«A STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS Dr. Ansarul Hasan Assistant Professor, Maulana Azad National Urdu University-CTE Darbhanga ...»
Hasan, A. / Educationia Confab ISSN: 2320-009X
A STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS OF PRIMARY
Dr. Ansarul Hasan
Assistant Professor, Maulana Azad National Urdu University-CTE Darbhanga
In the present study an attempt was made to compare teachers’ occopational stress of primary government and private school teachers of Tehsil Laksar, District-Haridwar. A sample of 100 teachers was selected, 50 each from government and private schools. Teachers’ Occupational Stress Scale constructed and standardized by Dr. Sajid Jamal and Dr. Abdul Raheem was administered. Findings revealed that in general, the primary school teachers have found to be highly stressed. Moreover, the private primary school teachers have also found to be highly stressed in comparison to their government primary school teacher counterparts.
Keywords: Primary School Teachers, Teachers’ Occupational Stress, Government School, Private School
Now days the world has become a global village and a lot of luxuries have come to the market. People want to get them all but could not afford. As a result they develop a kind of dissatisfaction among themselves. There are various conditions in the work life like excessive work, poor remuneration, nepotism and corruption and poor boss – employee relationship that also make them unsatisfied and stressed.
Stress at work resulting from increasing complexities of work and its divergent demand has become a prominent and pervading feature of the modern organizations.Stress as opined by Robinson (2007), is a pressure of adverse influences, circumstances (such as stress of teaching) that disturbs the natural physiological balance of the body. Malow-Iroff and Johnson (2006) are of the view that stress is the individual’s response to the events (such as response to our biological temperament, interaction with others and the enviornmental conditions in which one is placed, etc. and the events themselves are stressors. Life events and the stress they place on the individual are not the problem until the individual fails to handle the situation competently and engages in poor coping skills.Occupational stress may be the result of the individual characteristics of the person or related to his/her environment(Sharma, Sood and Spielberg, 1998; Ahmad, Raheem and Jamal, 2003; Hansen and Sullivan, 2003; Bachkirova, 2005; Tytherileigh, Webb, Cooper Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2014 11 Hasan, A. / Educationia Confab ISSN: 2320-009X and Ricketts, 2005; Betoret, 2006; Grebennikov and Wiggins, 2006; Jepson and Forrest, 2006; Lazuras, 2006 and Zhang, 2007).
Although the teaching profession has traditionally been regarded as low stress occupation (French et al.,1982) but during the past two decades the situation is
somersaulted(Olivier & Venter,2003)Teaching is becoming more challenging as a profession:
a more paper work, more bureaucracy and more unruly classes. Worldwide surveys reveal widespread concern about the effects of stress on teachers’ sense of well-being and their willingness to stay in the profession. Compared to the general population, teachers are at risk for higher levels of psychological distress and lower levels of job satisfaction (Schonfield, 1990). Borg (1990) reported that up to one third of the teachers perceive their occupation as highly stressful. It is clear that teachers can be exposed to a number of sources of stress.
Kyriacou (2001) also reported that the main sources of teacher stress are teaching students who lack motivation, maintaining discipline in the classroom, confronting general time pressures and workload demands, being exposed to a large amount of change, being evaluated by others, having challenging relationships with colleagues, administration, and management, and being exposed to generally poor working conditions prospects, unsatisfactory working conditions, ambiguity of the teacher’s role, poor relationships with colleagues, pupils, and administrators, and job insecurity.
There is a pervasive perception among teachers surveyed who have reported their jobs as highly or extremely stressful (Kyriacou and Sutcliffe, 1978; Boriles, 1982; Borg and Falzon, 1989; Soloman and Feld, 1989; O Connor and Guglielmi &Tatrow, 1998; Pithers and Soden, 1998). Furthermore there is research evidence that indicates that work related stress among teachers has serious implications for their work performance, health and psychological status (Capel, 1987; Cooper, 1986; Pierce and Molly, 1990). Health and psychological outcomes can in turn lead to poorer teaching performance, poor job satisfaction, increased absenteeism, poor decision making and bad judgement (Eckles, 1987;
Quick and Quick, 1984). The pupils of stressed teachers have less effective professional and personal attention with attendant negative educational consequences.There is also a general community cost.Therefore, all those factors which influence occupational stress of teachers and its cosequences must be studied thoroughly.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
From the above discussions it is clear that certainly higher level of teachers’ occupational stress generates an attitude of apathy, non-involvement and non-cooperation which will lead to low quality of educaction, increase in wastage, increase in cost, work breakage, low efficiency and strained relation of the teachers with the management and with fellow teachers.
Nowadays when India is progressing by leaps and bounds and is on the verge of becoming a developed nation, we can not afford to neglect talents of our teachers because the teacher is one of the pillars of the society and the country. Without good teachers, no country can progress. The importance of teachers in the life of a nation cannot be overlooked. The teacher influences the immature minds of-the youth. He treats and moulds the young mind into various forms. The economic condition of teachers is also miserable and we know that our country is economically backward and the standard of the masses is very low. In present day society only those people command respects that have power and money. The society of the past which respected teachers has vanished. The poor teacher does not enjoy much prestige in the society of today. The proliferation of private schools, which are merely Vol. 3, No. 4, April 2014 12 Hasan, A. / Educationia Confab ISSN: 2320-009X teaching shops, is another reason of the decline of a teacher's prestige.These schools employ teachers at very low salaries and the teachers cannot give his best to the students. There is a great dissatisfaction and frustration among teachers. Working conditions in schools and colleges are appalling. It is very sad that the persons in charge of education are themselves quite ignorant. They look down upon teachers as mere employees and nothing else. In such conditions, the teacher feels helpless and frustrated.
Within the limited time period and on the basis of available literature the investigator could not find a single study which investigated the influence of the said variables on the level of teachers’occupational stress of primary teachers. So it becomes very essential to know whether there is any influence of the said variables on the teachers’ occupational stress of primary teachers. It is in this specific context that the present investigation has been undertaken to specifically provide empirical answers to the following questions.
a. What is the influence of the gender on the level of occupational stress of primary school teachers?
b. What is the difference in the level of occupational stress of primary teachers in relation to the type of schools?
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Incorporating the above raised questions, the study has been formally titled as:
A STUDY OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
1. To know the level of occupational stress among primary school teachers.
2. To compare the occupational stress of government and private primary school teachers.
3. To compare the occupational stress of male and female primary school teachers.
4. To compare the occupational stress of male and female teachers of government primary schools.
5. To compare the occupational stress of male and female teachers of private primary schools.
6. To compare the occupational stress of government and private primary school male teachers.
7. To compare the occupational stress of government and private primary school female teachers.
5. There is no significant difference in the level of occupational stress of private male and private female primary school teachers.
6. There is no significant difference in the level of occupational stress of government school male and private school male primary school teachers.
7. There is no significant difference in the level of occupational stress of government school female and private school female primary school teachers.
Present study is an empirical study and is exploratory in nature. In the present study data has been collected from government and private teachers of primary schools of Tehsil Laksar, District – Haridwar (Uttrakhand) by administering Teachers’ Occupational Stress Scale constructed and standardized by Dr. Sajid Jamal and Dr. Abdul Raheem
In the present study data has been collected from government and private teachers of primary schools of Tehsil -Laksar, District – Haridwar (Uttrakhand). Haridwar is one of the thirteen districts of Uttrakhand. District Haridwar has four Tehsils and Laksar is one of it.There are many primary schools which are recognised by Uttrakhand government. On the basis of salary given to teachers there are two types schools - government schools where salary is given by the state government of Uttrakhand and private schools where salary to the teachers is given by the management of the schools. The sample of the study is consisting of 100 primary school teachers of Tehsil – Laksar, District-Haridwar. Researcher has selected first of all twenty primary schools (ten government schools and ten private schools) purposively. Further, at schools’ level sample has been drawn by stratified random sampling technique. The 50% teachers are taken from government primary schools and 50% from private primary schools. The sample is further divided into 50% male teachers and 50% female teachers in each category.
To know the level of teachers’ occupational stress in primary school teachers of Tehsil-Laksar, Teachers’ Occupational Stress Scale developed by Dr. Sajid Jamal and Dr Abdul Raheem was administered. It is thirty items likert type scale based on five dimension (work load, students’ misbehavior, lack of professional recognition, lack of classroom resources and poor colleague relations).Although there is no time limit but the respondants are expected to complete it within 30 minutes. Half of the items are positively phrased and half are negatively phrased. The positive items (the items having the even serial numbers) will be scored as 5 to the ‘strongly agree’ 4 to the ‘agree’3 to the’ undecided’2 to the ‘disagree’ and 1 to the ‘strongly disagree.’ The negative items (the items having the odd serial numbers) the scoring will be reversed, i.e, they will be scored as 1 to the ‘strongly agree’ 2 to the ‘agree’3 to the’ undecided’4 to the ‘disagree’and 5 to the ‘strongly disagree.’ The total score for the TOSS will be the scores on all the dimensions. The scores of the scale are to be interpreted like higher the score implies higher the level of occupational stress.
STATISTICAL TECHNIQUESTo analyze the data and interpret the data, the investigator used the following
1. Mean and Standard Deviation
2. t-test to compare groups
RESULT AND INTERPRETATIONObjective 1: To know the level of occupational stress among primary school teachers
It is observed from table I that the number of highly stressed primary school teachers comes out to be 65. This shows that 65%of the Primary school teachers have found to be highly stressed. Thus, the null hypothesis no.1, “There is no significant level of occupational stress among the primary school teachers,” is rejected.
Objective 2: To compare the occupational stress of government and private primary school teachers Table II Mean, SD and t-value of government and private primary school teachers
It is clear from table II that t-value is 2.14 which is significant at 0.05 level.Thus the null hypothesis, “There is no significant difference in the level of occupational stress of government and private primary school teachers,” is rejected. This shows that there is a significant difference in the level of occupational stress of government and private primary school teachers. The private primary school teachers are found to have significantly more stresses than their government primary school teacher counterparts.