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«AN ADOPTION OF THE TAM MODEL TO DETERMINE FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS' ACCEPTANCE OF ELEARNING IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN SAUDI ARABIA ...»

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AN ADOPTION OF THE TAM MODEL TO DETERMINE

FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS' ACCEPTANCE OF ELEARNING IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN

SAUDI ARABIA

ABDULHAMEED RAKAN ALENEZI

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA

AN ADOPTION OF THE TAM MODEL TO DETERMINE

FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS' ACCEPTANCE OF ELEARNING IN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN

SAUDI ARABIA

A Thesis submitted to the UUM College of Arts and Sciences in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Universiti Utara Malaysia BY Abdulhameed Rakan Alenezi O 2011, Abdulhameed Rakan Alenezi PERAKUAN KERJA TESlS 1 DlSERTASl (Certification of thesis / dissertation) Kami, yang bertandatangan, memperak~~kan bahawa (We, the undersigned, certiv that)

ABDULHAMEED RAKAN ALENEZI

calon untuk ljazah PhD (candidate for the degree of)

telah mengemukakan tesis Idisertasi yang bertajuk:

(has presented hislher thesis /dissertatim of the following title).

"FACTORS AFFECTING STUDENTS' ACCEPTANCE OF E-LEARNING IN INS1'ITUTIONS OF

HlGHER EDUCATION IN SAUDI ARABIA"

seperti yang tercatat di muka surat tajuk dan kulit tesis I disertasi.

(as it appears on the title page and front cover of the thesis / dissedation).

Bahawa tesisldisertasi tersebut boleh diterima dari segl bentuk serta kandungan dan meliputi bidang ilmu dengan memilaskan, sebagaimana yaqg ditunjukkan oleh calon dalam ujian lisan yang diadakan pada : 19 September 2011.

That the said thesis/c!issertation is acceptable in form and content and displays a satisfactory knowledge

of the field of study as demonstrated by the candidate through an oral examination held on:

September 19, 201 1.

Pengerusi Viva: Prof. Dr. Che Su Mustaffa Tandatangan (Chairman for VIVA) (Signature) Pemeriksa Luar: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Habibah Lateh ~andatan~an' (Exfernal Examiner) (Signature) Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Jelani Shaari

Pemeriksa Dalam:

(Internal Examiner) Tandatan Nama PenyelialPenyelia-penyelia: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Abdul Malek Abdul Karim (Name of Supervisor/Supervisors) Nama PenyelialPenyelia-penyelia: Dr. Arsaythamby all Veloo (Name of Supervisor/Supervisors)

Tarikh:

(Daf

–  –  –

In presenting this thesis in fulfilment of the requirements for a postgraduate degree fiom Universiti Utara Malaysia, I agree that the University Library may make it freely available for inspection. I further agree that permission for copying this thesis in any manner, in whole or in part, for scholarly purposes may be granted by my supervisors or, in their absence, by the Dean of Awang Had Salleh Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. It is understood that any copying or publication or use of this thesis or parts thereof for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. It is also understood that due recognition shall be given to me and to Universiti Utara Malaysia for any scholarly use which may be made of any material fiom my thesis.

Requests for permission to copy or to make other use of materials in this thesis, in whole or in part, should be addressed to

–  –  –

Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menyiasat pengaruh faktor psikologi, sosial, teknikal, budaya dan institusi dengan penerimaan E-pembelajaran pelajar di institusi pengajian tinggi Arab Saudi. Data dikumpul daripada 480 pelajar di lima buah universiti Arab Saudi dengan menggunakan sampel rawak strata berganda. Soal selidik kajian ini di adaptasi terutamanya daripada kajian Pituch dan Lee (2006), Curtis dan Payne (2008), dan Ngai, Poon dan Chan (2007). Beberapa ujian statistik digunakan termasuk ujian-t, ANOVA satu hala, korelasi bivariate dan regresi berganda.

Keputusan ujian-t menunjukkan perbezaan yang signifikan antara pengkhususan utama dan pengalaman internet manakala jantina, komputer dan pengalaman tidak signifikan dengan penerimaan E-pembelajaran. Analisis korelasi menunjukkan terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara faktor psikologi, sosial, teknikal, budaya dan institusi. Analisis regresi linear menunjukkan faktor teknologi, sosial, psikologi merupakan penyumbang kepada penerimaan E-pembelajaran manakala faktor budaya tidak. Keputusan regresi stepwise menunjukkan semua faktor psikologi menyumbang kepada penerimaan E-pembelajaran. Bagi faktor sosial, hanya imej dan identiti kendiri menyumbang secara signifikan kepada penerimaan E-pembelajaran pelajar. Berkaitan dengan faktor teknologi, tiga variabel iaitu respons sistem, fungsi sistem dan interaksi sistem menyumbang secara signifikan kepada penerimaan Epembelajaran tetapi prestasi sistem tidak menyumbang. Akhir sekali semua faktor institutsi menyumbang secara signifikan kepada penerimaan E-pembelajaran pelajar.

Keputusan regresi hierarchical menunjukkan sikap sebagai pengantara yang signifikan antara faktor utama TAM dan penerimaan E-pembelajaran pelajar. Faktorfaktor penentu merupakan penyumbang yang signifikan dalam pembinaan dan penambahbaikan masa depan penerimaan dan penggunaan E-pembelajaran.





Berdasarkan dapatan kajian ini, adalah dicadangkan antara lain, institusi pengajian tinggi mengambilkira faktor teknikal, institusi, sosial dan psikologi semasa proses mengimplementasi E-pembelajaran.

Katakunci: E-pembelajaran, Penerimaan, Model Penerimaan Teknologi (TAM), Pengajian Tinggi, Arab Saudi.

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of psychological, social, technical, cultural and institutional factors on the students' acceptance of E-learning in institutions of higher education in Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from 480 students at five universities in Saudi Arabia by using multi stage stratified random sampling. The questionnaire for this study was adapted from Pituch and Lee (2006), Curtis and Payne (2008), and IVgai, Poon and Chan (2007). Several statistical techniques were used including t-tests, one-way ANOVA, bivariate correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The t-test results showed statistically significant differences in students' E-learning acceptance based on their major and internet experience while students' gender, computer and E-learning experience did not indicate any significant differences. The correlation analysis indicated that the relationships between the psychological, social, technological, cultural and institutional factors were significant. The simple linear regression revealed that, technological, social and psychological factors significantly contributed to the students' acceptance of E-learning while the cultural factor did not. The results of the stepwise regression showed that the variables related to the psychological factor all significantly contributed to the students' E-learning acceptance. As for the social factors, only image and self-identity significantly contributed to students' E-learning acceptance. With regards to the technological factor, three variables namely system response, system functionality and system interactivity significantly contributed to students' E-learning acceptance while system performance did not. Finally, all the institutional factor variables significantly contributed to students' E-learning acceptance. Hierarchical regression results indicated that attitude significantly mediated the relationship between the TAM main constructs and the students' Elearning acceptance. Based on the findings, it is suggested that, among others, higher educational institutions should take into consideration the influence of technological, institutional, social and psychological factors in the process of implementing Elearning.

Keywords: E-learning Acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), Higher Education, Saudi Arabia.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Allah, the most merciful, the most compassionate. All praise be to Allah, the lord of the entire universe.

Completing this thesis would not have been possible without the tremendous support and encouragement of many people and the generous hnding of the Saudi Arabian government represented by King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz A1 Saud, the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, and the Ministry of Higher Education represented by Aljouf University.

I would like to express my deepest appreciation and gratitude to my supervisors, Associate Professor Dr. Abdul Malek Abdul Karim and Dr. Arsaythamby Veloo for their guidance, encouragement and support in keeping my academic plans on schedule. I appreciate your patience and attention given to me during my research journey particularly the time that took you away from some of your personal and professional responsibilities.

I would also like to whole-heartedly thank my beloved father, Rakan and my beloved mother, Halalah, for their continuous encouragement, support and prayers. I'm also grateful to my elder brother, AbdulAziz,Obeed, Sami,Malek,Samiah, Asma,Maram, and Saud encouragement.

I would like to express my never-ending appreciation and thanks to my beloved wife, Dinah and my wonderful daughter Fajer, for their patience, care, support, love, understanding, and encouragement.

I would like also to extend my thanks and appreciation to all of my fiends who have contributed in one way or another to help me complete this thesis successfully. Last, but not least, a special thanks goes to all the students who have participated in this research and all the people who have helped me complete this tortuous and challenging journey successfully.

Abdulhameed R. Alenezi Sintok, February, 201 1

DECLARATION ASSOCIATED WITH THIS THESIS

Alenezi, A. R., Abdul karim, A. M., & Veloo, A. (201 1). Institutional Support and ELearning Acceptance: An Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model.

International Journal o Instructional Technology and Distance Learning, 8(2).

f 3-16.

Alenezi, A. R., Abdul karim, A. M., & Veloo, A. (2010, November). The influence of image, subjective norm and self-identity on e-learning acceptance. Paper presented at Lifelong Learning International Conference 20 10 (3LInC' 10).

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Alenezi, A. R., Abdul karim, A. M., & Veloo, A. (2010). An empirical investigation into the role of enjoyment, computer anxiety, computer self-efficacy and Internet experience in influencing the students' intention to use e-learning: A case study from Saudi Arabian governmental universities. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 9(4), 22-34.

–  –  –

Appendices

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 The Background of the Study

1.1.1 Researches on E-Learning Acceptance

1.1.2 Models and Theories on E-Learning Acceptance

1.1.2.1 Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

1. l.2.2 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

1.1.2.3 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT).......... 7 1.1.2.4 Diffusion of Innovation (DOI)

1.1.3 The importance of acceptance factors in achieving effective E-Learning...... 8

1.2 Problem Statement

1.3 Objectives of the Study

1.4 Research Questions

1.5 Research Hypotheses

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Scope of the Study

1.8 Limitations of the Study

..

1.9 Operational Definition

1.10 Summary of Chapters

CHAPTER TWO: LITRATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Glimpses of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2.3 Historical development of Higher Education

2.4 Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian Universities

2.4.1

2.5 E-learning and Acceptance

E-learning definitions

2.5.1 Definitions of Acceptance

2.5.2 E-learning Acceptance (ELA)

2.5.3

2.6 E-learning Acceptance Models and theories

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

2.6.1 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

2.6.2 Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

2.6.3 Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT)................ 48 2.6.4 Diffusion of Innovation (DOT)

2.6.5 Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT)

2.6.6

2.7 The Role of Demographic Characteristics on Students' Acceptance of E-Learning..... 52...

Vlll

2.8 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and its constructs as a foundation to study the students' acceptance

Perceived Usefulness (PU)

2.8.1 Perceived Ease of Use (PEU)

2.8.2 Attitude (A)

2.8.3 Behavioral Intention to Use (BI)

2.8.4

2.9 Psychological Factors (PF) and Technology Acceptance

Enjoyment (EN)

2.9.1 Computer Anxiety (ANX)

2.9.2 Computer Self-Efficacy (CSE)

2.9.3

2.10 Social Factors (SF) and Technology Acceptance

2.10.1 Subjective Norms

2.10.2 Image (IM)

2.10.3 Self- Identity (SI)

2.1 1 Technological Factors (TF) and Technology Acceptance

2.1 1.1 System Performance (SP)

2.1 1.2 System Functionality (SF)

2.1 1.3 System Interactivity (SIN)

2.1 1.4 System Response (SR)

2.12 Cultural Factors (CF) and Technology Acceptance

2. 12.1 Individualism versus Collectivism (IC)

2. 12.2 Uncertainty Avoidance (UA)

2. 12.3 Power Distance (PD)

2. 12.4 Masculinity versus Femininity (MF)

2.13 Institutional Factors (IF) and Technology Acceptance

2. 13.1 Facilitating Conditions (FC)

2. 13.2 Training

2. 13.3 Institution Technical Support

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design and Approach

Research Framework

3.2.1

3.3 Population and Samples

Research Population

3.3.1 Samples

3.3.2 3.3.2.1 Sample Size

3.3.2.2 Sample strategy

3.4 Instrumentation

Questionnaire Design

3.4.1 Questionnaire Translation



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