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SIMON & SCHUSTER’S
Travelers should always check with their
nation's State Department for current
advisories on local conditions before
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© and ‰ Recorded Program 2010 Simon & Schuster, Inc.
© Reading Booklet 2010 Simon & Schuster, Inc.
Pimsleur® is an imprint of Simon & Schuster Audio,
a division of Simon & Schuster, Inc. Mfg. in USA.
All rights reserved.
aCKnoWleDGMentS Haitian Creole Voices English-Speaking Instructor......... Ray Brown Haitian-Speaking Instructor...... Manoach Paul Female Haitian Speaker......... Rachel Clergé Male Haitian Speaker....... Serge Claude Valme Writers Lionel Hogu Marie-Pierre Grandin-Gillette ◆ editors Elizabeth Horber ◆ Eleanor Cavanaugh Jones Beverly D. Heinle reVieWer Serge Sylvestre executiVe Producer Beverly D. Heinle Producer & director Sarah H. McInnis recording engineers Peter S. Turpin ◆ Kelly Saux Simon & Schuster Studios, Concord, MA iii For more information, call 1-800-831-5497 or visit us at www.Pimsleur.com taBle oF ContentS reading lessons Introduction
Haitian Creole, kreyòl ayisyen, is one of the official languages of Haiti, along with French. It is a French-based creole heavily influenced by various West African languages and it is classified as part of the Romance group in the Indo-European language family. There are approximately 9.5 million Creole speakers in Haiti, with another 3.5 million dispersed in Canada, the United States (200,000 in New York), France, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, the Bahamas, and other Caribbean islands.
There are several main dialects of Haitian Creole, with regional variations. The standard dialect, and the one taught in this course, is that of the central district and the capital, Port-au-Prince.
Other key dialects include the northern dialect, centered around Cap-Haitien; the southern dialect, centered in the Cayes area; and the plateau dialect.
Dialect borders, however, have been obscured by the migration of people from the countryside to the capital.
The Republic of Haiti occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola, which is located in the Caribbean between Cuba, Jamaica, and Puerto Haitian Creole introduction (continued) Rico. Columbus first landed on the northern shore of Hispaniola in 1492 and claimed the island for Spain.
In the early 17th century, French settlers began to infiltrate into northwest Hispaniola and made their first major settlement at Cap-Français (now CapHaitien) in 1670. Spain ceded what is now Haiti to France in 1697, and it became the very prosperous colony of Saint-Domingue. Saint-Domingue remained under French control until a slave revolt in 1804 resulted in emancipation and independence.
When the French imported slaves from West Africa to work on their plantations, they faced severe communication problems. The French colonists spoke various dialects of non-standard French. The West African slaves, who came from various tribes from what is now Benin, also spoke different languages. This lack of a common language resulted in a new, local variety of “pidgin” based on French as a way for the different groups to communicate in limited social contexts. Over the years, this pidgin became enriched with vocabulary and structures from various West African languages, as well as to a lesser extent Spanish and English. This enriched language became Haitian Creole, the native lan
2 Haitian Creoleintroduction (continued)
guage of people born in Haiti. Unlike a “pidgin,” a “creole” is not a limited, simplified form of a particular language. A “creole” is a full-fledged language, able to serve all the intellectual, psychological, and social needs of its speakers. Even though Haitian Creole had become a full-fledged language, until the 20th century it remained only a spoken language that, unlike French, did not confer prestige.
Haitian Creole’s status was improved when it joined French as an official language of Haiti in
1961. However, even today fluency in French still remains a marker of social class. Presently, 95% of Haitians speak Haitian Creole as their first language.
It is estimated that 5% of Haitians speak standard French fluently, 5% speak both French and Haitian Creole fluently, and 90-95% speak only Haitian Creole. In 1979 a decree was issued to allow Haitian Creole to be used in schools, and reform efforts are underway to teach Haitian Creole in the primary grades. French is still the primary language in education however, and it is used in both government and business. In recent years, intellectuals increasingly express pride in their language and their rich oral tradition, and there is an ever-growing number
of works written in Creole. Radio and television are broadcast in both French and Haitian Creole.
The Haitian Creole vocabulary is largely drawn from French (some estimates are as high as 90%).
The grammar of Haitian Creole, however, has been strongly influenced by West African languages.
For example, the definite article (la, lan, a, an, nan) comes after a noun; a plural marker (yo) is used after a noun; verbs are not conjugated; and tense is indicated by tense markers (te, ap, pral). In general, Haitian Creole grammar has been simplified and it is considered easier to learn than French or English grammar.
The first organized Haitian Creole writing system was developed in the 1940’s. This writing system represented the sounds of the language in a way that was independent of French by using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), which provides a one sound – one symbol correspondence.
The first newspaper written in Creole was published in 1943. In the 1950’s, this writing system was modified to include spelling changes that were more closely related to French. In 1980, a hybrid
of both spelling systems was approved by the government. Today, however, most Haitian language materials in Haiti use the one sound – one symbol IPA system.
Reading Creole will be easier than you expect.
There is only one accent, the accent grave, and the only sounds unfamiliar to English speakers are the nasal sounds similar to, though not always spelled the same as, those in French.
There are twenty Haitian Creole Reading Lessons at the end of the units, starting with Unit Eleven. These lessons are also combined and provided at the end of the course. You may choose to do the Readings along with the units, or you may wait until you have completed the course and do them all together. Repeat the Reading Lessons as often as you wish. Instructions on how to proceed with the Readings are contained in the audio portion of the course.
1. Ki jounal ou li dabitid?
2. Anjeneral, mwen pa li jounal.
3. Mwen pito tande nouvèl nan radyo, mwenmenm.
4. Mwen renmen mache nan mòn anpil.
5. Li renmen gade gwo pyebwa yo nètalkole.
6. Ou ka gade gwo pyebwa nan mòn yo.
7. Li ap tann pwochen okazyon k ap pati a.
8. Msye sa a sanble yon moun debyen.
9. Anyen pa janm ase pou ou.
10. Toutokontrè, mwen gen menm twòp.
11. Bay timoun yo bwè lèt tanpri.
12. Alè sa a, magazen yo fèmen deja.
13. Li kondui ak tout boulin.
14. Konbyen kòb mwen dwe ou?
15. Ou dwe m senkant goud.
16. Men kòb m dwe ou la.
17. Ou pa premye moun ki di m sa.
18. Se pa premye moun di m sa.
19. Nou te kòmanse nan mwa janvye pase a.
20. Epi nou vanse fini kounyeya.
23 Haitian Creole Unit twenty-eight
1. Msye sa a se yon bowòm.
2. Men nou ka di madanm nan byen kontan.
3. M pa vle kwè sa yo di a.
4. Sou ki bò lari a pou n gade?
5. Ou di ou pral vwayaje Kiba an septanm.
6. Anba wozo, sa m wè m pa ka pale.
7. Ki nimewo ou vle?
8. Ala bèl wòz sa yo bèl.
9. Ki koulè machin tantin ou an?
10. Se yon gwo machin jòn.
11. Kite m gade foto sa yo.
12. Eske ou ap rekòmande otèl sa a?
13. Li fè cho jodi a; se yon okazyon pou ale nan lanmè.
14. M pa kwè li gen anyen serye pou li di.
15. Debwouye ou poukont ou.
16. Rakonte nou tout sa ki te pase anwo a.
17. Se pa blag pou yon moun rive kote sa a.
18. Sezon lapli a pa lwen, nou prepare semans yo.
19. Ki kote ou soti la a?
20. Mari al fè yon ti pwomnad.
24 Haitian Creole Unit twenty-nine
1. Yon Ameriken rive an Ayiti.
2. Li prale nan otèl la.
3. Epi li ap pale ak chofègid la.
4. Chofègid la mande, “Ou renmen wè anpil moun?” 5. “Wi, mwen renmen wè anpil moun.” 6. “Ou renmen manje?” 7. “O wi, mwen renmen bon manje.” “Eske ou renmen laplaj1?” 8.
9. “Wi, mwen renmen laplaj.” “Ou renmen kanaval2?” 10.
11. “M pa konnen.
12. Men m ta renmen wè kanaval.” 13. “Oke, si ou renmen wè anpil moun ak bon manje, M panse3 ou ap renmen kanaval tou.
15. E si ou renmen moun,
16. Si ou renmen bon manje,
17. Si ou renmen laplaj ak kanaval,
18. Konsa ou ap renmen Ayiti!” 1 laplaj: the beach 2 kanaval: Carnival, Mardi Gras 3 panse: think 26