FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 75 |

«Transit for National Parks and Gateway Communities: Impacts and Guidance A Dissertation Presented to The Academic Faculty By Anne E. Dunning In ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Transit for National Parks and Gateway Communities:

Impacts and Guidance

A Dissertation

Presented to

The Academic Faculty


Anne E. Dunning

In Partial Fulfillment

of the Requirements for the Degree

Doctor of Philosophy in Civil and Environmental Engineering

Georgia Institute of Technology

January 2005

Copyright © Anne E. Dunning, 2005.

Transit for National Parks and Gateway Communities:

Impacts and Guidance

Approved by:

Dr. Michael D. Meyer, Advisor Dr. Michael O. Rodgers School of Civil and Environmental School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Adjo A. Amekudzi Dr. Anne C. Steinemann School of Civil and Environmental College of Architecture Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Georgia Institute of Technology Dr. Cheryl K. Contant College of Architecture Date Approved: January 2005 Georgia Institute of Technology DEDICATION For Michael Meyer here, Though eighteen years between This book must go. It’s clear.

Us typically would mean Above the rest, he’s reached a crest He’d hold things back and simply stack And to my soul endeared.

My point of view unseen, Instead, he gave me heed, No other could have won Respecting me indeed.

My work because my conI’d proof his work. He’d seek my quirky fidence was gone and I’d moved on… View as if a colleague’s gift With academe was done, I gave, and he’d give creed.

But Mike gave me support Mike set a standard high When I had no resort.

For interactions. I He’d seen it, too, and so I knew Will now endeavor That he could help me sort

To be so clever:

Through what I’d seen. What did it mean?

Actions observed, treatment deserved.

Mike did

–  –  –

Perhaps to an atypical degree, this dissertation emerged from the in-depth support of a vast number of people. On professional levels, this interactive research necessitated the participation of stakeholders in each of the case study locations, as well as at and around Glacier National Park, which served as a pilot case study to establish areas of inquiry and a methodological approach. Almost universally, people contributed their experiences with far more enthusiasm and detail than expected, and the richness of their contributions added depth and context to make the final research results far more valuable than any standardized survey responses could have offered. Lou DeLorme, Jim Evans, and Kevin Percival of the Washington office of the National Park Service all provided information on the needs, motivations, and actions of central decision making in their agency, which guided the focus of this research work and added practical considerations to the ultimate recommendations. The National Park Service and the National Park Foundation funded this research, enabling interactive data gathering and extensive analysis of information.

This research was made possible in part by grant from the National Park Foundation through the support of the Ford Motor Company, a Proud Partner of America’s national parks. Stewart Butler, Bob Armstrong, and Gary Ritter of the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center all contributed professional review and guidance from the perspective of transportation economists to assure the quality and defensibility of the final research product.

This dissertation benefited from the review of a hand-picked committee of academicians at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Associate Professor Anne

–  –  –

she held this research to the highest standards of methodological scrutiny for qualitative research. Assistant Professor Adjo Amekudzi contributed her zeal for prioritizing and sorting through vast amounts of information to come to the most relevant findings and recommendations. Professor Cheryl Contant brought her passion for planning and her financial prowess. Strengthening both the depth and breadth of this project’s research content, Dr. Michael Rodgers alternated between the focus of a mathematician scrutinizing detail and the broad viewpoint of a competent public policy analyst who demands consideration of far-reaching ramifications of policy recommendations.

Dissertation committee members contributed far more than their professional roles suggest. They provided personal support and career perspective characteristic of true mentors, rather than mere academic advisors. They willingly offered some of their own most painful and promising experiences and decisions to give perspective and to help put situations in the larger context of transportation research and academic careers.

Above all, this dissertation’s committee chair, Professor Michael D. Meyer, devoted himself to this project both professionally and personally beyond the scope of professional requirement, financial reward, and reasonable personal demand. His professional oversight shaped the dissertation into a research piece at the forefront of the field. His academic guidance insisted on consideration of all relevant areas of inquiry.

His administrative acumen saw the project through academic and contractual processes.

His personal involvement led the student through the maze of discouragement to new lands of professional possibilities. No better dissertation advisor could have done this work. Both Michael Meyer and I relied heavily on the strong and organized support of

–  –  –

and held them together with the tenacity of superglue.

Mentors Leon Eplan and Professor Peter Parsonson brought patient and illuminating perspective from senior viewpoints of sometimes opposing fields. Listening to both of them has helped me to understand the sometimes conflicting needs of transportation situations. Don Durkee in the Federal Transit Administration broadened my view from the study of transportation to the implications in Washington; he helped me consider transit in parks from the viewpoint of the transit world. The members of Sustainable Transportation in Europe and Links and Liaisons with America (the STELLA network) have opened new doors for me and given me a view of my future research in sustainable transportation; in particular, I have to thank Martin Lee-Gosselin for making things happen for me after our first brief meeting and for staying by me in the last two years.

Wayne and Sara Sarasua stood by me through many years and always kept their door open to me for evenings of transportation discussions and warm friendship.

Personal support meant more than could possibly be expressed. Parents and siblings each made their own unique contributions according to their individual characters to see me through to completing the graduate program. Extended family played an important role, as well. Tom Gorin, Sydney Miller, Seonah Lee, Tracy Zafian, and Professor Cynthia Barnhart provided support through some of the darkest times. Rome Lester, Renelle Jacobson, Muthukumar Subramanyam, John Crocker, Tudor Bodea, and Deborah Alexander helped to turn the darkness to light. Quentin Kruel, Angshuman Guin, Hainan Li, Danena Lewis, Whitney Shephard, Eric Dumbaugh, and Weimin Huang all helped me learn the lessons of a senior doctoral student. Outside of academia and in the National

–  –  –

grounded in the practical realities of park and gateway community issues.

The choir at Peachtree Christian Church (particularly Carolyn Wilson, Jim Bell, Kathleen Mainland, and the Madonnas of the Prairie) helped me escape into my right brain and see the world from a different perspective. The judo communites of several cities have helped me live healthily in many different ways. I owe more than I can express to David Roxe, Sean Robinson, Jim Hrbek, Dale Swett, the MIT Judo Club, the Tohoku Judo Club, Judo America, and the Saihoku Judo Club, including the late Dan Bean and his wife, Winnie, Heidi Rhodes, Sayaka Yamaki, and Nak Jun Kim. Although I did not see Nick Hollander, Phyllis Kozarsky and her son, Aaron, very often in the melee of graduate school, I have always appreciated knowing I could call on them.

Allan Rousselle, Matt Kall, and Dustin Moskowitz have stayed with me at all proximities and distances for more than a decade. Laz Hanley, Mollie Arkin, Maggie Daane, Pat Eiseman, and Patricia Rehm gave me support from afar. Further afar, Olga Bleikhman, her late husband, Aleksandr, and their daughter, Julia, have meant more and shaped my view of the world more than I can express, and if for no other reason, I wish that I had finished graduate school earlier so I could have had one more discussion of world events with Aleksandr in the Bleikhmnans’ apartment in Russia. Finally, much closer to home, Craig, Patrick, and all of the people at the Starbucks in Midtown Atlanta supported me through long days of writing.

Thank you all. I needed the support of every one of you to help me finish this academic work and develop my future research career.

–  –  –



List of Tables

List of Figures







Planning and Decision-making Inputs

Services and Strategies as Outputs

Outcomes of Transit Service Initiatives



1.0 Introduction






2.0 Context and Literature Review





2.3.1. Economic Impacts of National Parks on Gateway Communities.. 16 2.3.2. Analysis Tools

2.3.3. Approaches to Monitoring the Impacts of Park Transit................ 31



3.0 Case Study Selection and Methodology




3.3.1. Northeast Region (52,801,345 recreation visits in 2001).............. 55 3.3.2. Midwest Region (20,604,856 recreation visits in 2001)................ 57 3.3.3. Intermountain Region (41,340,097 recreation visits in 2001)....... 58 3.3.4. Pacific West Region (54,584,871 recreation visits in 2001).......... 60 3.3.5. Alaska Region (2,055,152 recreation visits in 2001)

3.3.6. The Southeast Region and the National Capitol Region................ 61 3.3.7. Summary of Selected Case Studies




3.6.1. Economic Environment

3.6.2. Tourism Trends

3.6.3. Travel Behavior

3.6.4. Goals, Planning, and Strategies



3.8.1. Site Visit Interviews

3.8.2. Direct Observation of Sites


3.9.1. Individual Case Study Results

3.9.2. Discussion of Results of All Case Studies

3.9.3. Performance Measurement Recommendations


4.0 Research Results



4.2.1. Events Affecting National Tourism

4.2.2. National Parks Pass



4.3.1. Goals and Objectives

4.3.2. Partnering

4.3.3. Finance

4.3.4. Costs


4.4.1. Service Scope at Startup

4.4.2. Capacity

4.4.3. Effect of Frequency

4.4.4. Route Structure

4.4.5. Design of Stops

4.4.6. Vehicle Restrictions

4.4.7. Vehicle Substitutes

4.4.8. Parking Strategies

4.4.9. Communication

4.4.10. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)

4.4.11. Presence


4.5.1. Visitation and Ridership

4.5.2. Rider Characteristics

4.5.3. Traffic Congestion

4.5.4. Commuters and Local Employment

4.5.5. Transit Employment

4.5.6. Local Business Impact

4.5.7. Economic Development Impacts

4.5.8. Local Parking Fee Revenue

4.5.9. Public Reaction


4.6.1. Inputs of Planning and Decision Making

4.6.2. Services and Strategies as Outputs

4.6.3. Outcomes of Transit Service Initiatives

5.0 Guidance and Recommendations



5.2.1. Step One: Identify Partners and Stakeholders; Design a Public Involvement Strategy.

5.2.2. Step Two: Define and Address Goals and Objectives According to Stakeholder Interests.

5.2.3. Step Three: Select Performance Measures and Develop Consensus.

5.2.4. Step Four: Design the Transit System and Communication Program

5.2.5. Step Five: Consider Available Resources.

x 5.2.6. Step Six: Test and Implement the Performance Monitoring Program

5.2.7. Step Seven: Monitor and Report Performance.

5.2.8. Step Eight: Integrate Results into Transit Decision-making....... 265 5.2.9. Step Nine: Review and Update the Performance Monitoring Program




5.5.1. Local Impacts

5.5.2. Park Funding and Allocation

5.5.3. Transportation Project Planning for Public Lands

5.5.4. Context and Further Applicability

5.5.5. Research Priorities


6.0 Conclusion

Appendix A: Sectors Derived from NAICS and SIC Codes

Appendix B: Case Study of Acadia National Park and Bar Harbor, Maine.......... 312 B.1 INTRODUCTION


B.2.1 Acadia National Park

B.2.2 The Gateway Community: Bar Harbor, Maine and Mount Desert Island


B.3.1 Current Conditions

B.3.2 History: Goals and Lessons


B.4.1 External Influences

B.4.2 Employment

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 75 |

Similar works:

«1 Against Plantinga's A/C Model: Consequences of the Codependence of the De Jure and De Facto Questions Rebeka Ferreira San Francisco State University 1600 Holloway Avenue Philosophy Department San Francisco, California 94132 rebekadferreira@gmail.com Abstract: Alvin Plantinga's tasks include illustrating that there is no objection to the rationality of theistic belief that does not presuppose theism's falsity, and that it is epistemically possible that theistic belief have warrant in a basic...»

«SCIENCE AS FICTION: Vilém Flusser’s Philosophy Gustavo Bernardo Krause UERJ – CNPq Abstract: This text comments the “philosophical fiction” of the Brazilian-Czech philosopher Vilém Flusser. It condenses one of the chapter of the book Vilém Flusser: an introduction, recently published in Portuguese. If René Descartes told us that thinking moves through doubts, Friedrich Nietzsche told us that truth is a multiplicity of metaphors, Hans Vaihinger told us that thinking moves through...»

«RACE MATTERS: INDIGENOUS EMPLOYMENT IN THE AUSTRALIAN PUBLIC SERVICE Steven Raymond Larkin Bachelor of Social Work, Master of Social Science Submitted in total fulfilment of the requirements of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Creative Industries Faculty Queensland University of Technology November 2013 KEYWORDS Australian Public Service, axiology, colour-blindness, complicity, employment, epistemology, epistemological ignorance, everyday racism, Indigenous, Indigenous employment, ontology,...»

«THE WORD MADE CINEMATIC: THE REPRESENTATION OF JESUS IN CINEMA by Gregory Kahlil Kareem Allen B.A. Film Studies, University of Pittsburgh, 1997 M.A. English Literature, University of Pittsburgh, 2002 Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Arts and Sciences in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy University of Pittsburgh 2008 UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH ARTS AND SCIENCES This dissertation was presented by Gregory Kahlil Kareem Allen It was defended on April...»

«Ecological Connectivity Assessment and Urban Dimensions: A Case of Phoenix Metropolitan Landscape by So Hyun Park A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Approved April 2011 by the Graduate Supervisory Committee: Edward Cook, Chair Katherine Crewe Jianguo Wu ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY May 2011 ABSTRACT This study addresses the landscape connectivity pattern at two different scales. The county-level analysis aims to understand how...»

«OPTICAL DEVICES AND SYSTEMS IN HIGHLY NONLINEAR MATERIALS AND GEOMETRIES by Daniel Hugh Broaddus This thesis/dissertation document has been electronically approved by the following individuals: Gaeta,Alexander L. (Chairperson) Lipson,Michal (Minor Member) Xu,Chunhui (Additional Member) OPTICAL DEVICES AND SYSTEMS IN HIGHLY NONLINEAR MATERIALS AND GEOMETRIES A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Cornell University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the...»

«ree Kinds of Idealization1 Michael Weisberg University of Pennsylvania forthcoming in e Journal of Philosophy Philosophers of science increasingly recognize the importance of idealization: the intentional introduction of distortion into scientific theories. Yet this recognition has not yielded consensus about the nature of idealization. e literature of the past thirty years contains disparate characterizations and justifications, but little evidence of convergence towards a common...»

«Analysis of the Present Curriculum: The Kingdom of God, and Proposal for the Future Curriculum of the Presbyterian Church of Korea by Hyeok-Su Chae A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Knox College and the Pastoral Department of the Toronto School of Theology In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Theology awarded by the University of St. Michael’s College © Copyright by Hyeok-Su Chae 2014 Analysis of The Present Curriculum: The Kingdom of God,...»

«A Neural Basis for Atypical Auditory Processing: A Williams Syndrome Model By Jennifer Raechelle Pryweller Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Vanderbilt University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in Neuroimaging of Neurodevelopmental Disorders December, 2013 Nashville, TN Approved Carissa J. Cascio, Ph.D. Ronald L. Cowan, M.D., Ph.D. Elisabeth M. Dykens, Ph.D. Baxter P. Rogers, Ph.D. Tricia A. Thornton-Wells, Ph.D....»

«ABSTRACT Title of Document: THE INFLUENCE OF CONSUMER MOTIVATIONS ON CONSUMPTION INTENTIONS AND BEHAVIOR Francine da Silveira Espinoza, Doctor of Philosophy, 2009 Co-Directed By: Professor Dr. Rebecca Hamilton and Professor Dr. Joydeep Srivastava, Department of Marketing This Dissertation comprises two essays that investigate how consumers’ different motivations affect their cognitive responses and consumption behavior. Essay 1 shows that consumers’ motivation to rely on their own opinion...»

«“OUGHT” AND THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE AGENT BY BENJAMIN KIESEWETTER JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY VOL. 5, NO. 3 | OCTOBER 2011 URL: WWW.JESP.ORG COPYRIGHT © BENJAMIN KIESWETTER 2011 JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY | VOL. 5, NO. 3 “OUGHT” AND THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE AGENT Benjamin Kiesewetter “Ought” and the Perspective of the Agent Benjamin Kiesewetter I MAGINE A DOCTOR WHO IS FACED with a patient’s disease that she knows will lead to death unless treated shortly.1 Two...»

«THE INFLUENCE OF CONTEXTUAL FACTORS ON COMMUNITY REINTEGRATION AMONG SERVICE MEMBERS INJURED IN THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM A Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of Clemson University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy Parks, Recreation, and Tourism Management by Brent Lindsay Hawkins August 2013 Accepted by: Dr. Francis A. McGuire, Committee Chair Dr. Alison L. Cory Dr. Sandra M. Linder Dr. Thomas W. Britt ABSTRACT Community reintegration...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.