FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 17 |

«By Celeste Nicole Henrickson A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in ...»

-- [ Page 4 ] --

Kroeber (1931) constructed a distribution of cultural traits for the Guaycura, Cochimí, and to a lesser extent, the Pericú (as well as several other non-peninsular groups) based on the Jesuit missionary accounts of Johann Jacob Baegert, as well as research by Miguel Venegas and Francisco Xavier Clavijero (1789) to determine their relationship with the Seri/Comcáac. Kroeber tentatively suggested: 1) the Guaicura had greater cultural affinity to the Seri/Comcáac than did the Cochimí; and 2) the cultural groups of lower California as a whole were less culturally similar to Seri/Comcáac than the Gila Pima or Walapai-Havasupai. His analysis consisted of adding the number of traits each group shared with the Seri/Comcáac subtracted from the number of traits they did not share; however, he did not use the same cultural-trait distribution to measure all relationships. Instead, the number and kind of traits used to determine relationships differed for each pair-wise grouping with the Seri/Comcáac.

As a result, there is no way to meaningfully interpret the nature and magnitude of the differences between groups as each was measured on a separate metric. When inferences of group similarity are based on the presence or absence of cultural traits and cultural traits are missing for some groups, both Type I (incorrectly identifying a difference exists between groups when none is present) and Type II (incorrectly identifying a similarity exists between groups when in fact they are different) errors are inflated, causing a distorted picture of relationships to emerge. Although a valiant first attempt, the paucity of data and the lack of statistical controls render any interpretation difficult. Bowen (1976:102) echoes similar concerns about the interpretation of Kroeber’s data, but suggests the overall pattern is likely correct. Additionally, he suggested Kroeber’s trait list be revised and expanded to discern relationships between BCS groups and the Seri/Comcáac. To our knowledge, no one has proceeded with this task.

Content analysis is a research methodology that can render the anecdotal nature of historical documents into systematic cultural trait distribution lists. Once constructed, cultural trait data allows hypotheses to be tested about macro-level social interactions between groups (Ryan and Bernard 2000). Reliability and hierarchical   14     cluster analysis are then utilized to determine cultural relationships within BCS populations and between them to the Seri/Comcáac. Due to the dearth of theory and data for predicting relationships between cultural groups in southern BCS, our analysis largely is exploratory. Based on our analyses it appears: 1) the historic Guaycura and southern Cochimí were highly culturally similar; 2) the degree to which the Guaycura and southern Cochimí shared cultural traits was much greater than any other grouping;

3) the Seri/Comcáac form a distant but natural grouping with the Guaycura and southern Cochimí; and 4) the Pericú are culturally distinct.

Methods This study applies classical content analysis (Ryan and Bernard 2000) to investigate relationships between three historical BCS cultural groups: the Pericú, Guaycura, and southern Cochimí; as well as the Seri/Comcáac of the Gulf of California and Sonora Mexico (Figure 1). Content analysis uses messages (e.g., texts), rather than behavior or artifacts, as the unit of study (Neuendorf 2002). Although content analysis consists of a range of techniques, the basic premise is the same; researchers convert qualitative texts into quantitative data, which can be used to test relational hypotheses (Ryan and Bernard 2000). Content analysis requires: 1) selecting texts for analysis; 2) defining the variables to be coded; 3) applying those codes systematically to a set of texts; 4) testing the reliability of coders when more than one is present; 5) creation of a unit-of-analysisby-trait matrix from the texts and codes; and finally, 6) hypothesis testing using statistical methods (Bernard 2002). The traits examined include institutional structures and ethnic markers identified by historic explorers and Jesuit missionaries, as well as cultural anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians who have examined or translated these ethnohistoric documents.

There are multiple ways to derive lists of cultural traits. Archaeologists derive them from the material record; cultural anthropologists generally use ethnographies.

Cross-cultural anthropologists commonly employ distribution lists of cultural traits to test relational hypothesis about the ecological, historical, or social correlates of human behavior (e.g., Barry and Schlegel 1980). There are drawbacks to this type research (also termed holocultural research). For example, culture trait lists generally are based on a few descriptive sentences about the presence or absence of a particular trait in a particular culture at one given time. Additionally, coding the presence or absence of a trait for a cultural group based on limited informants masks all of the variability that often exists within a culture (Hewlett and Macfarlan 2010), particularly age, gender, and status. Given these limitations, holocultural research can be useful for determining broad patterns between cultures.

Two reviewers derived a list of cultural traits based on four classes of source material: 1) translated historical documents related to explorations of Baja California spanning the period of A.D. 1539 – 1721 (Alarcón 1992; Atondo y Antillón and Kino 1992; Ascensión 1992; Cardona 1992; Cooke 1992; Lucenilla 1992; Nava 1992; Ortega 1992; Porter y Casanate 1992; Shevlocke 1992; Ulloa 1992a, 1992b; Vizcaíno 1992a, 1992b); 2) translated Jesuit missionary accounts of Baja California Sur groups spanning the period of A.D. 1683-1768 (Baegert 1952; Barco 1981; Burrus 1984; Nunis 1982); 3) Seri/Comáac ethnographic accounts (Bowen 2000; Felger and Moser 1991; Kroeber 1931; McGee 1898) and archaeological research (Bowen 1976); and 4) peer reviewed academic research pertaining to historic BCS (Aschmann 1967; Heizer and Massey 1953;

Kroeber 1931; Laylander 2007; Massey 1947, 1949, 1961, 1966; Mathes 1992, 2006). As an initial exploration of a method with a time consuming research process, I chose not to   15     include information from groups living north of the 28th parallel in the peninsula. The logic is this approximates the northern boundary of southern Cochimí language (Laylander 1997; Mixco 2006) and groups below this boundary had definite, documented contact with Europeans since A.D. 1539 (Mathes 1981). The Cora and Monqui are excluded because insufficient data existed for a separate trait analysis and their group and linguistic affiliation is ambiguous.

Assigning Traits to Groups A list of 88 candidate cultural traits was derived from initial readings of Baegert (1952), Barco (1981), Burrus (1984), and Nunis (1982). These traits largely describe Guaycura and southern Cochimí culture, and to a lesser extent, the Pericú. Cultural traits pertaining to the Seri/Comcáac were easily derived as trained ethnographers and linguists have researched these groups since the pioneering work of McGee (1898).

Pericú cultural traits were the most difficult to code due to a lack of data; however, historic explorer accounts spanning the period of A.D. 1537-1712 were vital for reconstruction. This process caused our final data set to be truncated to 51 cultural traits, grouped into five categories: 1) Male Headdress; 2) Female dress; 3) Religious practices/marriage; 4) Child Carrying Devices; and 5) Technology (Appendix II).

A presence/absence dichotomizing method was used to assign cultural traits to groups. To avoid sample bias, a trait was used only if sufficient information existed for all four groups. The rationale is, if an account identified a trait for one group with no information recorded concerning the other groups, marking an absence of this trait could inflate the similarity of the other groups when statistical analyses are run. Some traits were recorded as “not present” when an alternative version was present and the author made no claim about the trait’s absence.

A two-tiered system was utilized to reconcile instances where accounts/reviewers differed on presence/absence of a trait. If a trait was suggested by one account to be absent, but another recorded its occurrence, the author who reported the presence was chosen. The rationale is it is easier to mistakenly attribute a trait’s absence than its presence. Secondly, authority was deferred to accounts where the author spent a greater deal of time with a group than to authors who never visited the peninsula or visited briefly. The rationale is these authors should have greater cultural knowledge of the groups they discuss.

Results Due to human error (e.g., incorrect reading of text or data coding), it is important to evaluate inter-coder agreement or reliability (Ryan and Bernard 2000). Reliability concerns whether a measuring procedure yields the same results on multiple trials (Carmine and Zeller 1982) and is evidence that a coded theme has some external validity (i.e., it is not a figment of the researchers imagination) (Ryan and Bernard 2000).

As such, reliability analysis was used to determine accuracy between raters.

Conventions in reliability analysis are varied; however, many authors agree coefficients greater than 0.7 are sufficient for exploratory research to perform subsequent analyses (Landis and Kosh 1977). High inter-rater agreement was achieved for traits assigned to the four cultural groups (Pericú: Cohen’s K=0.95, N=51, p0.001; Guaycura: Cohen’s K=0.8, N=51, p0.001; southern Cochimí: Cohen’s K=0.92, N=51, p0.001;

Seri/Comcáac: Cohen’s K=0.92, N=51, p0.001). When disagreements occurred on a trait’s proper coding, primary source material was reviewed and the appropriate scheme determined through consensus. Thus, the consensus building process   16     eventually resulted in perfect agreement between raters for all traits for all four cultures.

Reliability and hierarchical cluster analyses were employed to determine data structure. Reliability analysis determines a set of items’ internal consistency when measured with Cronbach’s alpha (Vogt 2005). When items are cultural traits, reliability analysis determines the extent to which groups share a culture. High reliability coefficients (e.g., 0.7) indicate that groups share a common culture. Low reliability coefficients indicate groups are culturally distinct from one another. A low reliability coefficient was derived when all four cultural groups were examined simultaneously (Cronbach’s α=0.40; N=51). A second set of reliability analyses were run examining three cultures simultaneously, which revealed moderate to extremely low reliability

coefficients (Guaycura-southern Cochimí-Seri: Cronbach’s α=0.47; N=51; PericúGuaycura-southern Cochimí: Cronbach’s α=0.47; N=51; Pericú-Guaycura-Seri:

Cronbach’s α=0.15; N=51; Pericú-southern Cochimí-Seri: Cronbach’s α=0.17; N=51). A final set of reliability analyses examined pairs only. High internal reliability was reached for the Guaycura and southern Cochimí (Cronbach’s α=0.77; N=51); however, extremely low or negative reliability coefficients were derived for all other pair-wise groupings (Table 2). Negative reliability coefficients are indicative of small sample sizes or the evaluation of multiple constructs (Krus and Helmstadter 1993) – i.e. different cultures. Although the sample is moderately small, it appears multiple cultures were examined simultaneously. Given the high cultural trait agreement between southern Cochimí and Guaycura, the additional constructs being evaluated are the Pericú of the Cape Region and Seri/Comcáac cultures of mainland Mexico.

–  –  –

Due to the moderate reliability estimates for the Guaycura-southern CochimíSeri and Guaycura-southern Cochimí-Pericú groupings, further exploration is needed to determine whether deeper structures exist within the data. Researchers, including anthropologists (e.g., Maxwell et al. 2002), employ cluster analysis when a set of objects’ natural classification is unknown and taxonomic order is desired (Aldenderfer and Blashfield 1984). Hierarchical cluster analysis is one clustering technique that places single entities into increasingly homogeneous groupings using an iterative process.

Although standards vary, many agree hierarchical cluster analysis is a preferred clustering method for small sample sizes (e.g., 250 cases), with a minimum requirement of no less than 2k cases (k=number of variables) (Dolnicar 2002).

Hierarchical clustering requires a similarity metric to assess distances between groups and a link-function to hierarchically organize them. It is vital to have a justification for selecting one similarity metric and one link-function over others, as output is determined by these choices (Aldenderfer and Blashfield 1984). In this case a Phi 4-point correlation similarity metric and a within-groups link function were utilized. The Phi 4point correlation procedure was selected over other binary data similarity measurements because of its ease of interpretability (it is equal to the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient for binary data) and it gives equal weight to the joint presence   17     and absence of traits to calculate similarity. Because traits were selected where the joint absence of a trait was equally meaningful as their presence, this metric is more appropriate than those that exclude joint absences from computation (Aldenderfer and Blashfield 1984). The within-groups link function was selected because it was designed for the specific purpose of determining homogeneity within clusters by examining both inter- and intra-cluster pairs (Garson 2009). This resulted in two classifications: 1) the geographically adjacent southern Cochimí and Guaycura of the south-central peninsula form a distant yet single group with the Seri/Comcáac of mainland Mexico; while 2) the Pericú of the southern peninsular tip were isolated. Identical results were obtained using other similarity metrics (i.e., Lambda, Anderberg’s D, and Yule’s Q).

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 2 | 3 || 5 | 6 |   ...   | 17 |

Similar works:

«The effect of biotic interactions on latitudinal range expansion of plant species in response to climate change by Daniel Sylvan Walker Katz A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Natural Resources and Environment) in the University of Michigan Doctoral Committee: Associate Professor Inés Ibáñez, Chair Professor Mark D. Hunter Professor Knute J. Nadelhoffer Professor Donald R. Zak DEDICATION For Liz Walker, who showed that...»

«GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE TEXT MESSAGING OF YOUNG JORDANIAN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF LINGUISTIC FEATURES RAFAT MAHMOUD AL ROUSAN DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA 2013 Permission to Use In presenting this thesis in fulfilment of the requirements for a postgraduate degree from Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the Universiti Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for the copying of this thesis in any manner, in whole or...»

«HAYDN’S DRAMATIC DISSONANCES: CHROMATICISM AND FORMAL PROCESS IN HIS STRING QUARTETS, OPP. 9 AND 17 A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy by Adem Merter Birson January 2015 © 2015 Adem Merter Birson HAYDN’S DRAMATIC DISSONANCES: CHROMATICISM AND FORMAL PROCESS IN HIS STRING QUARTETS, OPP. 9 AND 17 Adem Merter Birson, Ph.D. Cornell University 2015 Most scholarship...»

«Illuminati, zombies and metaphysical gridlock1 Katalin Balog Rutgers Newark During the last two decades there has been a resurgence of arguments against physicalism and for varieties of metaphysical dualism. The conclusion of these arguments is that phenomenal consciousness is absent from a world that is purely physical. Many contemporary philosophers of mind have found some of these arguments to be persuasive and have opted for some form of anti-physicalism.2 In this paper I will survey the...»

«Ó Springer 2006 Law and Philosophy (2006) 25: 31–79 DOI 10.1007/s10982-004-8196-4 RE’EM SEGEV JUSTIFICATION, RATIONALITY AND MISTAKE: MISTAKE OF LAW IS NO EXCUSE? IT MIGHT BE A JUSTIFICATON! (Accepted 5 October 2004) I. INTRODUCTION According to a famous maxim, ignorance or mistake of law is no excuse. This maxim is supposed to represent both the standard and the proper rule of law. In both respects, this is one of the firmest legal maxims, recognized and accepted by laypersons and...»

«WHO HAS CONFLICT WITH WHOM? A SOCIAL CAPITAL APPROACH TO CONFLICT AND CREATIVITY IN TEAMS by ANTHONY CARL HOOD K. MICHELE KACMAR, COMMITTEE CO-CHAIR DANIEL BACHRACH, COMMITTEE CO-CHAIR JAMES COMBS KRISTY REYNOLDS GIUSEPPE LABIANCA A DISSERTATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Management and Marketing in the Graduate School of The University of Alabama TUSCALOOSA, ALABAMA 2011 Copyright Anthony Carl Hood 2011 ALL...»

«Wire Grid Polarizer by Angled Deposition Method Using Nanoimprint Lithography by Young Jae Shin A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Macromolecular Science and Engineering) in The University of Michigan 2014 Doctoral Committee: Professor L. Jay Guo, Chair Peng-Fei Fu, Dow Corporation Professor Jinsang Kim Professor Richard Robertson © Young Jae Shin 2014 Acknowledgement Foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude...»


«EQUALIZING CHILD SEX RATIOS IN INDIA: UNDERSTANDING THE TRENDS, DISTRIBUTION, COMPOSITION, AND POTENTIAL DRIVERS By: Nadia Diamond-Smith, MSc A dissertation submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Baltimore, Maryland January, 2014 ABSTRACT Child sex ratios have been falling in recent decades in India, leading to an increasing number of missing girls. Although the country as a whole is becoming more imbalanced, in almost a...»

«MANUFACTURING OF POROUS SURFACES WITH MICRO-SCALE FEATURES FOR ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER by Peng Chen A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Mechanical Engineering) in The University of Michigan 2008 Doctoral Committee: Professor Jun Ni, Chair Professor Elijah Kannatey-Asibu Jr. Professor John Halloran Assistant Professor Gap-Yong Kim © Peng Chen All rights reserved 2008 DEDICATION. to the memory of my dear uncle Mr. Ximing...»

«RNA Editing at Baseline and Following Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress By Allison Leigh Richards A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Human Genetics) in The University of Michigan 2015 Doctoral Committee: Professor Vivian G. Cheung, Chair Assistant Professor Santhi K. Ganesh Professor David Ginsburg Professor Daniel J. Klionsky Dedication To my father, mother, and Matt without whom I would never have made it ii Acknowledgements...»

«Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental investigation of the effect of microstructure A thesis presented by Yong Xiang to The Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of Engineering Sciences Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts October, 2005 © 2005 Yong Xiang All rights reserved. Thesis advisor Author Joost J. Vlassak Yong Xiang Plasticity in Cu thin films: an experimental...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.