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«Name: Obaid Almalki This is a digitised version of a dissertation submitted to the University of Bedfordshire. It is available to view only. This ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Title: A framework for e-government success from the

user’s perspective

Name: Obaid Almalki

This is a digitised version of a dissertation submitted to the University of

Bedfordshire.

It is available to view only.

This item is subject to copyright.

A FRAMEWORK FOR E-GOVERNMENT SUCCESS

FROM THE USER’S PERSPECTIVE

OBAID ALMALKI

PhD

UNIVERSITY OF BEDFORDSHIRE

A Framework for e-Government Success from the User’s Perspective by Obaid Almalki A thesis submitted to the University of Bedfordshire in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy September 2014

Abstract

ii A Framework For e-Government Success from the User’s Perspective Obaid Almalki Abstract This thesis aims to contribute to a better understanding of e-government portal success by developing a e-government success framework from a user’s perspective. The proposed framework is underpinned by relevant theories, such as DeLone and McLean’s IS success model, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), self-efficacy theory and trust. The culture aspect has also been taken into consideration by adopting personal values theory introduced by Schwartz (1992).

Three data collection methods were used. First, an exploratory study was carried to explore the main aspects and factors for understanding e-government systems success.

Second, a Delphi study was conducted to investigate which of the ten value types are particularly relevant to success or have a significant impact. Third, a survey-based study was carried out to validate empirically the proposed theoretical framework.

Results of the exploratory study helped to identify the potential success factors of egovernment systems. The results of the Delphi study suggest that four of the ten values, namely self-direction, stimulation, security, and tradition, most likely affect e-government portal success. Structural equation modelling techniques were applied to test the research model using a large-scale survey.

The findings of hypothesis testing suggested that e-government portal success (i.e. net benefit) was directly affected by actual use and user satisfaction and indirectly affect by a number of factors concerning system quality, service quality, information quality, perceived risk, and computer self-efficacy. By combining IS success model and TAM, this study found system quality, information quality and service quality affected the perceived ease of us, but service quality had no effect on perceived usefulness.

However, perceived risk seemed to have no effect on attitudes towards using, but very small negative effect on perceived usefulness. Users’ computer skills was found to have no effect on perceived ease of use and very small effect on perceived usefulness. These indicate that risk and IT skills are playing less significant role in the context of egovernment. The research findings confirmed that adoption was not equivalent to success, but it was the necessary precondition to success.

Abstract iii

–  –  –

Table of Contents Abstract

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations

Acknowledgements

Declaration

1 Introduction

1.1 Research Background and Rationale

1.1.1 Benefits of e-Government Systems

1.1.2 The Importance of Understanding e-Government Success

1.1.3 The Impact of Culture and Personal Values on e-Government Systems............ 6 1.2 Research Gaps in e-Government Success

1.3 Aim and Objectives

1.4 Research Scope

1.5 Summary of Research Methods and Process

1.6 Thesis Outline

1.7 Summary

2 Information Systems and e-Government Systems Success

2.1 An Overview of e-Government

2.1.1 What is ‘Government’?

2.1.2 The Emergence of e-Government

2.1.3 What is e-Government?

2.2 IS and e-Government Success

2.2.1 What is Success?

2.2.2 What is Success in the Context of Information Systems (IS)

2.2.3 Chronology of IS Success Research

2.2.4 The Concept of IS Success in Different Contexts

2.2.5 Success in the Context of e-Government

2.3 E-government Portals Evaluations

2.4 e-Government Acceptance

2.4.1 Overview of IS Adoption Models

2.4.1.1 Diffusion of Innovations (DOI)

2.4.1.2 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

Table of Contents v

2.4.2 e-Government Adoption Studies

2.4.2.1 e-Government Adoption Studies Using DOI Theory

2.4.2.2 e-Government Adoption Studies Using TPB

2.4.2.3 e-Government adoption studies using constructs from TAM, DOI and TPB and others

2.4.2.4 Comparisons between IS Adoption Models

2.5 e-Government in the Context of Saudi Arabia

2.5.1 Overview of Saudi e-Government Initiative

2.5.2 The Saudi e-Government Philosophy and Objectives

2.5.3 Why Consider Saudi Arabia e-Government Portals?

2.6 Summary

3 Culture and Personal Values

3.1 What is Culture?

3.1.1 Overview of Culture





3.1.2 The Importance of Studying Culture

3.2 Cultural Models

3.3 Culture Layers, Levels and the Value Concept

3.4 The Importance of Culture in the IS Context

3.5 Personal Values

3.5.1 Definitions of Personal Values

3.5.2 The Link between Culture Research and Values

3.5.3 Schwartz' Theory of Basic Human Values

3.5.4 The Schwartz Methods of Measuring Values

3.5.4.1 Schwartz Value Survey (SVS)

3.5.4.2 Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ)

3.6 Personal Values in the Context of IS

3.7 The Importance of Personal Values in e-Government

3.8 Critique of Literature Review

4 Research Methodology

4.1 Basic Concepts

4.1.1 Theory

4.1.2 Method versus Methodology

4.1.3 Methodology Axioms

4.1.4 Research Paradigm

4.1.5 Quantitative and Qualitative Research Strategies

Table of Contents vi

4.2 Overview of Research Methods Adopted in this Study

4.2.1 Exploratory Study

4.2.1.1 What is Exploratory Research?

4.2.1.2 Rationale of the Exploratory Study

4.2.1.3 Exploratory Study’s Aim and Objectives

4.2.1.4 Methodology of the Exploratory Study

4.2.1.5 Data Collection

4.2.1.6 Data Analysis

4.2.2 Delphi Study

4.2.2.1 Concept of Delphi Method

4.2.2.2 Using the Delphi Method in IS and e-Government Research

4.2.2.3 Rationale of Delphi study

4.2.2.4 Identification of Experts

4.2.2.5 Delphi Survey Administration

4.2.2.5.1 First Round

4.2.2.5.2 Second Round

4.2.3 Survey-based Study

4.2.3.1 Research Method of the Online-survey Based Study

4.2.3.1.1 Measures of the Constructs

4.2.3.1.2 Research Setting

4.2.3.1.3 Data Collection

4.2.3.1.4 Survey Questionnaire

4.2.3.1.5 Sampling for Surveys in e-Government

4.3 Ethical Considerations

Individuals’ Experiences and Insights on e-Government Portals’ Success in Saudi Arabia: An Exploratory Study

5.1 Objectives of the Exploratory Study

5.2 Research Method of the Exploratory Study

5.3 Research Design of the Exploratory Study

5.4 Data Analysis and Discussion

5.4.1 Overview of the Interviews

5.4.2 Demographic Information

5.4.3 e-Government Awareness in Saudi Arabia

5.4.4 Perceptions towards Saudi e-Government Systems

5.4.5 The Best e-Services Provider in Saudi Arabia

Table of Contents vii

5.4.6 Factors to Evaluate e-Government Success

5.4.7 Net benefits of Using e-Government

5.4.8 Factors Affecting User Satisfaction

5.4.9 Factors Affecting Intention to Use

5.5 Summary

Developing a Conceptual Framework for e-Government Portals’ Success....... 91

6.1 Rational for Developing a Framework to Understand the Factors Affecting eGovernment Portals Success

6.2 e-Government Research and Relevant Issues

6.3 Theoretical Background and Research Model

6.3.1 The Updated DeLone and McLean IS Success Model

6.3.2 TAM

6.3.3 Self-efficacy Theory

6.3.4 Perceived Risk

6.3.5 Personal Values

6.4 The Proposed Conceptual Framework

6.5 Development of Hypotheses

6.5.1 System Quality

6.5.2 Information Quality

6.5.3 Service Quality

6.5.4 Perceived Risk

6.5.5 Computer Self-efficacy

6.5.6 Personal Values

6.5.7 Ease of Use

6.5.8 Perceived Usefulness

6.5.9 Attitude Towards Using

6.5.10 Behaviour Intention to Re-use

6.5.11 Actual Use

6.5.12 User Satisfaction

6.5.13 Net Benefit

6.6 Research Models

6.7 Summary

Identifying the Relevance of Personal Values to e-Government Portals’ Success:

Insights from a Delphi Study

7.1 Delphi Study Background

Table of Contents viii

7.1.1 The Concept of Culture

7.1.2 Personal Values

7.1.3 Personal Values in e-Government Portals' Success

7.2 Research Method of the Delphi Study

7.2.1 Delphi Method

7.2.2 Expert Selection

7.2.3 Data Collection Procedure

7.3 Results and Analysis

7.3.1 Results of the First Round

7.3.2 Results of the Second Round

7.4 Discussion

7.4.1 Self-Direction

7.4.2 Security

7.4.3 Stimulation

7.4.4 Tradition

7.5 Summary and Lessons Learned

8 Framework Validation

8.1 Online Survey Background, Objectives and Hypotheses

8.1.1 Background and Objectives

8.1.2 Research Models and Hypotheses

8.2 Research Method of the Online Survey-based Study

8.2.1 Measures of the Constructs

8.2.2 Overview of the Online Survey Questionnaire

8.2.2.1 Development of Questionnaire Instruments

8.2.2.2 Part1. Demographic Information

8.2.2.3 Part2. Personal Values

8.2.2.4 Part3. Evaluating e-Government Portals in Saudi Arabia from Individuals’ Perspective

8.2.2.5 Survey Questionnaire Translation

8.2.2.6 Sampling

8.2.2.7 Data Collection

8.3 Data Analysis and Results

8.3.1 Screening and Cleaning Data

8.3.2 Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)

8.3.2.1 Basic Concepts of SEM

Table of Contents ix

8.3.2.2 SEM versus Traditional Statistics and its Advantages

8.3.2.3 Major Statistical Assumptions of SEM

8.3.2.3.1 Sample Sufficiency

8.3.2.3.2 Normality in SEM

8.3.2.3.3 Model Estimation Techniques

8.3.3 Measurements

8.3.4 Content Validity

8.3.5 Construct Validity

8.3.5.1 Reliability (Internal Consistency)

8.3.5.2 Convergent Validity

8.3.5.3 Discernment Validity

8.3.6 Results

8.3.6.1 Descriptive Statistics

8.3.6.2 Model fit

8.3.6.3 Hypothesis tests for personal values-attitude-behaviour model

8.4 Discussion

8.4.1 e-Government Portals’ Success Model

8.4.1.1 Determinants of Perceived Usefulness

8.4.1.2 Determinants of Perceived Ease of Use

8.4.1.3 Determinants of Attitude toward Using e-Government Portals

8.4.1.4 Determinants of Behaviour Intention to Re-use

8.4.1.5 Determinant of Actual Use

8.4.1.6 Determinant of User Satisfaction

8.4.1.7 Determinants of Net benefits

8.4.2 Personal Values-Attitude-Behaviour Model

8.5 Summary

9 Conclusion

9.1 Research Aim and Objectives Revisited

9.2 Overview of Research Process and Methodology

9.3 Explanation on How the Study has met its Objectives

9.4 Contributions to Knowledge

9.4.1 Generation of New Knowledge in the Field of e-Government

9.4.2 Academic Implications

9.4.3 Practical Implications

9.5 Research Limitations

Table of Contents x

9.6 Directions for Future Research

Appendix A: Research Ethics Scrutiny

Appendix B.1: Delphi Study Invitation Email

Appendix B.2: Delphi Study Questionnaire - First Round

Appendix B.3: Screenshots of the Online Questionnaire - First Round

Appendix B.4: Delphi Study Reminder Email – First Round

Appendix B.5: Delphi Study Invitation Email - Second Round

Appendix B.6: Delphi Study Questionnaire - Second Round

Appendix B.7: Screenshots of the Online Questionnaire - Second Round................ 209 Appendix B.8: Delphi Study Reminder Email – Second Round

Appendix C.1: Pre-notification Email for the Online-Survey Questionnaire................ 211 Appendix C.2: Invitation Email for the Online-Survey Questionnaire

Appendix C.3: Survey Questionnaire – Female (English Version)

Appendix C.4: Survey Questionnaire – Male (English Version)

Appendix C.5: Survey Questionnaire – Female (Arabic Version)

Appendix C.6: Survey Questionnaire – Male (Arabic Version)

Appendix C.7: Screenshots of the Survey-online Questionnaire

Appendix C.8: Reminder Email for the Online-Survey Questionnaire

Appendix C.9: List of e-Government Portals Evaluated by Participants

Appendix C.10: Assessment of Normality

Appendix D.1: ECEG 2012: Exploratory Study on e-Government

Appendix D.2: ECEG 2013: Developing a Conceptual Framework

Appendix D.3: ECEG 2013: Delphi Study: Relevance of Personal Values................ 276 References

List of Tables xi

List of Tables

Table 1.1: Thesis outline……………………………………………………………………….



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