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«A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND APPROACH FOR ENHANCING TRANSPORTATION ASSET MANAGEMENT (TAM) IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINED TAM PROGRAMS A Dissertation ...»

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A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND APPROACH FOR

ENHANCING TRANSPORTATION ASSET MANAGEMENT (TAM)

IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINED TAM PROGRAMS

A Dissertation

Presented to

The Academic Faculty

By

Margaret-Avis N. A. Akofio-Sowah

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Doctor of Philosophy in Civil and Environmental Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

August 2015 Copyright © Margaret-Avis A. Akofio-Sowah 2015

A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND APPROACH FOR

ENHANCING TRANSPORTATION ASSET MANAGEMENT (TAM)

IMPLEMENTATION FOR SUSTAINED TAM PROGRAMS

Approved by:

Dr. Adjo Amekudzi-Kennedy, Advisor Dr. Yi-Chang James Tsai School of Civil & Environmental School of Civil & Environmental Engineering Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Patricia Mokhtarian Dr. Kari Watkins School of Civil & Environmental School of Civil & Environmental Engineering Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Catherine Ross Dr. Michael Meyer School of City & Regional Planning Senior Advisor Georgia Institute of Technology Parsons Brinckerhoff Date Approved: June 25th, 2015

To Nii Anyetei:

For always watching over me.

Fly high with the angels.

Love, Your baby sister.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

“If you have the courage and determination to knock on enough doors, you will find the right one”

- Dr. Anthony Fernando It has been a long five years and I have knocked on many doors to get to this point. I have to start by expressing my gratitude to my nuclear and extended family who have constantly shown love and support, and have encouraged me throughout this process. I am ambitious because my parents taught me never to settle for less - and it is that ambition that has led me here. To my big brother, Akofio, thank you for being a rock even when you didn’t know that you were. And to the many other brothers and sisters I have adopted along the way in Atlanta and in other parts of the world, thank you all for helping me maintain a balanced lifestyle, for providing support, and for indulging me in those moments when I prioritized my work over everything else.

This dissertation would not be possible without the encouragement, guidance and support of Dr. Adjo Amekudzi-Kennedy, whom I have had the undue opportunity to work with over the past five years. Where I expected just an academic advisor, I found myself with a mentor, a role model, and a life-coach whose influence has been invaluable in my growth as a researcher, a leader, and transportation professional. Thank you, Dr. AK, for guiding me through this season of life with honest words and a generous heart.

–  –  –

possible, and who have mentored me from the very beginning: Dr. Adaora Okoro and Dr.

Danena Gaines. Thank you both for your words of advice, your reality checks, and for letting me know that my struggles were not unique.

To my dissertation committee, thank you for your feedback, direction, and challenging questions to mold this work into what it is.

I would like to acknowledge the transportation professionals that participated in my expert panels, as well as the DOT representatives who tolerated my calls and emails to provide me with the information I needed.

I would also like to acknowledge the organizations that have provided financial support for my time in the doctoral program: the FHWA Eisenhower Graduate Fellowship, the Infrastructure Research Group, WTS Atlanta, and WTS International.

It is commonly said that it takes a village to raise a child; I’m extremely grateful to all of you for being a part of the village that raised this child.

Lastly, but certainly not least, all glory goes to God, who holds the pencil of my life in His hands.

–  –  –

Acknowledgements

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

Summary

CHAPTER 1: Introduction

1.1 RESEARCH TOPIC: TRANSPORTATION ASSET MANAGEMENT (TAM)

1.1.1 Benefits of TAM

1.2 MOTIVATION

1.3 OBJECTIVE

1.4 METHODOLOGY

1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THE DISSERTATION

CHAPTER 2: Literature Review

2.1 TAM DEVELOPMENT & TRANSPORTATION POLICY

2.1.1 Pavement and Bridge Management

2.1.2 From Infrastructure Construction to Preservation

2.1.3 Asset and Performance Management

2.1.4 State of the Practice/Existing Standards

2.1.5 Discussion

2.2 POLICY AND PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION

2.2.1 Characterizing Implementation: Theories & Models

–  –  –

2.2.3 Evaluating Implementation

2.2.4 Studying TAM through an Implementation Research Lens

2.3 TAM IMPLEMENTATION AS A PROCESS OF CHANGE

2.3.1 Defining Change & Change Management

2.3.2 Organizational Change Models

2.3.3 Implications of Applying Change Management Principles to TAM Implementation





2.4 SYNTHESIS OF IMPLEMENTATION FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE TAM PROGRAM

SUSTAINMENT

2.4.1 Goals, Expectations, & Guidance

2.4.2 General Resistance to Change

2.4.3 The Change Implementation Process

2.4.4 Characteristics of the Innovation

2.4.5 Program Flexibility & Customizability

2.4.6 Leadership and Management Support

2.4.7 Other Agency Characteristics

2.4.8 Financial Resources

2.4.9 Human Capital & Other Resources

2.4.10 External Factors

2.4.11 Summary

CHAPTER 3: Designing the Framework

3.1 TAM IMPLEMENTATION EXPERT PANEL

–  –  –

3.1.2 Leadership and Executive-Level Support

3.1.3 Employee Awareness and Understanding of TAM

3.1.4 Applying TAM in Decision Making

3.1.5 Comprehensive Agency Alignment

3.1.6 Reflection on Agency Culture

3.1.7 Committed Resources

3.1.8 Expert Panel Summary

3.2 TAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW FRAMEWORK (TIRF)

3.2.1 Conceptual Framework Design

3.2.2 Incorporating Evidence-Based Principles

3.3 APPLYING THE TAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW FRAMEWORK (TIRF)................. 110 3.3.1 A Generic Example

3.3.2 Context-Sensitive Considerations

3.4 SUMMARY

CHAPTER 4: Case Study Applications

4.1 STUDY METHODS

4.2 CASE STUDY 1: COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CDOT)............ 121 4.2.1 TAM Implementation Approach

4.2.2 TAM Governing Structure

4.2.3 Guidance Documents

4.2.4 TAM Decision Making

4.2.5 Systematic Review of CDOT’s Implementation Approach

–  –  –

4.3.1 TAM Implementation Approach

4.3.2 TAM Governing Structure

4.3.3 Guidance Documents

4.3.4 TAM Decision Making

4.3.5 Systematic Review of NYSDOT’s Implementation Approach

4.4 CASE STUDY 3: GEORGIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (GDOT)............... 155 4.4.1 TAM Implementation Approach

4.4.2 TAM Governing Structure

4.4.3 Guidance Documents

4.4.4 TAM Decision Making

4.4.5 Systematic Review of GDOT’s Implementation Approach

4.5 INSIGHTS FROM THE CASE STUDY DATA

4.5.1 Implementation Approach-TIRF Category Trends

4.5.2 Common Implementation Strategies-TIRF Category Trends

CHAPTER 5: Model Review & Refinement

5.1 PRACTITIONER REVIEW PANEL

5.2 FINAL TIRF DESIGN & GUIDELINES FOR USE

5.2.1 Summary of the TIRF Tool

5.2.2 Guidelines to Use the TIRF in an Agency

5.3 EVIDENCE-BASED DATABASE OR CATALOG OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES.... 193 CHAPTER 6: Discussion of Research Findings

–  –  –

6.2 FINDINGS FROM THE TIRF DEVELOPMENT

6.2.1 TIRF Category Weighting

6.2.2 Parallels and Synergies with Existing Tools

6.3 FINDINGS FROM THE CASE STUDIES

6.3.1 Generalizability vs Transferability

6.3.2 Potential TIRF Applications in Practice

6.4 FINDINGS RELATED TO THE RESEARCH GOALS AND SCOPE

6.4.1 Guidance Documents

6.4.2 Governing Structure

6.4.3 Decision-Making Processes

6.4.4 Summary

CHAPTER 7: Research Contributions, Limitations, and Future Work

7.1 CONTRIBUTIONS

7.2 LIMITATIONS

7.3 FUTURE WORK

7.4 SUMMARY

APPENDIX A.

TAM IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW FRAMEWORK CATALOG

APPENDIX B.

TIRF REVIEWS OF IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE

AGENCY

APPENDIX C.

–  –  –

APPENDIX D.

PANELIST AND PARTICIPANT BIOGRAPHIES

References

–  –  –

Table 2.1 AASHTO TAM Maturity Scale

Table 2.2 Seven National Goals Defined in MAP-21

Table 2.3 Summary of the Differences between Field Network Studies and Street-Level Research

Table 2.4 Commonly cited organizational change models

Table 2.5 Summary of implementation factors that can influence TAM program sustainment

Table 3.1 TAM Implementation Expert Panelists

Table 3.2 Addressing TAM Implementation in the Context of Program Maturity.

...... 114 Table 4.1 Case Study States’ Basic Information

Table 4.2 Ranking of TIRF Categories based on Case Study Implementation Approaches

Table 5.1 TIRF Practitioner Review Panelists

Table 5.2 TIRF Practitioner Expert Panel Survey Question 1 (Matrix) Results.

.......... 180 Table A.1 Colorado DOT January 2015 TIRF Review

Table A.2 New York State DOT March 2015 TIRF Review

Table A.3 Georgia DOT May 2015 TIRF Review

Table B.1 Combined systematic review of “employed consultants to develop TAM plan” strategy

Table B.2 Combined systematic review of “AASHTO self-assessment” strategy......... 248

–  –  –

assigned” strategy

Table B.4 Combined systematic review of “TAM champion” strategy

Table B.5 Combined systematic review of “asset managers in all related divisions” strategy

Table B.6 Combined systematic review of “multi-level governing structure with executive, senior, and mid-level management representation” strategy................. 251 Table B.7 Combined systematic review of “integrated TAM software system” strategy

Table B.8 Combined systematic review of “Formal TAM announcement” strategy..... 253 Table B.9 Combined systematic review of “risk management explanation” strategy.... 254 Table C.1 Guidance & Expectations Implementation Strategies

Table C.2 Leadership and Executive-Level Support Implementation Strategies........... 257 Table C.3 Applications in Decision Making Implementation Strategies

Table C.4 Reflection in Agency Culture and Language Implementation Strategies...... 260 Table C.5 Employee Awareness and Understanding Implementation Strategies........... 261 Table C.6 Comprehensive Agency Alignment Implementation Strategies

Table C.7 Resources Committed to TAM Development Implementation Strategies..... 263

–  –  –

Figure 1.1 Generic asset management components

Figure 1.2 Illustration of a Conceptual Relationship between Program and Implementation Success

Figure 1.3 Overall Research Design

Figure 1.4 Steps Involved in the Methodology

Figure 2.1 Exploratory Literature Map

Figure 2.2 Screenshot of Sample Implementation Plan provided in TAM Guide I.

....... 31 Figure 2.3 TAM Guide 2 Key Management Steps for Implementation

Figure 2.4 Performance-based planning process outlined in MAP-21

Figure 2.5 Types of Outcomes in Implementation Research

Figure 2.6 Screenshot of National Health Service Factors Proposed to Affect Likelihood of Program Sustainability

Figure 2.7 Characterizations of Change

Figure 3.1 Links between Implementation Factors from the Expert Panel (Middle Row) and Literature Review (Top and Bottom Rows)

Figure 3.2 TAM Implementation Review Framework Example

Figure 4.1 CDOT Organizational Chart

Figure 4.2 Excerpt from CDOT TAM Implementation Plan

Figure 4.3 CDOT TAM Governing Structure

Figure 4.4 Screenshot of CDOT Risk-Based TAM Implementation Plan

Figure 4.5 CDOT Risk-Based TAM Implementation Schedule

–  –  –

Figure 4.7 CDOT TIRF Output

Figure 4.8 NYSDOT Organizational Chart

Figure 4.9 NYSDOT's early TAM system

Figure 4.10 NYSDOT CAM-CI TAM Framework

Figure 4.11 NYSDOT Forward Four Guiding Principles

Figure 4.12 NYSDOT TAM Governing Structure/Internal TAM business structure.

... 144 Figure 4.13 Regional Program Committee and Regional TAM Teams

Figure 4.14 NYSDOT Risk & Asset Management

Figure 4.15 Screenshot of NYSDOT TAM Improvement Plan

Figure 4.16 NYSDOT TIRF Output

Figure 4.17 GDOT Organizational Chart

Figure 4.18 Screenshot of Excerpt from the GDOT TAM Implementation Plan.

......... 161 Figure 4.19 Screenshot of the GDOT TAM Communication Plan

Figure 4.20 GDOT TIRF Output

Figure 4.21 Screenshot of combined systematic review of “integrated TAM system” strategy

Figure 4.22 Screenshot of combined systematic review of “time-bound implementation tasks with staff assigned” strategy

Figure 4.23 Screenshot of combined systematic review of “multi-level governing structure with executive, senior, and mid-level management representation” strategy

Figure 5.1 Screenshot of TIRF Excel Tool

–  –  –

Figure 5.3 TIRF Workshop Format and Process Flow

Figure 6.1 Factors Categorized in Implementation Domains



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