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«COUNTER-MAPPING THE NEIGHBORHOOD: A SOCIAL DESIGN EXPERIMENT FOR SPATIAL JUSTICE By Katie Headrick Taylor Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of ...»

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COUNTER-MAPPING THE NEIGHBORHOOD:

A SOCIAL DESIGN EXPERIMENT FOR SPATIAL JUSTICE

By Katie Headrick Taylor

Dissertation

Submitted to the Faculty of the

Graduate School of Vanderbilt University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

in

Learning, Teaching and Diversity

August, 2013

Nashville, Tennessee

Approved:

Professor Rogers Hall Professor Kevin Leander Professor Barbara Stengel Professor Steve Wernke To my son, Frank Matheson Taylor, for providing me with motivation, perspective and joy throughout this process and To my best friend, partner in life, and husband, Robert Taylor, for giving me infinite support, kindness, love, and wisdom ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This dissertation was financially supported by the National Science Foundation through the Tangibility for the Teaching, Learning, and Communicating of Mathematics grant (NSF DRLand the Peabody Dean’s Fellowship.

The research within these pages represents several years of relationships, collaborations, and love for the community and people of Nashville. Completing this work would have been impossible without the support of my friends and family from across Tennessee and the country.

This journey started six years ago when Rogers Hall and Kevin Leander agreed to take me on as a new student. Over these years, Rogers has given me steady and honest mentorship, tireless and thoughtful attention to my work, and has advocated for my ideas, while giving me new ones. Kevin has introduced me to scholars that have proved formative for my thinking, shaped my analytic skills, and provided encouragement and new ideas for my work even when it seemed bizarre to everyone else. I am endlessly grateful to both of them for helping me become the person and academic I am today.

My constant companions on this journey have been Jasmine Ma and Nathan Phillips who provided me with so much support, but most importantly, friendship. We talked, wrote (or didn’t), ate, traveled, laughed, carried cameras, drank (water for Nate), and cried together, too. Without my SLaMmily, this work would have been impossible.

I would also like to thank a late addition to the SLaMmily, Ty Hollett. He has been a great reviewer, critic, reader, and expander of my work. His ideas have proved formative in the analysis of this study.

Also, Jennifer Kahn, Camilla Lawson, Alvin Pearman, and Benjamin Shapiro have been recent reviewers of my work and thoughts. I thank them for their insights and thoughtful attention.

–  –  –

helping me to plan a course of action. Her encouragement was key in beginning the writing process.

Dan Furbish has been my collaborator and dear friend throughout this study. His passion for working with and helping youth and their communities, and his steady humility throughout his successes have been inspirational. I am also grateful for his willingness to try new things in his program and for giving me the opportunity and space for developing intellectual and material projects.

I would also like to thank Reveley Lee, a dear friend of mine who began this PhD journey with me six years ago. Reveley’s sudden death was a reminder of the uncertainty of it all. Having her in my life for that one brief year has given me strength in unexpected ways and I will always be indebted to her and her family.

I would not exist without my parents, Mary Lynn and Pete Headrick, and am forever grateful for their steadfast support and confidence. Even when I have doubted myself, they never did and I thank them for that strength. I always try to make them proud and this work was partially fueled by that desire.

I am so happy to have relatively recently found Barb Stengel as a mentor and supporter through this academic journey. She has been an amazing example of intelligence, humor, insightfulness, motherhood, openness, and all the other qualities I try to embody in my own professional and personal persona. I am so grateful for her guidance through these most recent life-altering decisions.

I would also like to thank Kris Neal and Sandra Uti for always offering me words of encouragement and strength. They have been paramount in my motivation to keep going, but to also stay mindful of my family and the importance of being a good person to those you love at all times.

Thank you to Jackie Griffin for always checking-in on Frank and me. She has been a constant supporter and motivator.

–  –  –

over the years, I would have lost my mind long ago. I thank and love Emily (especially for taking care of Frank), Anne, Molly, Catherine, Mick, Valerie, Adam, Ann, and George.

Thank you also to my brother Gregg, Leslie, Kerri, and Natalka for their remote companionship and support.

I also appreciate all the car trips and childcare Nan Taylor and Mary Lynn Headrick have volunteered. Their pure kindness, help, and love have allowed me to write this dissertation.

Frank, Robert, and I have been so fortunate to have them in our lives this past year.

I would also like to thank Frances Matheson, my grandmother and biggest fan. Although she is not here to witness this accomplishment, I know she would be incredibly proud and excited for me. The memory of her energy, loyalty, humor, and sophistication remind me of the person I want and try to be, even in the midst of a large and solitary writing project.





In the spirit of saving the best for last, Robert Taylor – my love, best friend, partner in life, and father to my child – has been a rock-solid foundation on which I have been able to conduct and complete this study. Over the six years this study has been developing and underway, we bought our first house, lost our first house in a flood, had our first child, and figured out other of life’s puzzles along the way. He truly is my better half and I am forever grateful for all of his amazing qualities. I dedicate this work to him and our son, Frank.

–  –  –

DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………… ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……………………………………………………………………………......iii LIST OF FIGURES ………………………………………………………………………………………viii PART I: INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………1 PROLOGUE……………………………………………………………………………………….1 Chapter I. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………………4 Counter-mapping as Thirdspace Practice……………………………………………………...5 Characteristics of Counter-mapping Unpacked………………………………………............6

A Social Design Experiment for Spatial Justice:

Learning to Design Activities to Support Youth Counter-mapping…………………………14 II. PERCEIVING, CONCEIVING, AND ACHIEVING SPA(ce)TIAL JUSTICE……………………...24 Perceiving Space………………………………………………………………………………..24 Learning to Conceive Space for Civic Action………………………………………………...25 Youth Neighborhood Mapping Initiative………………………………………………………26 Seeking Spatial Justice? Says Who?

III. METHOD: PLACES, PEOPLE, DATA COLLECTION, AND ANALYSIS………………………..31 Woodbridge, Phase I……………………………………………………………………………32 Woodbridge, Phases II & III…………………………………………………………………….40 Data Collection...………………………………………………………………………………...55 Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………………..56 PART II: FINDINGS………………………………………………………………………………………58 Chapter IV. SPATIAL EPISTEMOLOGIES……………………………………………………………………….59 Lessons Learned in Woodbridge: “It’s a Real Task”.………………………………………..59 Designing for a Mobile Spatial Epistemology.………………………………………………..70 Ground-truthing the Neighborhood on Bikes…………………………………………………71 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………………….82 V. CONSTRUCTING SENSE-SCAPES………………………………………………………………..88 Lessons Learned in Woodbridge: “Walk-around Space”……………………………………88 Designing for Lived Relevancies for Youth………………………………………………….100 GPS Drawing: Producing Places and Pathways with Geospatial Technologies………..103

Analysis of Personal Time Geography:

vi Telling the Daily Round Across Spatial and Temporal Scale……………………………..127 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………………………..138 VI. LEVERAGING “OFFICIAL” TOOLS AND DISCOURSES………………………………………142 Lessons Learned in Woodbridge: “My Usual Question”…………………………………...142 Designing for Taking Place with Geospatial Tools and Technologies…………………...155 Counter-mapping Performance: Desire Layers for a Future Neighborhood…………….157 Discussion of Youth Counter-mapping ……………………………………………………..162 PART III: CONCLUSIONS……………………………………………………………………………..165 Chapter VII. COUNTER-MAPPING AS A THEORY OF SOCIAL AND SPATIAL CHANGE……………...167 Productive Tensions in Thirdspace ………………………………………………………….161 Youth Sense-making, Engagement, and Learning: In Their Words……………………...173 Counter-mapping as a New Theory of Social Action and Spatial Change………………181 REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………………………….184

–  –  –

1-1. A typical map-making process ………………………………………………………………….8 3-1. Research phases ……………………………………………………………………………….31 3-2. Transect flowchart ………………………………………………………………………………34 3-3. Study terrain for counter-mapping …………………………………………………………….40 3-4. Carissa’s free recall maps ……………………………………………………………………..44 3-5. Leah’s free recall map ………………………………………………………………………….46 3-6. Beth’s free recall maps …………………………………………………………………………48 3-7. Fred’s free recall maps …………………………………………………………………………50 3-8. William’s free recall maps ……………………………………………………………………...53 3-9. Wallace’s free recall maps …………………………………………………………………….55 4-1. “It’s a Real Task.” ……………………………………………………………………………….66 4-2. Comparative Analysis of Sam and Mr. Gray at the table with the map……………………68 4-3. Map of the Safety Ride …………………………………………………………………..........73 4-4. City bus intrusion …………………………………………………………………………….…75 5-1. Photos of cottage court developments …………………………………………………….…93 5-2. Sam sketches a cottage court development in the margin of the map …………………...94 5-3. Walk-around space …………………………………………………………………………….95 5-4. Urban and suburban transects ……………………………………………………………….99 5-5. Jeremy Woods’ GPS drawings ………………………………………………………………106 5-6. Leah uses the room to talk about scale and effort ………………………………………...111 5-7. Layers of stories and interaction during GPS drawing ……………………………………115 5-8. The girls walk the right arm of the letter V …………………………………………………117 5-9. LOVE displayed on the screen for the audience ………………………………………….122 5-10. Leah troubled by errors in the track data …………………………………………………...125 5-11. William and Wallace’s track data ……………………………………………………………131

–  –  –

6-2. Ms. Sanders, Stephanie, and the table of other participants …………………………….146 6-3. Ms. Sanders’ interaction with and over the map …………………………………………..153 6-4. Youth make lists of on-the-ground observations in relation to maps ……………………158 6-5. Carissa’s desire layers ……………………………………………………………………….160 7-1. Youth counter-mapping performances ……………………………………………………..173

–  –  –

Counter-mapping…is not only an effective method for reclaiming material resources for those who have been dispossessed but it works to counter particular forms of economic subjectivity and space; it inserts a non-capitalist presence into locations where only a capitalist potential had been identified via scientific and institutionalized mappings of nature and resources.

–  –  –



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