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«UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles High-Impedance Electromagnetic Surfaces A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for ...»

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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA

Los Angeles

High-Impedance Electromagnetic Surfaces

A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the

requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

in Electrical Engineering

by

Daniel Frederic Sievenpiper

The dissertation of Daniel Frederic Sievenpiper is approved.

University of California, Los Angeles

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Introduction

1.1 Electric Conductors

1.2 High Impedance Surfaces

2 Surface Waves

2.1 Dielectric Interfaces

2.2 Metal Surfaces

2.3 Impedance Surfaces

3 Textured Surfaces

3.1 Bumpy Surfaces

3.2 Corrugated Surfaces

3.3 High-Impedance Surfaces

4 Fabrication

4.1 Two-Layer Structure

4.2 Three-Layer Structure

5 Effective Medium Model

5.1 Circuit Parameters

5.2 Reflection Phase

5.3 Losses

5.4 Surface Waves

5.5 Radiation Bandwidth

5.6 Leaky Waves

5.7 Fundamental Limitations

6 Finite Element Model

6.1 Surface Waves

6.2 Leaky Waves

6.3 Vertical Connections

7 Measuring Surface Properties

7.1 TM Surface Waves

7.2 TE Surface Waves

7.3 Reflection Phase

7.4 Low-Frequency Structures

7.5 Other features

8 Alternative Structures

8.1 Frequency Selective Surfaces

8.2 Addition of a Ground Plane

8.3 Grounded Dielectric Slab

8.4 The Role of Conducting Vias

iii 9 Antennas

9.1 The Vertical Monopole

9.2 The Patch Antenna

9.3 The Horizontal Wire

9.4 Circular Polarization

9.5 Large and Small Antennas

9.6 Portable Communications

10 Design

10.1 Frequency and Bandwidth

10.2 Geometry and Materials

10.3 Validation of the Model

11 Conclusion

11.1 Summary

11.2 Future Research

iv LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1.

1 An antenna lying flat against a ground plane

Figure 1.1.

2 An antenna separated by 1/4 wavelength from the ground plane..................3 Figure 1.1.

3 A TM surface wave propagating across a metal slab

Figure 1.1.

4 Multipath interference due to surface waves on a ground plane

Figure 1.2.

1 Cross-section of a high-impedance surface

Figure 1.2.

2 Top view of the high-impedance surface

Figure 1.2.

3 An equivalent circuit for the high-impedance surface

Figure 1.2.

4 A TE surface wave propagating across a high-impedance surface................7 Figure 1.2.

5 A flush-mounted dipole on a high-impedance ground plane

Figure 2.1.

1 A surface wave on an interface between two dissimilar media.

Figure 2.2.

1 Dispersion diagram for optical surface plasmons on metals

Figure 2.3.

1 A rectangular area used for computing surface impedance

Figure 2.3.

2 A surface wave propagating on an arbitrary impedance surface..................19 Figure 3.1.





1 A bumpy metal sheet with a narrow surface wave band gap

Figure 3.1.

2 Evolution from a bumpy surface to a high impedance surface

Figure 3.2.

1 A corrugated metal slab

Figure 3.2.

2 A transmission line terminated at X=0 by an impedance, Z

Figure 3.3.

1 Origin of the equivalent circuit elements

Figure 3.3.

2 Equivalent circuit model for the high-impedance surface

Figure 4.1.

1 Copper clad dielectric circuit board material

Figure 4.1.

2 Holes drilled to define the locations of the vertical connections.................32 Figure 4.1.

3 Plated copper forming vertical interconnections

Figure 4.1.

4 Metal patches defined by etching

Figure 4.1.

5 Perspective view of a two-layer printed circuit board

Figure 4.2.

1 Materials for fabricating a three-layer printed circuit board

Figure 4.2.

2 Inner layers patterned by etching

Figure 4.2.

3 Two sheets bonded with an adhesive

Figure 4.2.

4 Plated vias forming interconnects between all three layers

Figure 4.2.

5 Top layer patterned by etching

Figure 4.2.

6 Perspective view of a three-layer printed circuit board

Figure 5.1.

1 Cross-section of a simple two-layer high-impedance surface

Figure 5.1.

2 Origin of the capacitance and inductance in the effective circuit model......37 Figure 5.1.

3 Effective circuit used to model the surface impedance

Figure 5.1.

4 A pair of semi-infinite plates separated by a gap

Figure 5.1.

5 Capacitor geometry in the two-layer high-impedance surface

Figure 5.1.

6 A slab of dielectric divided into slices

Figure 5.1.

7 Capacitor plates embedded in the dielectric slab

Figure 5.1.

8 A solenoid of current used to calculate the sheet inductance

Figure 5.1.

9 Impedance of a parallel resonant circuit

Figure 5.2.

1 Reflection phase calculated using the effective circuit model

Figure 5.3.

1 Surface impedance, including dielectric and conductive losses

v Figure 5.3.

2 Reflection magnitude, including dielectric and conductive losses...............49 Figure 5.4.

1 Dispersion diagram for bound surface waves, lying below the light line.....53 Figure 5.5.

1 A horizontal antenna above a ground plane

Figure 5.5.

2 An antenna shunted by a textured surface

Figure 5.6.

1 Circuit for modeling the radiation of leaky TE waves

Figure 5.6.

2 Complete dispersion diagram, including leaky modes



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