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«DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MUSICAL BEHAVIOR MEASURE FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN By Gina Jisun Yi A DISSERTATION Submitted to Michigan State ...»

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DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MUSICAL BEHAVIOR MEASURE

FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

By

Gina Jisun Yi

A DISSERTATION

Submitted to

Michigan State University

in partial fulfillment of the requirements

for the degree of

Music Education - Doctor of Philosophy

ABSTRACT

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A MUSICAL BEHAVIOR MEASURE

FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

By Gina Jisun Yi The purpose of this study was to develop a measure for use in assessing musical behaviors of preschool children in the context of regular music instruction and to determine the validity and the reliability of the measure. The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure (ECMBM) was constructed for use with preschool-aged children to measure their musical behaviors during music class. ECMBM is a rating scale with 12 continuous dimensions for use in assessing the following: Tonal Skills (Singing Accuracy, Resting Tone, Major Pattern Imitation, Minor Pattern Imitation); Rhythm Skills (Chant Performance, Duple Pattern Imitation,

Triple Pattern Imitation, Rhythm Improvisation, Keeping Beat: Gross Motor, Keeping Beat:

Manipulatives, Keeping Beat: Locomotor); and Movement.

I conducted a pilot study to practice and refine the assessment techniques and instruments that I would be using in the main study and to determine the preliminary reliabilities of the scale.

Also, the measure was checked for content validity both subjectively and objectively with seven university professors who are experts in early childhood music education and music education measurement. Based on the results of the pilot study, comments from the judges in the pilot study, and comments from validation panel members, ECMBM was revised for use in the main study.

To determine the reliability of the measure, the musical behaviors of 4- and 5-year-old children in two intact classes were audio and/or video recorded, and three independent judges rated the children’s musical behaviors. These ratings were correlated to determine interjudge reliabilities. Also, I correlated my in-class ratings of the children’s performances with my after class ratings from listening and watching to the recorded data to obtain the intrajudge reliabilities and to determine whether the ratings that I made during class were sufficiently reliable.

On the basis of the results of this study, it is reasonable to state that early childhood music teachers who use a Music Learning Theory curriculum can use ECMBM to assist them in assessing preschool children’s musical behaviors in the context of music instruction. The intrajudge and interjudge reliabilities indicate that the Tonal Behavior rating scales are reliable and Rhythm Behavior rating scales also are reliable except for the Chant Performance dimension.

The content validation process as well as the intercorrelations provided evidence that they also are valid. The Movement dimension lacked content validity, and its ratings also resulted in low to moderate reliabilities.

There is a need for further research that pertains to the refinement of the rating scales and assessment activities for music instruction at all levels. In addition, this study should be replicated with a larger sample, different group of children in terms of socio-economic status and racial make up, and with different criterion songs, chants, or patterns to investigate further the validity of ECMBM.

  Copyright by GINA JISUN YI

–  –  –

I owe a great debt of thanks to many people and show my sincere appreciation, as this journey could not have been possible without them. First, many sincere thanks to my committee members: Dr. Mitchell Robinson, for your genuine support, care, and humor; Dr. Sandra Snow for your valuable suggestions; Dr. Derek Polischuk for your friendship and encouragement. And to my advisor and Chair, Dr. Cynthia Taggart for endless inspiring guidance, supporting and encouraging me and challenging me to be a better scholar.

Thank you to Carla Larzelere, Carin McEvoy, and Heather Shouldice, for your insights on early childhood music and participation as raters. And thank you to Julie Kastner and Karen Salvador for participation as raters, your friendship, and thoughts on music education.

Special thanks to Dr: Suzanne Burton, Denise Guilbault, Lisa Koops, Herbert Marshall, Jill Reese, Joanne Rutkowski, and Wendy Valerio for their participation as members for validation process. Deepest thanks to all of my Pre-K students who participated in this study.

Thank you for having fun during data collection process and your precious smiles. Special thanks to the Pre-K teachers: Emma Lewis and Regina Bailey for their willingness to accommodate me and supporting me during my study.

Finally, I give my thanks and praise to my Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ.

The Lord will guide you always; he will satisfy your needs in a sun-scorched land and will strengthen your frame. You will be like a well-watered garden, like a spring whose waters never fail. (Isaiah 58:11) Throughout the journey, I was blessed for His guidance, His wisdom, and His flowing words of comfort. To Him be the glory!





–  –  –

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

Current Trends in Assessment

Accountability

Teacher Evaluation

Issues in Assessing Young Children

Developmentally Appropriate Assessment

Authentic Assessment

Assessment in the Musical Domain

Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment

Purpose and Research Questions

Delimitations

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Music Learning in Preschool Settings

Musical Behaviors of Preschool Children

Singing Behavior

Movement Behavior

Rhythmic Behavior

Instrument Playing

Creativity and Improvisation

Assessing Musical Behavior of Preschool Children

Theoretical Frames

Measurement Tools

Checklists or Additive Rating Scales

Numerical Rating Scales or Rubrics

Continuous Rating Scales

Singing

Pattern Performance

Movement and Rhythm

CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

Subjects

Development of the Musical Behavior Measure

Characteristics of a Musical Behavior Measure

Development Procedures

  vii   Construction of Dimensions and Criteria

Construction of Assessment Activities

Description of Assessment Activities

Tonal Behavior: Singing Accuracy

Tonal Behavior: Resting Tone

Tonal/Rhythm Behavior: Tonal/Rhythm Pattern Imitation

Rhythm Behavior: Chant Performance

Rhythm Behavior: Rhythm Improvisation

Rhythm Behavior: Keeping Beat

Movement Behavior

Design and Procedures

Data Collection

Rating Process

Data Analysis

CHAPTER IV THE PILOT STUDY

Findings

Audio and Videotaping Procedures

Piloting Assessment Activities

Interjudge Reliabilities

Tonal Behaviors

Rhythm Behaviors

Movement Behavior

Means and Standard Deviations

Discussion of the Pilot Study

CHAPTER V FURTHER REVISIONS OF THE RATING SCALE

Content Validation of the ECMBM

Sequencing of the Criteria

Panel Members’ and Judges’ Comments

Tonal Behavior: Singing Accuracy

Tonal Behavior: Resting Tone

Tonal Behavior: Tonal Pattern Imitation

Rhythm Behavior: Chant Performance

Rhythm Behavior: Rhythm Pattern Imitation

Rhythm Behavior: Rhythm Improvisation

Rhythm Behavior: Keeping Beat

Movement Behavior

CHAPTER VI RESULTS

Reliabilities

Intrajudge Reliabilities

Interjudge Reliabilities

  viii   Means, Standard Deviations, and Standard Errors of Measurement of Final ECMBM...........98 Intercorrelations of Dimensions

Interpretations and Discussions

Comparison of the Results of the Pilot and Main Study

Intrajudge Reliabilities

Discussion

Rhythm Behavior: Chant Performance

Movement Behavior

Intercorrelations

CHAPTER VII SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND CONCLUSION..................109 Summary

Purpose and Research Questions

Design and Analysis

Results and Discussions

Implications

Recommendations for Future Research

Conclusion

APPENDICES

Appendix A: Teacher Consent Form

Appendix B: Parent Consent Form

Appendix C: Child Assent Form

Appendix D: Validation Panel Members

Appendix E: Validation Forms

Appendix F: Instructions and Rating Sheets

Appendix G: Rating Cards

Appendix H: Criterion Songs and Chant

REFERENCES

–  –  –

Table 1.1 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Composite Scores of All Dimensions.

.......58 Table 1.2 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Composite Scores of Tonal Behavior Dimensions

Table 1.3 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Singing Accuracy Dimension.

.59 Table 1.4 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Resting Tone Dimension..........60 Table 1.5 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Major Pattern Imitation Dimension

Table 1.6 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Minor Pattern Imitation Dimension

Table 1.7 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Composite Scores of Tonal Pattern Imitation Dimensions

Table 1.8 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Composite Scores of Rhythm Behavior Dimensions

Table 1.9 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Chant Performance Dimension

Table 1.10 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Duple Pattern Imitation Dimension

Table 1.11 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Triple Pattern Imitation Dimension

Table 1.12 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Composite Scores of Rhythm Pattern Imitation Dimensions

Table 1.13 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Rhythm Improvisation Dimension

Table 1.14 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Composite Scores of Keeping Beat Dimensions

Table 1.15 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Keeping Beat: Gross Motor Dimension

–  –  –

Table 1.17 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Keeping Beat: Locomotor Dimension

Table 1.18 Pearson Correlations among Judges’ Ratings on Movement Behavior Dimension

Table 2.1 Means and Standard Deviations of Composite Scores of All Dimensions by Judges

Table 2.2 Means and Standard Deviations of Tonal Behavior Dimensions

Table 2.3 Means and Standard Deviations of Rhythm Behavior Dimensions

Table 2.4 Means and Standard Deviations of Duple and Triple Pattern Imitation Dimensions

Table 2.5 Means and Standard Deviations of Keeping Beat Dimensions by Mode.

.............70 Table 2.6 Means and Standard Deviations of Rhythm Improvisation Dimension................70 Table 2.7 Means and Standard Deviations of Movement Behavior Dimension

Table 3.1 Correct Responses for Singing Accuracy Dimension

Table 3.2 Correct Responses for Resting Tone Dimension

Table 3.3 Correct Responses for Chant Performance Dimension

Table 3.4 Correct Responses for Rhythm Improvisation Dimension

Table 4.1 Intrajudge Reliabilities, Means, Standard Deviations, and Standard Errors of Measurement for Individual Dimensions

Table 4.2 Theoretical and Observed Means, Standard Deviations, and Standard Errors of Measurement for Combined Dimensions

Table 5.1 Pearson Correlations for Individual Tonal Behavior Dimensions

Table 5.2 Pearson Correlations for Individual Rhythm Behavior Dimensions

Table 5.3 Pearson Correlations for Composite Scores of Combined Dimensions.

...............97   xi   Table 6.1 Means, Standard Deviations, and Standard Errors of Measurement of Individual Dimensions by Judges

Table 6.2 Theoretical and Observed Means and Standard Deviations of Composite Scores by Judges

Table 7 Intercorrelations of the 12 Dimensions Using the Judges’ Combined Ratings of Individual Dimensions

–  –  –

Figure 1 The Early Childhood Musical Behavior Measure

Figure 2 Criterion Song for Resting Tone Dimension

Figure 3 Tonal and Rhythm Patterns Used for Tonal and Rhythm Pattern Imitation Dimensions

Figure 4 Criterion Chant for Chant Performance Dimension

Figure 5 Preparing Chant for Chant Performance Dimension

Figure 6 Teacher-Initiated Patterns for Rhythm Improvisation Dimension

Figure 7 Criteria 3 and 4 of the Original Rhythm Improvisation Dimension

Figure 8 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Singing Accuracy Dimension.........79 Figure 9 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Resting Tone Dimension.................81 Figure 10 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Tonal Pattern Imitation Dimension

Figure 11 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Chant Performance Dimension.......84 Figure 12 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Rhythm Pattern Imitation Dimension

Figure 13 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Rhythm Improvisation Dimension

Figure 14 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Keeping Beat Dimension................88 Figure 15 The Original and Revised Rating Scales for Movement Behavior Dimension.....91 Figure 16 Smiley Faces in Child Assent Form

Figure 17 Criterion Tonal Patterns for Tonal Pattern Imitation Dimensions

Figure 18 Criterion Rhythm Patterns for Rhythm Pattern Imitation Dimensions................128 Figure 19 Teacher-Initiated Rhythm Patterns for Rhythm Improvisation Dimension.........129

–  –  –

Figure 21 A Rating Sheet for Judges to Record Children’s Singing Accuracy Scores.......133 Figure 22 Criterion Song for Singing Accuracy Dimension

Figure 23 A Rating Sheet for Judges to Record Children’s Resting Tone Scores...............134 Figure 24 Criterion Tonal Patterns for Tonal Pattern Imitation Dimensions



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