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«MEASUREMENT AND VALIDATION OF SENGE’S LEARNING ORGANIZATION MODEL IN KOREAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS by JOO HO PARK (Under the direction of Jay W. ...»

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MEASUREMENT AND VALIDATION OF SENGE’S LEARNING ORGANIZATION

MODEL IN KOREAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

by

JOO HO PARK

(Under the direction of Jay W. Rojewski)

ABSTRACT

This study measured and tested Senge’s fifth discipline model of learning organizations in a culturally different population, the context of Korean Vocational high schools. Participants were full-time vocational and academic teachers of 976 in public trade industry-technical and business high schools. This study includes three research focuses. First, by using exploratory factor analysis, responses from Korean vocational high school teachers to questionnaire items designed to test the theoretical constructs and indices of Senge’s learning organization model were analyzed to establish a measurement model. Second, the hypothesized model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Thus, results provided strong evidence for the construct validity of the measurement model (i.e., instrument) to measure the learning organization concept in school contexts. Third, multi-group confirmatory factor analysis referred to the factorial invariance tests that examined how generalizable the hypothesized learning organization model was for the two different teacher groups (vocational and academic teachers). Factorial invariance was detected across the two teacher groups. Consequently, the results and findings of this study provides strong evidence that the five disciplines of the learning organization model can be operationalized, measured, and applied in Korean educational contexts. At the level of extending and generalizing learning organization theory, the creation of a measurement model related to the idea of “schools as learning organizations” and confirmation of the generalizability of Senge’s learning organization theory to culturally different organizations are important contributions to the literature on learning organizations. Results of this study support the notion that the theory of learning organization and related concepts, initially developed against the background of Western culture, can also apply to a South Korean school context which reflects Asian culture.

INDEX WORDS: Learning Organization, Schools as Learning Organizations, Korean Vocational High Schools, Exploratory Factor Analysis, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, and Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

MEASUREMENT AND VALIDATION OF SENGE’S LEARNING ORGANIZATION

MODEL IN KOREAN VOCATIONAL HIGH SCHOOLS

by

JOO HO PARK

B.A. in Education, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, 1989 B.A. in Public Administration, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, 1992 M.Ed. in Human Resource and Organizational Development, The University of Georgia, 2003 A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of The University of Georgia in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree

–  –  –

The completion of this dissertation resulted from the support of many people, as well as my own endeavors. I am indebted to numerous individuals for their support and assistance. First I offer my sincere gratitude and deepest appreciation to my advisor, Dr. Jay Rojewski. He graciously provided encouragement and expertise during the entire process of this study.

I am grateful for the guidance I received from my committee members, Dr. John Shell, Dr. Roger Hill, and Dr. Seock-Ho Kim. Their invaluable assistance and expertise was critical to my success. Also, I am very appreciative of the insightful comments from Dr. Wendy Ruona and Dr. Karen Watkins on the item review for my instrument development.

Special appreciation goes to the many vocational high school teachers, school administrators, and supervisors in the Offices of Education in Seoul city, Incheon city, and Gyeonggi province who assisted with the data collection for the study.

I thank my Korean colleagues in the Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development, Dr. Chang Yul Byeon, Dr. Sang Jin Lee, Dr. Yung-Chul Kim, Dr. Young Jun Kim, Dr. Yu Mi Seo, Yoongsoo Park, and Changbin Yim for their lovely friendship and support to complete this dissertation. I truly appreciate the Korean-American Educational Commission for providing financial support for my study at The University of Georgia.

Finally, I dedicate this dissertation to my grandmother, parents, three brothers, and my family members (my wife, Sun Jin; my son, Dong Il; and my daughter, Su Jeong) who always

–  –  –

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Statement of Purpose

Research Questions

Conceptual Framework

Significance of the Study

2 LITERATURE REVIEW

The Concept of Learning Organization

Theoretical Foundations of Learning Organization

Major Learning Organization Models and Characteristics

Schools as Learning Organizations

The Learning Organization and Korean Secondary Vocational Education..............60 3 METHOD

Research Design

Participants

–  –  –





Instrumentation

4 ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

Exploratory Factor Analysis

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

Multiple Group Analysis

5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUION

Research Questions and Findings

Implications at Theory and Practice Levels

Research Limitations

Further Research

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

A SAMPLE CONTENT VALIDITY RATING FORM

B ITEM AND THEORETICAL SOURCES

C BACK TRANSLATION OF KOREAN ITEMS

D LEARNING ORGANIZATION QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCHOOLS..................192

–  –  –

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR SCHOOLS

F COVER LETTERS FOR DATA COLLECTION

G CORRELATION MATRIX FOR THE EFA

H COVARIANCE MATRIX FOR THE CFA

I LISREL SYNTAX FOR CFA AND FACTORIAL INVARIANCE TESTS............217

–  –  –

Table 2.1: Comparison of Learning Organization Models

Table 2.2: Major Korean Vocational High Schools and Student Enrollment, 1990-2003.

......... 61 Table 2.3: Academic and Vocational Students in Korean High Schools

Table 2.4: Major Programs and Courses Offered by Korean Vocational High Schools.

........... 63 Table 2.5: Ratio of High School Students Advancement to Higher Education

Table 2.6: Number of Foreign Labors

Table 2.7: Changes in Korean Sociocultural Paradigms

Table 2.8: Comparison of Learning Organization and the Korean Educational Reform Policy Approach

Table 3.1: Public Vocational High Schools and Teachers in Seoul Megalopolis, 2005.

............ 90 Table 3.2: Target Population and Sampled Numbers

Table 3.3: Survey Instrument Development Process

Table 3.4: Operational Definition of Each Construct

Table 3.5: Summary of Item Refinement and the Procedure of Content Validity

Table 3.6: Items for the Five Subscales

Table 3.7: Instance of Response Scale

Table 3.8: Reliability Statistics from Pilot Test and Item Reduction

–  –  –

Table 4.2: Descriptive Statistics for Questionnaire Items with EFA Sample

Table 4.3: KMO and Bartlett’s Test

Table 4.4: Communalities Matrix

Table 4.5: Comparison of Both Promax’s and Direct Oblimin’s Pattern Matrix

Table 4.6: List of Items Dropped from Analysis

Table 4.7: Loaded Items and Rotated Factor Matrix Using Refined Item Pool

Table 4.8: Factor Correlation Matrix

Table 4.9: Reliability Coefficients of the Subscales Obtained from EFA

Table 4.10: Frequencies for Demographic Variables of CFA Sample

Table 4.11: Descriptive Statistics for the CFA Sample

Table 4.12: Major Parameter Estimates and Loading Values

Table 4.13: Correlation Matrix of Latent Factors

Table 4.14: Model Fit Indices of the Hypothesized Hierarchical Model

Table 4.15: Comparison of Demographic Variables for Two Teacher Groups

Table 4.16: Means and Standard Deviations on Items for Vocational and Academic Teacher Groups

Table 4.17: Results of Factorial Invariant Tests across Vocational and Academic Teacher Groups

–  –  –

Figure 1.1: Senge’s (1990) fifth discipline model of learning organization

Figure 2.1: Theoretical foundations of learning organization

Figure 4.1: Scree plot

Figure 4.2: A measurement model of learning organization

Figure 4.3: A hypothesized learning organization model for the CFA

Figure 4.4: The path diagram as a hierarchical factor structure

–  –  –

In human beings as well as in organizations, learning and change are usually inseparable;

learning changes us while change requires learning. It is essential that, like human beings, organizations change over time to insure their growth and long-term survival. Organizational change is facilitated by a continual learning process that is varied and complex (Lord & Ranft, 2000; Schwandt & Marquardt, 2000). As with two faces of a coin, learning and change have been applied conceptually to all organizations, including schools. In this respect, schools are viewed as living self-made systems which continuously grow, evolve, and recreate themselves through all levels of learning (Senge, Cambron-McCabe, Lucas, Smith, Dutton, & Kleiner, 2000).

Since the early 1990s, the term learning organization “has become one of the new buzzwords in the management, psychology, and human resource development literature” (Garavan, 1997, p. 18). In fact, the notion of the learning organization has become increasingly accepted as an organizational development or change strategy in business and industry. The learning organization concept is currently becoming more noticeable in public or non-profit institutions such as schools, hospitals, and the military in the context of defining values, structure, and prescriptive strategies (Fenwick, 1996; Marsick & Watkins, 1999).

Today, all organizations need to deal with the constantly changing demands caused by the latest wave of information technology, increasing worker diversity, and non-traditional family

–  –  –

structure, systems, and cultures. “Educational systems are undergoing a period of intense transition and transformation as we enter the global market, with global information systems and an awareness of ecological interconnectedness of all natural systems” (Diggins, 1997, p. 418).

The requirement of change by organizational environments calls for new ways of re-culturing and restructuring schools, since school systems should strive to be structurally effective and adaptable to rapidly changing educational environments. It is within the context of a globally changing set of demands that educators and researchers have noted the necessity and advantages of transforming schools into learning organizations (e.g., Dalin, 1996; DuFour, 1997; Fullan, 1993, 1995; Isaacon & Bamburg, 1992; Keefe & Howard, 1997; Leithwood, Leonard, & Sharrat, 1998; O’Sullivan, 1997; Redding & Kamm, 1999; Senge et al., 2000; Silins, Mulford, & Zarins, 2002; Zederayko & Ward, 1999).

Two primary strategies have emerged for applying the learning organization concept in school settings to target school change; as a school reform strategy (Duffy, 1997; Fullan, 1995;

Weller & Weller, 1997) and as professional development for teachers (Dilworth & Imig, 1995;

Lashway, 1998; Redding & Kamm, 1999; Waddock, 1994; Zederayko & Ward, 1999).

Increasingly, attention has been given to understanding school change through the notion of learning organization in both theory and practice (Hajnel, Walker, & Sackney, 1998).

Despite a growing need, few systematic empirical investigations have examined the constructs of the learning organization concept in schools (Griego & Gerory, 1999; Silins, Zarins, & Mulford, 1998). When the proposition that schools should become learning organizations is addressed without confirmation or identification of a concrete construct or variables defining the construct, school efforts to become learning organizations exist in name only (Zederayko, 2000).

–  –  –

extensive and diversified over the past many years, whereas the efforts to diagnose and measure this concept have been rare.

More recently, a few studies have examined the dimensions and features related to schools as learning organizations. By synthesizing findings from three independent studies, Leithwood et al.



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