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«An Example of Modern Māori Learning Environments and associated Cultural Identifiers Te Whare Maahunui Tuahiwi Marae Home of Ngāi Tūāhuriri Mana ...»

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Ideas and considerations for detailed design and naming for

Ōtautahi North Western Cluster of Schools

A Ngāi Tūāhuriri Perspective

An Example of Modern Māori Learning Environments and


Cultural Identifiers

Te Whare Maahunui

Tuahiwi Marae

Home of Ngāi Tūāhuriri Mana Whenua


Wednesday, 14 October 2015

Table of Contents

Whāinga / Aim

Kaupapa rapunga whakaaro / Philosophy

Mana Whenua / Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri

Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri/ Mana Whenua

Ngāi Tahu Whānui and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu

Rārangi Ūpoko / Contents, Historical evidence and Method utilised

Environmental and Cultural Considerations -

Historical evidence utilised

Kupu tuku iho/Historically

General background information on Ōtautahi

Ngā Tūtohu Whenua - Cultural Landscape Values to the Ōtautahi Western Cluster of Schools, relevant catchment area and other significant areas.

Cultural values

Wāhi Tapu/sacred sites

Further accounts which identify associations







Specific information to the North Western precinct

Pūtaringamotu Deans Bush –

Further Accounts and excerpts –

Mahinga kai names and associated traditional uses

Table 1: Mahinga kai and traditional uses of selected plants and animals associated with the area from the literature and informants

Mahinga Kai further explained

Ngā Pākihi Whakatekateka a Waitaha – The Canterbury Plains

Storying of Tangaroa, and Papatuanuku

Whakaaro tuatahi / initial ideas

Te Waipounamu Waka

Whakamutunga / Conclusion


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Deans map of the area and vegetation cover in 1856

Whāinga / Aim The aim of this report is to assist in providing options for informing the naming and design of the ‘Ōtautahi Western Cluster of Schools’ and its associated environments. It also aims to recognise their relationship of the Mana Whenua ‘Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri’ while providing relevant information on their historical relationship to the area.

Schools are undergoing significant remediation and rebuild following the Canterbury Earthquakes, some effects left school buildings and sites with minor to extensive damage and caused significant disruption to the school and its community.

The remediation and rebuild of the schools involve the development of modern learning environments which may include interconnected learning centres or ‘classrooms’, along with new buildings and amenities.

The design of new or remediated schools should take into account environmental sensitive design and reflect cultural values. Therefore ideas for how to do this, including the potential naming of buildings and detailed design criteria are suggested for build factors and landscaping ideals based on cultural identifiers.

The document provides a review of initial ideas, along with background information on natural, cultural and historic considerations and concludes with some recommendations for inclusion in final detailed school design and development.

It also provides a toolkit which outlines the function of indicating the main issues and values from a mana whenua perspective. How those issues and values can be threaded into the process of engagement, preliminary and detailed design phases, through to implementation and the build phases of the school remediation or rebuild are also included where applicable.

Further guidance and consultation with the Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri Education Committee and or school/site specifics issues will be required in applying these criteria.

Kaupapa rapunga whakaaro / Philosophy The early inclusion and desire of Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri to inform and influence the school environment as to the associated relationships and culturally appropriate identifiers to the area is a measure of authentic engagement.

Getting mana whenua involved in co-construction of the implementation of plans with the Ministry of Education (MOE) including helping with new build schools and schools with major remediation or redevelopment functions is a critical component in demonstrating relationships built on partnership and good faith.

3 Wednesday, 14 October 2015 Inclusion of those relationships and cultural identifiers1 will demonstrate clear partnership and responsiveness of the schools to the mana whenua.

A partnership that is culturally inclusive in school naming, building design, and which includes storying (or narratives) of historical occupation, place, flora and fauna from a mana whenua perspective demonstrates a positive move towards maintaining the partnership principles of the Treaty of Waitangi and in turn reflects authentic new learning and culturally inclusive environments post-earth quake.

The opportunity to influence design and provide cultural input shows partnership through threading the history and storying of the mana whenua into the fabric of the school. ‘What is this place and what happened in this place’ with regard to their journeying and settlement to the area informs the inquiry of how to best co-partner with the place and its inhabitants.

Benefits will include a developing measure of responsiveness to first a bi-cultural partnership and additionally within a multicultural society. Responsiveness to a bi-cultural partnership within a multicultural society will assist us to become culturally competent and confident.

The storying for the schools lies within place and is endowed within the landscape. Within the landscape there are the key components which are encapsulated within the histories of mana whenua. Some of these histories found in stories are generic such as the creation stories found in Papatūānuku and Ranginui, and are sometimes specific to mana whenua.

Many of these knowledges and stories have evolved within the landscape over long spans of inhabitation by whanau, hapū and iwi-Māori. Some are adopted and adapted over time while some are interconnected through genealogical ties. Many of the place names found in the Kaiapoi are associated with ‘tribal’ knowledges that were passed down and used by tāngata whenua. By ‘storying’, the narrative used ‘brings to life’ the relevant knowledges of the history of tāngata whenua, their place and the relationship they had with the environment.

Within historical evidence, we can indicate certain identifiers to a particular area and develop a conceptual frame of how to design, build and co-exist within our environment.

From the outset of any remediation, rebuild or re-development functions, mana whenua must be included within the initial design as well as the detailed design and implementation phases.

This process ensures the correct level of engagement is attained and maintained. This is not seen as add-on, rather mana whenua are able to assist in and appropriately inform and bring together various stakeholders from the outset 1 The visibility of culture throughout the school is an important signal for conveying to students and whānau that their culture is acknowledged and valued by the school. This includes the design of the buildings themselves, the presence of cultural artwork throughout the school, and the incorporation of cultural symbols or patterns in multiple media. The increased visual transparency in modern learning environments causes a reduction in solid wall space for displaying artwork, and so the design process should consider the appropriate balance between the two. Artwork, along with names given to learning spaces and buildings, should link the school to the history of its community and the local environment. These names should be displayed on signage around the school. Other areas should have signs showing their functional name (office, reception, etc) in Māori and Pasifika languages. Photographs of students, tipuna (ancestors), and Māori and Pasifika role models can also be used as visual symbols of culture and identity. [Wall, G. (2014) Modern Learning Environments to support priority learners,, Ministry of Education Wellington]

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Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri/ Mana Whenua Ngāi Tūāhuriri is one of the primary hapū of Ngāi Tahu whose tribal boundaries (takiwā) centre on Tuahiwi. Tūāhuriri is our ancestor, from whom we all descend and we take our name from him. The following is a traditional Ngāi Tūāhuriri pepehā, or tribal statement of identity.

–  –  –

Tuahiwi is the home of Ngāi Tūāhuriri and has played a vital role in Ngāi Tahu history. The takiwā (district) of Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri Rūnanga centres on Tuahiwi and extends from the Hurunui River to the Hakatere River and inland to the Main Divide. Nearby the famous Kaiapoi Pā was established by the first Ngāi Tahu ancestors when they settled Te Waipounamu. Kaiapoi Pā was the major capital, trading centre and point from which further penetration of the South Island occurred making the area a genealogical centre for all Ngāi Tahu Whānui. Kaiapoi Pā was established by Moki’s elder brother Turākautahi who was the second son of Tūāhuriri hence “Ngāi Tūāhuriri” is the name of the hapū of this area.

Ko taku ture i ahu mai i tōku tupuna, i a Tūāhuriri My laws stem from my ancestor Tūāhuriri While the principal settlement in the district was at Kaiapoi Pā, smaller inland settlements also co-existed at sites along the Cam River and at Tuahiwi (among others). Tuahiwi was attacked by Te Rauparaha enroute to lay siege to Kaiapoi Pā. The eventual destruction of Kaiapoi Pā by Te Rauparaha in 1832 rendered the entire area unsafe and the Ngāi Tūāhuriri people fled to the safety of other Ngāi Tahu settlements at Koukourarata and further South. Tuahiwi and other kāinga in the area lay deserted until the threat of war had passed. Many leading Ngāī Tahu whānau returned to live at Tuahiwi in the 1840s. Māori Reserve lands were later allocated to Ngāi Tūāhuriri whānau at Tuahiwi. From this time Tuahiwi became the principal area of Ngāi Tahu settlement in North Canterbury.

While Ngāi Tūāhuriri have had an association with Tuahiwi and its environs since the earliest days of Ngāi Tahu settlement, their relationship to that land was altered irrevocably with the arrival of European settlers. The Kaiapoi Māori Reserve was set aside as a place of residence by Kaiapoi Ngāi Tahu as a result of the Canterbury Purchase (Kemps Deed) in 1848, which saw the Crown purchase 20,000,000 acres from Ngāi Tahu for 2,000 pounds. In 1859 Tuahiwi or the Kaiapoi Māori Reserve was the first Māori Reserve where land was subdivided and title was 5 Wednesday, 14 October 2015 individualized so as to encourage the building of a township. The reserve was subdivided into blocks allotted to specific Ngāi Tūāhuriri whānau.

Despite the land at Tuahiwi being the largest of the Māori reserves allocated, it was insufficient for the people to generate a living from. In order to survive financially, the land outside the immediate village area was let to Pākehā farmers – by the 1880s this practice had increase to the point that most of the Kaiapoi Reserve was leased out. Through a series of Native Land Acts that followed, Māori land was quickly alienated to Pākehā. Much of the original Kaiapoi Māori Reserve is no longer in Ngāi Tūāhuriri ownership.

Ngāi Tahu Whānui and Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Ngāi Tahu Whānui are the iwi (Māori tribe) who hold manawhenua over a large proportion of Te Waipounamu – the South Island. The modern iwi originates from three main tribal strands;

Waitaha, Ngāti Mamoe and Ngāi Tahu. Through intermarriage, warfare and alliances, these tribal groups migrated, settled, occupied and amalgamated and established manawhenua over their tribal area prior to European arrival. Specific hapū or sub-tribes established control over distinct areas of the island and have maintained their mana over these territories to this day.

Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu is the mandated iwi authority established by Ngāi Tahu Whānui under Section 6 of the Te Rūnanga o Ngai Tahu Act 1996 to protect the beneficial interests of all members of Ngāi Tahu Whānui, including the beneficial interests of the Papatipu Rūnanga of those members. Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu is governed by elected representatives from each of the 18 Papatipu Rūnanga and has an administrative office as well as a number of commercial companies.

Papatipu Rūnanga are the administrative councils of traditional Ngāi Tahu hapū (sub-tribes) based around their respective kāinga / marae based communities and associated Māori reserves, pā, urupā and mahinga kai areas.

Rārangi Ūpoko / Contents, Historical evidence and Method utilised This report was generated through a series of literature searches, external discussions with historian, archival searches, web based searches for relevant information and design based on informants existing in-depth knowledge of environment, mahinga kai and their mana whenua association to the school’s vicinity.

This includes information on Te Ngāi Tūāhuriri the mana whenua of the area, Mahinga kai, significant sites and areas, relevant flora and fauna described in-depth with other relevant storying which reinforces the ties of mana whenua to place. Other ancestral entities and stories are also provided which give genealogical association to place and more generic identifiers.

Most associated place names of relevance are given throughout the report.

It must be noted that this is a report which is not intended as an academic exercise. Excerpts are given as evidence in “italics” and footnote referenced. It serves to inform this narrative and give identifiers to where the evidence can be further explored by the schools.

From the excerpts and evidence the associations are then drawn upon to inform the Tāhuhu kōrero (background), Kupu tuku iho (historical), Further Accounts, Mahinga kai names and associated traditional uses, Ngā Whakaaro Tuatahi (initial ideas) onto the Names and theming which relate to the Kupu tuku iho/Historically associated kōrero.

–  –  –

Environmental and Cultural Considerations2 Ngāi Tūāhuriri places importance on sustainable building design and redevelopment processes.

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