«FRANCES YATES SELECTED WORKS FRANCES YATES Selected Works VOLUME I The valois Tapestries VOLUME II Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition VOLUME ...»
The valois Tapestries
Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition
The Art of Memory
The Rosicrucian Enlightenment
Shakespeare's Last Plays
The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age
Lull and Bruno
VOLUME IX Renaissance and Riform: The Italian Contribution VOLUME X Ideas and Ideals in the North European Renaissance
FRANCES YATESSelected Works Volume VIII Lull and Bruno London and New York First published 1982 by Routledge Reprinted by Routledge 1999 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York NY 10016 First issued in paperback 2010 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group © 1982 Routledge Publisher's note The publisher has gone to great lengths to ensure the quality of this reprint but points out that some imperfections in the original book may be apparent.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A CIP record of this set is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book has been requested ISBN 978-0-415-22051-4 (hbk) (Volume 8) ISBN 978-0-415-60607-3 (pbk) (Volume 8) 10 Volumes: ISBN 978-0-415-22043-9 (Set) ]ranees cA. Yates LULL & BRUNO
COLLECTED ESSAYSVOLUME I ~ ~~~;~;n~~~up
LONDON AND NEW YORKCONTENTS
ESSAYS ON THE ART OF RAMON LULL
INTRODUCTION 3THE ART OF RAMON LULL: An Approach to it through Lull's Theory of the Elements Uournal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, XVII, 1954) 9
RAMON LULL AND JOHN SCOTUS ERIGENAU ournal of the W arburg and C ourtauld Institutes, XXIII, 1960) 78
ESSAYS ON GIORDANO BRUNO IN ENGLAND
3 GIORDANO BRUNO'S CONFLICT WITHOXFORD Uournal of the Warburg Institute, II, 1938-9) 134
4 THE RELIGIOUS POLICY OF GIORDANOBRUNO Uournal of the Warburg and C
5 THE EMBLEMATIC CONCEIT IN GIORDANO
BRUNO'S DE GLI EROICI FUROR/ AND IN THE
ELIZABETHAN SONNET SEQUENCES(journal of the Warburg and Cottrlattld Institutes, VI, 1943) r8o
6 RENAISSANCE PHILOSOPHERS IN
ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND: JOHN DEE AND
GIORDANO BRUNO(History and Imagination: Essays in Honour of H~tgh Trevor-Roper, edited by Hugh Lloyd-Jones, Valerie Pearl, Blair Worden, Duckworth, 198 r) 2I o
between pages I I 6 and I 17 Figures for the Ars bret,is of Ramon Lull, from Ramon Lull, Opera, Strasbourg, 1617 (a) Alphabet of the Art (b) First Figure (c) Second Figure (d) Third Figure (e) Fourth Figure (the two inner circles revolve) 2 Tree Diagram illustrating Ramon Lull's Liber prrncrptorum medicinae, from Ramon Lull, Opera, Mainz, 1721-42, vol. I 3 Figures for the Ars demonstratit;a, from Ramon Lull, Opera, Mainz, 1721-42, vol.
III (a) Combinations of Virtues and Vices (b) Second Elemental Figure (c) First Elemental Figure 4 Wheels of Theology, Philosophy, Law, and the Elements:
Figures for Ramon Lull's Ars demonstratit1a from a thirteenthcentury (or early fourteenth-century) manuscript (Paris, Bibl.
Nat., lat. 16113, f. 72') 5 The Hermit and the Squire, illustrations from manuscripts of Ramon Lull's L 'ordre de chevalet·ie (a) From Paris, Bib!. Nat., fr. 197 3, French, fifteenth century (b) From British Museum, Royal MS. 14 E II, Flemish, fifteenth century [ vii }
ILLUSTRATIONS6 Miniatures illustrating the life and work of Lull, fourteenth century, Karlsruhe, Bad. Landesbibl., Sc Peter perg. 92 (a) Lull's vision; Lull reaching the Arc (b) Lull on horseback with the principles of the Arc (B co K as abso!uta and relata, see Pl. I a) dressed as knights 7 (a) The Ladder of Ascent and Descent, from Ramon Lull, Liber de ascensu et descensu inte//ectus, Valencia, I 5 I 2 (b) Lull with ladders, from the Karlsruhe Miniatures 8 Tree diagrams from Ramon Lull, Arbor scientiae, Lyons, I 5 I 5 (a) Tree of all the Sciences (b) Elemental Tree (c) Vegetable Tree (d) Moral Tree 9 Tree diagrams from Ramon Lull, Arbor scientiae, Lyons, I 5 r 5 (a) Apostolic Tree (b) Celestial Tree (c) Tree ofJesus Christ (d) Tree of the Trinity IO (a) The Incarnation, title-page engraving from Ramon Lull, Opera, Mainz, 172 I-42 (b) lntelligencia and the Wise Men under the Trees of Virtues and Vices, engraved illustration co Ramon Lull's Liber de gent iii et de tribm sapientibus, Mainz edition, vol. II I I (a) Tree diagram from Ramon Lull, De nova /ogica, Valencia, I5I2 (b) Thomas le Myesier presenting his compendia of Lull's works to the Queen of France, from the Karlsruhe Miniatures Cosmological setting of the Lullian Arc, diagram from Thomas I2 le Myesier's E/ectorium Remundi, Paris, Bibl. Nat., lac. I5450, f. 90v 3 (a) The Triumph of the Faith through the Lullian Arc, enI graving from Lull's Opera, Mainz edition (b) 'Figura Universalis' of the Ars demonstrativa, from Lull's Opera, Mainz edition, vol. III I4 Figures from the Arcs of Ramon Lull (a) 'A' Figure from the Ars compendiosa inveniendi veritatem (b) 'A' Figure from the Ars brevis (c) First Elemental Figure from the Ars demonstrativa (d) Second Elemental Figure from the Ars demonstrativa (e) Alphabet from the Ars brevis I 5 Schemata illustrating the Scocisc philosophy, from Honor ius Augustodunensis, C/avis physicae, Paris, Bibl. Nat., lac. 6734, ( viii }
Nat., lat. 6734, twelfth century (a) 'Arbor Elementalis', from Ramon Lull, Arbor Scientiae, ed.
I7 Lyom, 1515 (b) Diagram from a pseudo-Lullian alchemical treatise, from a fifteenth-century manuscript; Bollingen Foundation, New York (a) Butterfly and Flame, from Camillo Camilli, lmprese illustri, r8 (b) Eagle and Sun, from G. Ruscelli, Le imprese i/lustri, I 560 (c) Marryrdom of Profane Love, from 0. Vaenius, Amorum emblemata, 16o8 (d) Martyrdom of Sacred Love, from 0. Vaenius, Amoris divini emblemata, 1615 (e) Divine Love raising the Soul, from Vaenius, Amoris divini emblemata (a) Divine Love and the Soul shooting, from Vaenius, Amoris divini emblemata (b) Profane Love shooting, from Vaenius, Amorum emblemata (c) The Wounded Lover, from Vaenius, Amorum emblemata (d) Divine Love wounding the Heart, from Harvey, School of the Heart, after van Haeften, 1635 (e) Divine Love inflaming the Soul, from Vaenius, Amoris divini emblemata (a) Winged Heart, from Harvey, School of the Heart, after van Haeften, 1635 (b) Divine Love releasing the Soul, from Hugo, Pia Desideria, (c) Winged Heart, title-page of Hugo, Pia Desideria (d) Ship with Flames on Sail-Yards, from Giordano Bruno, Cena dele ceneri, I 584 (e) Ship with Stars on Sail-Yards, from G. Ruscelli, Le imprese illustri, I 56o (f) Ship and Stars, from A. Alciati, Emblemata, Lyons, I 55 I [ ix }
PREFACEFRANCES YATES DIED after a brief illness, early on the morning of 29 September 1981, at the age of nearly eighty-two. Some months before she fell ill, she had prepared this volume, intended as the first of several reprinting the masterly essays, most of them published first in the journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, she had written during a remarkable career of single-minded and passionate scholarship. This book is the last to contain prefaces by Dame Frances, placing the essays both in her own oeuvre and in the synthesis of Renaissance thought to which she had devoted her life.
She had already attended to the political dimension in her Astraea:
The Imperial Theme in the Sixteenth Century (1975), which is built round her great study of 'Queen Elizabeth as Astraea'. That essay was, with her book on The French Academies of the Sixteenth Century (1947), the peak of her achievement in her forties. (Themes from the two were taken up again in The Valois Tapestries (1959; second edition 1975).) The essays here reprinted are the first sketches, dating from 1939 to 1960, for the grand design of Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition (1964). They contain much material not used in that book, however, and they also look forward to the other superb achievement of Frances Yates's seventh decade, The Art of Memory (1966). With these two books she at last attained in the wider world the deserved reputation she had long held among Renaissance specialists.
The studies reprinted here demonstrate not only the range of their author's learning but her determination to go to the root of a ( X}
PREFACEproblem. In order to understand the thought of Giordano Bruno, Dame Frances found it necessary to investigate the role ofLullism in the Renaissance and this led her back three centuries to the origins of the Art of Ramon Lull. The first two articles in this volume took her into a region of European thought that, in the 1950s, was virtually unknown to scholars outside Spain. Even in Spain the study of Lull's works had been mainly confined to those (a minority) preserved in Catalan and had been concentrated on Lull's poetry and novels, seen in virtual isolation. The fact that the Lullian Art and philosophy were at the heart of all Lull's writings had been perceived by very few scholars. Ic is characteristic of Dame Frances that she set out, undaunted by the lack of guides, to explore the 'huge unclimbed mountain' of Lullian thought.
The first article here, by irs discovery of the cosmological basis of Lull's philosophy, especially his elemental theory, placed him squarely in an intelligible intellectual tradition. Not satisfied with having thus 're-opened the problem of Lull and his Art', Dame Frances went on (in the second article here) to suggest a source for the Art's most striking feature, the connexion between the divine attributes and the elemental theory. This she found in the great Irish philosopher of the ninth century, John Scotus Erigena. The revelation that Lull not only drew on the general Neoplatonic tradition but on the mystical version of Neoplatonism represented by Erigena goes far to explain his attraction for such Renaissance thinkers as Giordano Bruno, in whom Neoplatonic ideas are combined with Hermeticism and Cabalism. Dame Frances has acknowledged that writing her two articles on Lull was 'the hardest task I have ever undertaken'. The task proved worthwhile. Erigena, Lull and Bruno, often viewed as isolated figures in the history of ideas, were illuminated anew by being seen as linked in a coherent line of development.
Because of her book, Giordano Brtmo ani the Hermetic Tradition, Dame Frances's work on Bruno is far more widely known than her articles on Lull. The four last studies collected here illustrate her investigations of Bruno over a span of some forty years, from 1939 to I 98 I, though her interest in the Italian magus goes back to her own scholarly beginnings, in the mid-r920s. They chart a 'reversal of images' which has transformed the standard picture of Bruno as a martyr for the liberty of conscience or the advance of science into a man who died for 'Renaissance occult philosophy and magic'. The last article, in its discussion of the relation between Bruno and Dee, ts characteristic of its author in that it seeks to make the reader
J [ xi PREFACE
aware how many vital questions still remain to be answered. For Dame Frances there was no such thing as a definitive statement of a problem. For her one question led on to another and there were always new intellectual discoveries to be made.
Dame Frances did not live to read the proofs of this volume, which has therefore been seen through the press by the undersigned.
As admirers of Dame Frances they have attempted to edit these essays in the way she would have done. They hope to ensure that further volumes of Collected Essays will appear. They know that Dame Frances wished to acknowledge her debt to D. P. Walker in particular, and to Joanna Harvey-Ross, as well as to her publishers.
To these they are also grateful, as well as to Anne Marie Meyer for indispensable help aqd to Judith Wardman for making the index and for incidental vigilance with the proofs.
J. N. Hillgarth J. B. Trapp
IN ABOUT 1949 I began to work on what I hoped would be a book on Giordano Bruno, making abstracts of his Latin works. In these I found many references to Ramon Lull, and resolved that I must investigate Lull before going further with Bruno. On the advice of lvo Salzinger in the first volume of his edition of Lull's Latin works, the famous Mainz edition of 1721-42, I began with Lull's Tractatm noms de astronomia. It seemed perfectly unintelligible. There were many circles and other diagrams, labelled with letters of the alphabet. One learned that BCDEFGHIK stood for the Dignities, or Attributes of God, Bonitas, Magnitudo, Eternitas, Potestas, Sapientia, Voluntas, Virtus, Veritas, Gloria (Goodness, Magnitude, Eternity, Power, Wisdom, Will, Strength, Truth, Glory). Most of these divine attributes, or Names of God, were familiar from the Bible. Was the book, then, some kind of piou.s meditation, turning the Divine Names on the prayer wheels of the Art of Ramon Lull? All Lull's immensely complex Arts have one procedure in common: they revolve BCDEFGHIK (or sometimes sixteen letters) on circles or wheels.
There are other letters, of, apparently, equally serious importance, the letters ABCD, to be used somehow in combination with B to K.