to come to Georgia Tech. It has been one of the best decisions of my life. I would like to thank my GSRP sponsor, D.R. Komar at NASA Marshall, for all of his help and support over the years. The countless hours spent on the phone discussing performance analysis have been invaluable. I would also like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Stephen Ruffin, Dr. Dimitri Mavris, and Dr. Amy Pritchett, for their advice and support. All of your suggestions have helped to make this work a success.

I would like to thank my parents, John and Sandra. You taught me the value of hard work and that has led to my current success in life. Thank you Dad for all the wisdom and advice over the years. I know you have more to give and I am sure I will need it. My gratitude must also be extended to my in-laws, Wendell, Peggy, Karl, June, Karla, and Jose.

Their constant encouragement and support was always appreciated.

I would also like to thank the members of the Space Systems Design Lab. Namely all of the other ‘founding members’, Irene Budianto, Laura Ledsinger, David McCormick, and David Way. Thanks for all of the stimulating conversations (aerospace related and other) that always made coming into the office enjoyable.

Finally, I would like to thank my loving wife, Heather. Thank you for your patience and understanding for all those endless nights in the lab. I know it has been a rough road, but it made it all the better to share it with you.

–  –  –

1.1 MOTIVATION

1.2 OBJECTIVE

1.3 GOALS

1.4 APPROACH

1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS

–  –  –

2.3 EXISTING ANALYSIS TOOLS

2.3.1 HAP

2.3.2 RJPA

2.3.3 RAMSCRAM

2.3.4 SRGULL

PROPULSION SYSTEM PERFORMANCE MODELING................................ 2 5

3.1 ENGINE COMPONENTS

3.2 BASIC FLOW EQUATIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS

3.2.1 External Compression

v 3.2.2 Internal Compression

3.2.3 Rocket Thruster Subsystem

3.2.4 Mixer

3.2.5 Combustor

3.2.6 Nozzle

3.3 FORCE ACCOUNTING

3.3.1 Cowl-to-Tail Method

3.3.2 Tip-to-Tail Method

AFTBODY NOZZLE ANALYSIS.............................................................. 6 1

4.1 PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF FLOWFIELD ATTRIBUTES

4.2 ANALYTIC MODEL

4.3 FLOWFIELD SOLVER

4.3.1 Grid Generation

4.3.2 Flowfield Solver

4.4 PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION FITTING MODELS

4.5 SPATIAL CONVERGENCE TEST

4.6 MODEL VERIFICATION

RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY.................................................. 7 8

5.1 OVERVIEW

5.2 SCREENING TEST

5.3 CENTRAL-COMPOSITE DESIGN

RESPONSE SURFACE EQUATIONS........................................................ 8 7

6.1 FULL-RSE MODEL GENERATION

6.2 STEPWISE REGRESSION RSE RESULTS

6.3 CONFIDENCE TEST CASES FOR VARIABLE SETTINGS IN-BOUNDS

6.4 CONFIDENCE TEST CASES FOR VARIABLE SETTINGS OUT-OF-BOUNDS

SCCREAM DESIGN TOOL..................................................................... 1 0 1

7.1 CODE STRUCTURE

7.2 MODELING CAPABILITIES

7.2.1 Engine Modes

7.2.2 Propellant Types

vi 7.2.3 Aftbody Analysis

7.2.4 Earth Atmosphere

7.2.4 Inlet Pressure Recovery Schedule

7.3 USER INTERFACE

7.3.1 Text-Based

7.3.2 Web-Based

7.4 RUN-TI M E

7.5 OUTPUT-FILES

7.5.1 POST Engine Deck





7.5.2 Plots

7.6 VERIFICATION CASES

7.6.1 Chemistry Routine

7.6.2 Combustor Model

7.6.3 RJPA Comparisons

7.6.4 JANNAF RBCC Workshop Results

–  –  –

8.3 MASS PROPERTIES

8.4 TRAJECTORY SIMULATION

8.5 PROPULSION SYSTEM DESIGN

8.6 RESULTS

–  –  –

Page Table 1.1: Relative Error in Isentropic vs. CFD Nozzle Thrust

Table 2.1: Summary of Available Engine Analysis Tools

Table 4.1: Aftbody Nozzle Design Variables

Table 4.2: Spatial Convergence Test Variables Settings

Table 4.3: Spatial Convergence Test Cases

Table 4.4: Verification Case Variable Settings

Table 4.5: Flow Solver Verification Test Results

Table 5.1: Sampling of Experiment Designs for 7 Variables

Table 5.2: Screening Test Variable Ranges

Table 6.1: R2 and Adjusted-R2 Values for Full-RSE Supersonic Set

Table 6.2: R2 and Adjusted-R2 Values for Full-RSE Hypersonic Set

Table 6.3: Supersonic Set Stepwise-Regression Results

Table 6.4: Hypersonic Set Stepwise-Regression Results

Table 6.5: Verification Case Variable Settings (Supersonic, In-Bounds)

Table 6.6: Integrated Results for Supersonic Verification Cases (In-Bounds).

................. 96 Table 6.7: Verification Case Variable Settings (Hypersonic, In-Bounds)

Table 6.8: Integrated Results for Hypersonic Verification Cases (In-Bounds).

................ 98 Table 6.9: Out-of-Bounds Verification Case Variable Settings

Table 6.10: Out-of-Bounds Verification Case Integrated Results

Table 7.1: Composition of Air

Table 7.2: Typical Analysis Ranges for Various Engine Modes

Table 7.3: O2-H2 System Chemical Equilibrium Comparisons

Table 7.4: O2-CH4 System Chemical Equilibrium Comparisons

Table 7.5: JANNAF Workshop Engine Design Parameters

Table 8.1: ABLV-GT2 Performance Results

ix LIST OF FIGURES

Page Figure 1.1: Typical Design Structure Matrix for Hypersonic Launch Vehicles..................3 Figure 1.2: 10o SERN Pressure Distribution Comparison

Figure 1.3: Rapid Aftbody Performance Prediction Process

Figure 2.1: Rene LeDuc Subsonic Ramjet Flight

Figure 2.2 Talos Missiles and D-21 Drone

Figure 2.3: Early RBCC Engine Test Article

Figure 2.4: X-43a Scramjet Engine Flight Demonstrator

Figure 3.1: Airbreathing Engine Components

Figure 3.2: RBCC Engine Components

Figure 3.3: 2-D Forebody Compression System

Figure 3.4: 3-D Conical Forebody Compression System

Figure 3.5: Subsonic Combustion Inlet Operation

Figure 3.6: Supersonic Combustion Inlet Operation

Figure 3.7: Sample Rocket Thruster Hardware

Figure 3.8: RBCC Engine Mixer Section Diagram

Figure 3.9: Combustor Section Diagram

Figure 3.10: Podded Engine Static Pressure Distribution

Figure 3.11: Airframe-Integrated Engine Static Pressure Distribution

Figure 4.1: Aftbody Nozzle Flowfield Features

Figure 4.2: Aftbody Nozzle Model

Figure 4.3: Sample Aftbody Nozzle Grid

Figure 4.4: Sample Specific Heat Ratio Contour Plot

Figure 4.5: Pressure Distribution Fitting Results

Figure 4.6: Net Axial Force versus Grid Resolution

Figure 4.7: Nozzle Surface Static Pressure Distribution Comparison

Figure 4.8: Mach Number Contours for Flow Solver Verification Test

Figure 4.9: Static Pressure Contours for Flow Solver Verification Test

Figure 5.1: Axial Force Pareto Chart (Supersonic Set)

x Figure 5.2: Normal Force Pareto Chart (Supersonic Set)

Figure 5.3: Moment Arm Pareto Chart (Supersonic Set)

Figure 5.4: Axial Force Pareto Chart (Hypersonic Set)

Figure 5.5: Normal Force Pareto Chart (Hypersonic Set)

Figure 5.6: Moment Arm Pareto Chart (Hypersonic Set)

Figure 6.1: Supersonic Case #1 Verification Test Pressure Distribution

Figure 6.2: Supersonic Case #2 Verification Test Pressure Distribution

Figure 6.3: Hypersonic Case #1 Verification Test Pressure Distribution

Figure 6.4: Hypersonic Case #2 Verification Test Pressure Distribution

Figure 6.5: Supersonic Case #3 Verification Test Pressure Distribution

Figure 6.6: Hypersonic Case #3 Verification Test Pressure Distribution

Figure 7.1: SCCREAM Code Flowchart

Figure 7.2: MIL-SPEC Total Pressure Schedule

Figure 7.3: SCCREAM Web-Interface Wrapper

Figure 7.4: SCCREAM Web-Interface Snapshot

Figure 7.5: Sample Engine Deck for POST

Figure 7.6: Sample Web-Interface Performance Plot

Figure 7.7: Combustor Model Verification Case Geometry

Figure 7.8: Combustor Model Verification - Mach Number Distributions

Figure 7.9: Combustor Model Verification - Static Pressure Distributions

Figure 7.10: Thrust Coefficient versus Mach Number Comparisons

Figure 7.11: Specific Impulse versus Mach Number Comparisons

Figure 7.12: JANNAF Workshop Thrust Coefficient Results

Figure 8.1: ABLV-GT2 Mission Overview

Figure 8.2: ABLV-GT2 External Fuselage CAD Model

Figure 8.3: ABLV-GT2 Internal Fuselage CAD Model

Figure 8.4: ABLV-GT2 RBCC Engine and Struts

Figure 8.5: ABLV-GT2 Dynamic Pressure versus Mach Number Comparisons.

.............141 Figure 8.6: ABLV-GT2 Angle-of-Attack versus Mach Number Comparisons.................141 Figure 8.7: ABLV-GT2 Altitude versus Time Comparisons

Figure 9.1: Updated Figure 1.

2 With RSE Predicted Distribution

–  –  –

ACRONYMS A/B Airbeathing ABLV Airbreathing Launch Vehicle AFRSI Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation AIAA American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics APAS Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis Software CA Contributing Analysis CAD Computer Aided Design CCD Central Composite Design CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics CGI Common Gateway Interface CIM Common Industry Method CPG Calorically Perfect Gas CPU Central Processing Unit DOF Degrees Of Freedom DOE Design of Experiments ERJ Ejector Ramjet ESJ Ejector Scramjet GH2 Gaseous Hydrogen GOX Gaseous Oxygen GUI Graphical User Interface xiv HTML HyperText Markup Language JANNAF Joint Army Navy NASA Air-Force KSC Kennedy Space Center LaRC Langley Research Center LH2 Liquid Hydrogen LOX Liquid Oxygen MDO Multidisciplinary Design Optimization MECO Main Engine Cut-Off MER Mass Estimating Relationship MOC Method Of Characteristics NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASP National Aerospace Plane OMS Orbital Maneuvering System PERL Practical Extraction and Report Language POST Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories RBCC Rocket Based Combined-Cycle RCS Reaction Control System RJ Ramjet RLV Reusable Launch Vehicle RSE Response Surface Equation RSM Response Surface Methodology RTLS Return to Launch Site SCCREAM Simulated Combined-Cycle Rocket Engine Analysis Module SERJ Supercharged Ejector Ramjet SJ Scramjet SLS sea-level static SSTO Single-Stage-to-Orbit TPG Thermally Perfect Gas TPS Thermal Protection System UHTC Ultra-High Temperature Ceramic W&S Weights and Sizing

–  –  –

Air breathing propulsion engines for space applications are very complex systems and must be specifically tailored to a particular vehicle concept. These types of engines are in many instances ‘airframe integrated’, meaning the engine flowpath is partially defined by the vehicle mold lines. This implies that when designing an engine concept, the vehicle mold lines are directly coupled with the engine performance. Any optimization of the propulsion system must then include the entire vehicle system.

Due to available computing resources, it is impractical to attempt to optimize the complete engine flowpath. It is possible to optimize the forebody section by ignoring the aftbody section. Accurate estimates of forebody pressures can be obtained through closed-form equations for the flowfield and shock waves. This allows for selection of optimal compression ramp angles. But, closed form equations that accurately model the flow do not exist for the aftbody region of the vehicle. Studies have shown that the aftbody geometry has a significant effect on the overall propulsion system performance, with nozzle thrust variations of up to 30% depending on the nozzle expansion angles and flow model assumed. Therefore, ignoring the aftbody section cannot produce a truly optimized design.

While the aftbody flowfield can be analyzed with computer-intensive computational fluid dynamic codes, this approach is not suitable for use in conceptual vehicle studies. In order

–  –  –

performance due to the nozzle design must be available quickly. To make this task even more challenging, performance changes need to be assessed over a broad range of flight conditions, instead of just at a single point.



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