FREE ELECTRONIC LIBRARY - Dissertations, online materials

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 9 |

«DOCUMENT RESUME ED 271 538 UD 024 997 AUTHOR Connelly, F. Michael; Clandinin, D. Jean The Role of Teachers' Personal Practical Knowledge in TITLE ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --


ED 271 538 UD 024 997

AUTHOR Connelly, F. Michael; Clandinin, D. Jean

The Role of Teachers' Personal Practical Knowledge in


Effecting Board Policy. Volume IV: Teachers' Personal

Practical Knowledge and Race Relations.

Ontario Inst. for Studies in Education, Toronto.


SPONS AGENCY National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC.;

Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

PUB DATE 84 410-80-0688-K1; NIE-G-81-0021 GRANT 62p.; For the other volumes in this series, see UD NOTE 024 994-996.

Reports - Research/Technical (143)


EDRS PRICE MF01/PC03 Plus Postage.

DESCRIPTORS *Administrative Policy; *Administrator Attitudes;

*Curriculum Development; *Educational Administration;

*Educational Change; Educational Policy; Elementary Education; Foreign Countries; *Policy; Race; Racial Relations; *School Policy; Teacher Responsibility;

Urban Education Toronto Board of Education ON



Teachers' utilization of personal practical knowledge in effecting school reform was analyzed in a three-year project in a Toronto inner city elementary school. The major unit of study was the school, investigated through the eyes of people responsible for school policy. The study focused on the school board's Race Relations Policy and Inner-city Language Development Policy, and is presented in four volumes. Participant obesrvers noted the activities of the principal, teachers, and one teacher in particular to determine the key factors affecting their practice in school and classroom. Then these practices were explained in terms of the staff's personal knowledge. This fourth volume, which contains three chapters, deals specifically with the Race Relations Policy as it is put into practice. Chapter 11 (following from chapter 10 in volume 3) examines the implementation of the policy from the perspective of personal practical knowledge. Chapter 12 shows how personal and cultural narratives are expressed and how they interact. Chapter 13 summarizes personal practical knowledge as practitioners' way of knowing their school and classroom, and as the determining influence on practice, especially as it concerns race and ethnic relations. (MCK) *********************************************************************** Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from the original document.



Funding was provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRCC), and by the National Institute of Education (NIE) through its grants for research on knowledge use and school improvement. NIE provided primary funding for the first two years of the project. During that time, the SSHRCC provided auxiliary support for areas not adequately covered by the National Institute of Education. The third year of the project has been fully supported by SSHRCC.

The major contributions of the SSHRCC for the first two years were support for graduate assistants, additional computer and word processing assistance, temporary secretarial assistance and travel to and from project schools. Graduate assistants have been involved in seven principal project activities. These included the drafting of papers, interviewing participants, analysis of board documents, participant observation at board-level meetings, participant observation in the school, computer entry of data, and development of computer methodologies for handling textual data. Details are provided in Chapter 2 in the section on project staffing.

SSHRCC is providing additional funding to support the continuation of this study (Grant #410-83-1235).

The Principal Investigators and Project Staff of this study gratefully acknowledge the funding received from the National Institute of Education and from the Social Scicnces and Humanities Research Council of Canada. This report reflects the views of the authors and not necessarily those of the granting agencies.


This study develops the concept of teachers' personal practical knowledge through a threeyear project undertaken in a Toronto inner-city elementary school. Using the method of participant observation, researchers carefully noted the practices of the school principal and teachers, focussing on one teacher in particular, to determine the key factors affecting their practice in school and classroom.

The central purpose of the study is to deepen our understanding of the practice of education by illuminating the actions of practitioners. What teachers and principals do in their schools is explained in terms of their personal practical knowledge, a concept that. includes the associated notions of image, narrative unity, ritual, and rhythm. These notions arose out of the researchers' close interaction with school practitioners over the period of study. The results of the project have important implications, not only for an understanding of practice, but also for an insight into how practitioners view school board policy and how they go about implementing it.

This report is organized into four volumes with a combined total of thirteen chapters.

Volume I, entitled Problem. Method and Guiding Conception, contains four chapters.

Chapter 1 provides an overview of the study, Chapter 2 gives a detailed summary of its activities, and Chapter 3 provides an account of its methodology. Chapter 4 presents an analysis of the various "images" people have of the relationship between theory and practice, and draws on the researchers' experiences in the present study to show how the images held by board and school personnel influenced its shape and direction.

Volume II, Development and Implementation of a Race Relations Policy by the Toronto Board of Education, deals with the specific policy selected for purposes of this study -- the Race Relations Policy. A history of the development of the policy is given in Chapter 5, along with an analysis and discussion of the concept of race that emerged during the process of development. Chapter 6 presents a detailed account of the implementation of the policy, describing the activities of the Race Relations Committee and interpreting its work as an agent of policy implementation. As well, the chapter describes the actions taken by board officials to ensure that the policy was reflected in the curriculum materials used in classrooms.

Volume III, Personal Practical Knowledge, develops the central concept of the study and introduces several associated concepts. Chapter 7 introduces the notion of personal practical knowledge, built up through close observation and interpretation of events in the inner-city school under study. Various associated concepts -- image, narrative unity, and ritual -- are 4 tt.

iii subsequently introduced to help explain their actions. The notion of image as a personal knowledge construct exerting a powerful influence on practice is developed in Chapter 8 in connection with one teacher's image of the classroom, and further elaborated in Chapters 9 and 10 in connection with the principal's image of community. Chapter 9 also discusses the function of rituals and personal philosophies in school practice, and Chapter 10 develops the concept of narrative ;lofty as a way of giving an account of a principal's school practices. The concept of narrative unity is then broadened to include cultural narratives, which provide a context for personal narratives. These notions are used to shed light on the relationship between school and community.

Volume IV, Personal Practical Knowledge and Ethnic Relations, begins with an account of the Board's Race Relations Policy as it is put into practice in the school under study, using the perspective of personal practical knowledge (Chapter 11 ). Chapter 12 shows how personal and cultural narratives are expressed through cycles and rhythms, which find their place in the interaction of these narratives. Cycles are shown to have an affinity to the broader societal context, and rhythms to the personal world of the individual. The role of cycles and rhythms in modulating school and community relations is described. Finally, Chapter 13 summarizes personal practical knowledge as the way that practioners "know" their school and classroom and the determining influence on how they deal with matters such as race and ethnic relations. The chapter closes with recommendations for using the knowledge gained in this study to enrich classroom practice.

–  –  –

We are most indebted to the staff of Bay Street School who worked with us for a period of more than three years on this research project. Without their willing participation in it, this study would not have been possible.

We would also like to thank members of our Reference Committee and express our

appreciation for their involvement in the study:

Dr. E. Wright, Director of Research for the Toronto Board of Education Dr. Ouida Wright, Assistant Superintendent of Curriculum, Toronto Board of Education Mr. John Bates, Toronto Board of Education Mr. Tony Sousa, Race Relations Advisor, Toronto Board of Education Bay Street School Participants: Phil Bingham, Stephanie Winters, Ellen Bodnar, Cynthia Smith, Grace Anderson (all pseudonyms) The research team has varied in number over the course of the study. The contributions of

the following members are particularly noted:

Esther Enns, for her participation in the Race Relations Sub-Committee meetings and for her analysis of the work of the Race Relations Committee, presented in Chapter 6.

Dr. Siaka Kroma, for his analysis of the Concept of Race in the Race Relations Policy, presented in Chapter 5.

Mr. Jim Kormos, for his analysis of the History of the Race Relations Policy, presented in Chapter 5.

Mr. Claus Wittmack, for his participation in the project.

Miss J. Whyte, for her participation in project activities and for her analysis of the curriculum materials, presented in Chapter 6.

Dr. Miriam Ben-Peretz, for her advice and counsel on the project.

We would also like to acknowledge especially the assistance of Mrs. Rita O'Brien in keeping project staff on task throughout the study. Without her careful organization and assistance to all project members, the project would have been considerably less successful. Her assistance in working with the research staff in setting up the word processing and computer system is gratefully acknowledged. We would al..1 like to express our appreciation to Mrs. Margaret Heather, Mrs. Betty Martyn, Mr. Mark Belaiche and Mrs. Brenda Mignardi for their secretarial assistance.

The contribution of Mr. Frank Quinlan as editor of this report is also acknowledged.

The contribution of some of our consulting staff must be especially acknowledged. We

–  –  –

extend our appreciation to the following:

Dr. J. J. Schwab, Professor Emeritus, University of Chicago.

Dr. Mark Johnson, Philosophy Department, University of Southern Illinois at Carbondale.

Dr. Freema Elbaz, Israel.

Dr. Elliot Eisner, Stanford University.

Dr. David Hunt, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education.

–  –  –

In this final volume, we undertake the task of giving an account of the Race Relations Policy in Bay Street School from the perspective of personal practical knowledge. Our question here is, "How do we see the Race Relations Policy in the practices of the staff at Bay Street School? In order to answer the question, we need to summarize briefly our perspective on inquiry into schools.


Our research seeks to give an account of school practices in terms of the participating individuals' narrative unities. Narrative unity has been defined in this study as a continuum within a person's experience; experiences are made meaningful through the unity they achieve for the person. Unity means the union, in a particular person in a particular time and place, of all that he has been and undergone in his own past and in the past of the tradition which helped shape him. Johnson, in a review of our work, remarks that understanding classroom practice "would involve examining the images and metaphors that structure, not just teacher's classroom knowledge, but also the personal knowledge and human affairs, personal past history, and so forth that any teacher brings into the classroom experience. That is, we need to begin looking at the dominant images and metaphors of the teacher's entire world, in and out of the classroom" (1984).

This notion of narrative unity and what it entails in inquiry expresses the narrative perspective on inquiry into schooling. We understand classroom actions as events invested with meaning through the images and metaphors developed through the teacher's narrative of experience.

The method is one in which increasingly more complex narratives are written. These are based on daily observations, interpretive accounts or them, 12 2 and dialogue with participants focussed on narrative antecedents to events described in the accounts. The data, gathered by participant observation, interview and text analysis methods, become telling as they acquire meaning within the context of the developing narrative. It is not easy to predict what will pass as telling data, nor is it easy to justify data gathered as telling. Any item of data, considered in isolation, could provide evidence for any number of possible narrative unities. The justification for the use of any item thus depends on the plausibility of the written narrative, and this plausibility depends, in part, on the way in which a complex web of observation and interview data is woven into the account.

Pages:   || 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |   ...   | 9 |

Similar works:

«Margaret R. Basom & Diane M. Yerkes Educational Leadership and Administration A School-University Partnership in Administrator Preparation: Learnings and Subsequent Questions Margaret R. Basom San Diego State University & Diane M. Yerkes University of San Diego Abstract: School university partnerships have become important in the reform efforts to develop the next generation of school leaders. This study examines one university’s approach of working with several school districts as partners...»

«Ana min al yahud I'm one of the Jews By Almog Behar 1. At that time, my tongue twisted around and with the arrival of the month of Tammuz the Arabic accent got stuck in my mouth, deep down in my throat. Just like that, as I was walking down the street, the Arabic accent of Grandfather Anwar of blessed memory came back to me and no matter how hard I tried to extricate it from myself and throw it away in one of the public trash cans I could not do it. I tried and tried to soften the glottal...»

«File: Sterio 2 Created on: 6/17/2012 6:54:00 PM Last Printed: 9/1/2012 5:02:00 PM KATYN FOREST MASSACRE: OF GENOCIDE, STATE LIES, AND SECRECY Milena Sterio* The Soviet secret police murdered thousands of Poles near the Katyn Forest, just outside the Russian city of Smolensk, in the early spring of 1940. The Soviets targeted members of the Polish intelligentsia—military officers, doctors, engineers, police officers, and teachers—which Stalin, the Soviet leader, sought to eradicate...»

«The Privilege of Teaching I would like to begin by firstly clarifying that it is my most esteemed and heartfelt privilege to be a teacher. It is an honour to be entrusted with this distinct task of being part of educating the future generations of Canadian children to help them reach their full potential and open up new avenues and universes for them to explore. As a parent I know full well that I entrust my most precious treasure to others for the majority of their waking day and gladly and...»

«SNAFFLES And the Moonfish Mystery by Cavan Scott Teacher Resources, Week 1 This pdf contains: Text Questions: In this section, you will find questions about the chapter. These can be used orally in guided or shared reading discussions, as an independent comprehension exercise, or as part of a written homework or reading club activity.Making the Choice and Voting: Before choosing how to vote, students could discuss, as a group or a class, the wider context of the story and the consequences for...»

«Teachers College, Columbia University Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics, 2008, Vol. 8, No. 2 The Forum A Multi-Layered Framework of Framing Rebekah J. Johnson Teachers College, Columbia University Professor Leslie M. Beebe has always been an unfailing source of encouragement, a wealth of knowledge and insight, and a wonderful critic. She has taught me much about pragmatics and sociolinguistics, the foundations of my current interests in the social construction of meaning in...»

«Enabling Dance: Dance Education in Australian Schools – practice, pedagogy and quality PD Presentation at DEAS by Dr Katrina Rank, Education & Training Manager, Ausdance Victoria 14 April 2011 I’d like to acknowledge the traditional owners of the land on which we stand and to you for having me here today. I’m going to start with a story (first recounted by arts in education advocate, Sir Ken Robinson). There was once a little girl. She was 8 years old and disruptive in class. She...»


«Introduction: The Transformative Work of Michael A. Signer FRANKLIN T. HARKINS The essays collected in this volume are dedicated to Michael A. Signer by a select group of his colleagues, students, and friends. Their collective purpose is to honor him, on the occasion of his thirty-fifth anniversary of teaching, as a scholar and teacher of Judaism, Christianity, and Jewish-Christian relations in antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modernity. As Professor of Jewish History at Hebrew Union College –...»

«AT HOME IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY AMERICA A DOCUMENTARY HISTORY INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE At Home in Nineteenth-Century America uses the home as a synthetic tool to pull together stories of nineteenth-century America. The collected documents revisit the variety of places Americans called home – middle-class suburban houses, slave cabins, working-class tenements, frontier dugouts, urban settlement houses – and explore the shifting interpretations and experience of these spaces from within and without....»

«EPIPHANIES IN ACADEME or MEDITATIONS ON A FLAT CAT Francis Edward Abernethy 2006 Regents Lecture — University Lecture Series Wednesday Feb 8, 2006, at 11 a.m. in the Cole Auditorium Stephen F. Austin State University Myself when young did eagerly frequent Doctor and Saint, and heard great argument About it and about; but evermore Came out by the same door where in I went. Omar Khayyam I came back from The War in 1946 and went to Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College on the GI Bill of...»

«PUBLISHED VERSION Michael Colbung Indigenisation of the curriculum Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Conference, 2015 / pp.1-6 © 2015 The Authors. PERMISSIONS As per email correspondence from publisher: 9/12/2015 21st December 2015 http://hdl.handle.net/2440/95556 Aboriginalisation of the Australian Curriculum: A focus on Mathematics and Science in South Australia Michael Colbung Introduction Australian curriculum has struggled for many years with the “finding of place” for...»

<<  HOME   |    CONTACTS
2016 www.dissertation.xlibx.info - Dissertations, online materials

Materials of this site are available for review, all rights belong to their respective owners.
If you do not agree with the fact that your material is placed on this site, please, email us, we will within 1-2 business days delete him.