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«UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Mid-Rapidity π0 Production in d+Au Collions at = 200 GeV s nn A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

Los Angeles

Mid-Rapidity π0 Production in d+Au Collions at

= 200 GeV

s nn

A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction

of the requirements for the degree

Doctor of Philosophy in Physics

by

Steven Michael Guertin

© Copyright by

Steven Michael Guertin

The dissertation of Steven Michael Guertin is approved.

__________________________________________________

Yuanxun Wang

__________________________________________________

Ernest S. Abers __________________________________________________

Charles A. Whitten Jr.

__________________________________________________

Huan Z. Huang, Committee Chair University of California, Los Angeles ii To my family and friends… for helping me keep my bearings and for your unyielding support Through you I found the reflection of nature in humanity and the reflection of humanity in nature.

Especially to my mother iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. Introduction................................ 1

2. Brief Overview of Heavy Ion Collision Physics............. 5

2.1 Introduction.............................. 5

2.2 Features of QCD and the Strong Interaction............. 5

2.3 Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions...................... 11

2.4 Nuclear Effects............................ 15 2.4.1 Glauber Model........................ 16 2.4.2 Cronin Effect......................... 17 2.4.3 Shadowing and Saturation.................. 18 2.4.4 Final-State Hadronic Scattering................ 20

2.5 High-pT Hadron Production and pQCD................ 21 Application to π0........................... 25 2.6

3. Selection and Reference Data....................... 26

3.1 Introduction.............................. 26

3.2 QCD Model Calculations....................... 26 3

–  –  –

2.3 Vector definition for Mandlestam variables........... 13

2.4 Evolution of a relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision....... 15

–  –  –

3.5 Comparison of RAA for SPS, RHIC, and LHC energies..... 37

3.6 dE/dx vs. momentum for particle identification......... 39

3.7 Improvement of particle identification by using TOF...... 40

3.8 STAR results for identified hadrons in d+Au.......... 42

3.9 STAR charged hadron production in p+p and d+Au....... 43

–  –  –

4.9 Routing of WLS fibers for light collection the BEMC...... 74

4.10 Absolute gain calibration of the BEMC using the TPC..... 77

–  –  –

Normalized φ-distribution of detected points........... 122 6.1.3 6.1.4 Effect of vertex z cut on detected z distribution......... 124

–  –  –

Raw yield of π0s for three methods of selecting high-tower data 135 6.1.9 6.1.10 Distribution of tower data showing hot towers.......... 137

–  –  –

Invariant mass histograms with obscured π0 signal....... 146 6.2.2 Example of standard fitting algorithm applied to spiked π0 6.2.3

–  –  –

6.2.4 Example application of the bin-counting method........ 150 6.2.5 Example application of the automated method.......... 152

–  –  –

Histogram of “standard” π0 yield per event for analysis runs.. 175 6.2.10 Time-dependence of the “standard” π0 yield per event..... 176 6.2.11 6.3.1 Effectiveness of Monte Carlo isolation cut............ 190 6.3.2 Comparison of charged-particle and real-data effect of TPC veto

–  –  –

Comparison of real and embedding data η and φ distributions. 196 6.3.3 6.3.4 Comparison of real and embedding distributions in run 4036043 198 6.3.5 Comparison of real and embedding distributions in run 4049021 199 Comparison of the η distributions in real and Monte Carlo pairs 200 6.3.6 Comparison of the φ distributions in real and Monte Carlo pairs 201 6.3.7 6.3.8 Comparison of the energy asymmetry distributions in real and

–  –  –

6.3.12a Mass histograms and fits for simulated min bias data...... 219 6.3.12b Mass histograms and fits for simulated high tower 1 data.... 220 6.3.12c Mass histograms and fits for simulated high tower 2 data.... 221

–  –  –

6.2.2 Artificial restrictions on fit parameters for high tower 2..... 160 6.2.3 Event counts for two choices of vertex-z cut........... 167 6.2.4 Systematic uncertainties due to vertex-z and energy asymmetry

–  –  –

Weighted tally of simulated π0s in analysis pT bins........ 216 6.3.3 6.3.4 Efficiency results for power law weighting............ 223 6.3.5 Systematic uncertainty due to alternate methods......... 224

–  –  –





This work would not have come to completion without the patient and knowledgeable guidance of my advisors. I am also very thankful for the daily interactions I have had with the members of the UCLA relativistic heavy ion group, many of whom have come or gone during my time with the group. The environment created by the group, past and present, helped me understand that we are a community working together on individual and group goals, and by standing together we can accomplish them all efficiently.

I also must thank the STAR collaboration and the high-pT working group in particular. The work in this dissertation reflects many discussions with the working group and individual members over a span of several years.

During the time spent working on this dissertation I also relied on a strong network through my contacts, personal and professional, within the radiation effects group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. They provided me with support during this research. I am in debt to them for insights, technical discussions, and personal support.

Last, I would like to acknowledge the sacrifices made by my family. Through the whole process they were there to help me even when things were not looking good.

There are so many to thank that I consider it a blessing to have all of you to call upon.

–  –  –

S.M. Guertin, “Proton Dosimetry Using a Commercial Scanner”, Project Report, NSF REU Program at IUCF (1997).

S.M. Guertin, G.M. Swift, D. Nguyen, “Single-event upset test results for the Xilinx XQ1701L PROM”, IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop, (1999).

S.M. Guertin, L.D. Edmonds, G.M. Swift, “Angular dependence of DRAM upset susceptibility and implications for testing and analysis”, IEEE TNS, 47:2380-2385 (2000) L.Z. Scheick, S.M. Guertin, G.M. Swift, “Analysis of radiation effects on individual DRAM cells”, IEEE TNS, 47:2534-2538 (2000) G.M. Swift, F.F. Farmanesh, S.M. Guertin, F. Irom, D.G. Millward, “Single-event upset in the PowerPC750 microprocessor”, IEEE TNS, 48:1822-1827 (2001) S.M. Guertin, J.D. Patterson, D.N. Nguyen, “Dynamic SDRAM SEFI detection and recovery test results”, IEEE Radiation Effects Data Workshop, 62-67, (2004) S.M. Guertin, D.N. Nguyen, J.D. Patterson, “Microdose Induced Data Loss on Floating Gate Memories”, IEEE TNS, 53:3118-3524 (2006) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Strange anti-particle to particle ratios at midrapidity in s nn = 130 GeV Au+Au Collisions”, Phys Lett. B567:157 (2003).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Narrowing of the Balance Function with Centrality in Au+Au Collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90:172301 (2003).

xviii J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Transverse momentum and collision energy dependence of high-pT hadron suppression in Au+Au collisions at ultrarelativistic energies”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91:172302 (2003).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Particle-type dependence of azimuthal anisotropy and nuclear modification of particle production in Au+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:052302 (2004).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Evidence from d+Au measurements for final-state suppression of high-pT hadrons in Au+Au collisions at RHIC”, Phys. Rev.

Lett. 91:072304 (2003).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Three-Pion Hanbury Brown-Twiss Correlations in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions from the STAR Experiment”, Phys.

Rev. Lett. 91:262301 (2003).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Rapidity and Centrality Dependence of Proton and Anti-proton from Au+Au Collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys. Rev.

C70:041901 (2004).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Net charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys. Rev. C68:044905 (2003).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “rho-0 Production and Possible Modification in Au+Au and p+p Collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:092301 (2004).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Multi-strange baryon production in Au-Au collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:182301 (2004).

–  –  –

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Event-wise mean-pT fluctuations in Au-Au collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys Rev. C71:064906 (2005).

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Pion, kaon, proton and anti-proton transverse momentum distributions from p+p and d+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys.

Lett. B616:8 (2005)s J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Identified particle distributions in p+p and Au+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:112301 (2004) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Cross Sections and Transverse Single-Spin Asymmetries in Forward Neutral Pion Production from Proton Collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:171801 (2004) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Azimuthal anisotropy at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider: the first and fourth harmonics”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92:062301 (2004) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Azimuthally sensitive HBT in Au+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93:012301 (2004) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Photon and neutral pion production in Au+Au collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys. Rev. C70:044902 (2004) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Production of e+e- Pairs Accompanied by Nuclear Dissociation in Ultra-Peripheral Heavy Ion Collision”, Phys. Rev.

C70:031902 (2004)

–  –  –

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Phi meson production in Au+Au and p+p collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Lett. B612:181 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Hadronization geometry and net-charge angular correlations on momentum subspace (eta,phi) in Au-Au collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys. Lett. B634:347 (2006) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Transverse-momentum dependent modification of dynamic texture in central Au+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. C71:031901 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Measurements of transverse energy distributions in Au+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. C70:054907 (2004) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Open charm yields in d+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94:062301 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Azimuthal anisotropy and correlations at large transverse momenta in p+p and Au+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys.

Rev. Lett. 93:252301 (2004) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Transverse momentum correlations and minijet dissipation in Au-Au collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, J. Phys. G34:799 (2007)

–  –  –

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Azimuthal Anisotropy in Au+Au Collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. C72:014904 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Minijet deformation and charge-independent angular correlations on momentum subspace (eta,phi) in Au-Au collisions at s nn = 130 GeV”, Phys. Rev. C73:064907 (2006) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Pion interferometry in Au+Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. C71:044906 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “K(892)* Resonance Production in Au+Au and p+p Collisions at s nn = 200 GeV at STAR”, Phys. Rev. C71:064902 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Experimental and Theoretical Challenges in the Search for the Quark Gluon Plasma: The STAR Collaboration’s Critical Assessment of the Evidence from RHIC Collisions”, Nucl. Phys. A757:102 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Distributions of Charged Hadrons Associated with High Transverse Momentum Particles in p+p and Au+Au Collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95:152301 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Multiplicity and Pseudorapidty Distributions of Photons in Au+Au Collisions at s nn = 62.4 GeV”, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95:062301 (2005)

–  –  –

J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Incident Energy Dependence of pT Correlations at RHIC”, Phys. Rev. C72:044902 (2005) J. Adams, et al. (STAR Collaboration), “Transverse-momentum pT correlations on (eta,phi) from mean-pT fluctuations in Au-Au collisions at s nn = 200 GeV”, J. Phys.



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