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«UNDP GEF NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMME OF ACTION August 2006 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Foreword...3 List of NAPA Experts..4 Acronyms...5 Summary...7 1. ...»

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REPUBLIC OF NIGER

……………….

PRIME MINISTER’S OFFICE

----------------

NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL

COUNCIL FOR A SUSTAINABLE

UNITED NATIONS

GLOBAL

DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT

ENVIRONMENT

……………..

PROGRAMME

FACILITY

EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT

UNDP GEF

NATIONAL ADAPTATION PROGRAMME OF ACTION

August 2006 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword…...………………………………………………………………………….………3 List of NAPA Experts ……………………........……………………………………..………4 Acronyms……………………………………………..…………………………….…………5 Summary…………………………………………...........……………………………….…....7

1. Introduction and parameters……………………………………………………………...9

1. 1. Overview of the general characteristics of the country....…………………………….9 1. 1. 1. Biophysical characteristics………………………………......……………………….9 1. 1. 2. Social and economic characteristics.……………………………………….... 12

1. 2. Pressures on the environment…………………................…………………………....13

1. 3. Disruptions caused by climate variability and changes

1. 3. 1. On biophysical processes…………………………..........……………………..13 1. 3. 2. On key sectors…………………………………..........…………………….......14

2. Framework of the adaptation programme……………….…………………………......16

2. 1. Climate variability and changes observed and forecast…….........………………….16 2. 1. 1. Climate variability and changes observed …………............……………….16 2. 1. 2. Climate variability and changes forecast ………...........………………........17

2. 2. Adverse effects of climate variability and changes ……...............…………………..20

2. 3. NAPA framework. …………………………………………………………………….21

2. 4. Relationship between NAPA and national development objectives and the MEA. 21

2. 5. Obstacles to NAPA implementation……………..……………………………………22

3. List of basic needs for adaptation to climate variability and changes…………....…...22

3. 1. Past and current practices…….....…………………………………………………….22

3. 2. Relevant solutions for adaptation……………

4. Selection criteria for priority activities……………

4. 1. Criteria choice…….....…………………………………………………………………25

4. 2. Criteria scoring…………........…………………………………………………...........26

4. 3. Standardization…………………………………………………………………...........26

4. 4. Criteria weighting……….…....………………………………………………………..27

5. List of priority activities …………………………………..……................……………..27

5. 1. Ranking of priority adaptation activities.........……………………...………………..27

5. 2. Projects profiles…………………………...………………..…………………………..27

6. Elaboration process of the adaptation programme....……………………....………....67

6. 1. Government Contribution from the …….…………..………………………………..67

6. 2. Consultation process…………………………………………………………………...67 6. 2. 1. National consultation ……..…………………….…………………………….67 6. 2. 2. Local consultation ………………………….…………………………………68

6. 3. Istitutional set-ups…………..................……………………………………………….68

6. 4. Monitoring and evaluation…………..………………………………………………...68

6. 5. Mechanism of adoption the programme by the Government………….……..……..68 Bibliography……….………………………………………………………………………...69 Appendices…………………...………………………………………………………………71 3

FOREWORD

The present document elaborated by the National Environmental Council for Sustainable Development is the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) to adverse effects of Climate Changes (CC). Its elaboration falls within the scope of the implementation of the National Strategy and Action Plan for Climate Changes and Variability (SNPA/CVC) elaborated in April 2003 and adopted in March 2004. This strategy is within the scope of the climate variability and changes, one of the six (6) priority programmes of the National Environmental Plan for a Sustainable Development (PNEDD).





The elaboration and implementation of the NAPA in Niger is also in the line with the United Nations Convention on climate changes (UNFCCC) that Niger signed and ratified respectively on July 11th, 1992 and July 25th, 1995.

Niger set up the National Technical Committee on Climate Changes and variability (CNCVC) in July 1997. The country subsequently elaborated its Initial National Communication (CNI), which was presented at the sixth Conference of the Parties in November 2000 at the Hague (Netherlands).

The preparation of the NAPA also comes within the framework of the decisions stemming from the Marrakech COP7, particularly the decisions 5/ CP7: assistance for adaptation in developing countries; 27/ CP7: directives relating to funds for LDCs; 28/ CP7: guidelines relating to NAPA and 29/ CP7: setting up of the Least Developed Countries (LDC) Experts Group.

Niger got a financial support from the Global Environment Fund (GEF) to elaborate its NAPA.

The development objective of the NAPA is to contribute to lessen the adverse effects of climate on the most vulnerable populations with the prospect of a sustainable development and fight against poverty in Niger.

The Niger NAPA document gives an overview on the content of priority activities to be undertaken to face urgent and immediate needs and concerns for the purpose of adaptation to adverse effects of climate changes.

This document represents a general dynamic and flexible framework aiming at directing and coordinating priority activities relating to adaptation to climate changes in the country on the basis of strict criteria and through a participatory and synergetic approach involving the different stakeholders, particularly the local communities, public sector, private sector, NGOs and Civil Society as well as other National programmes, mainly the Rural Development Strategy (SDR) and the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS).

4

–  –  –

ACRONYMS ACMAD: African Center of Meteorological Application on Development MEA: Multilateral Environmental Agreements BAB: Livestock Food Bank UNCCD: United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Changes CBD: Convention on Biological Diversity CERMES: Center for Medical and Health Studies and Research CES/DRS: Water and Soil Conservation/ Soil protection and restoration CG: Management Committee CNEDD: National Environmental Council for a Sustainable Development CNI: Initial National Communication COGERAT: Joint Management of the Aîr and Ténéré Reserve CUN: Urban Community of Niamey LUCOP: Fight Against Poverty PAC: Community Policies Programme PACE: Pan African Project for Fight against Epizootic Diseases PADAZ: Project of support for Agricultural Development in Zinder PADL: Project of support for Local Development PAFN: Natural Forests Management Project COP: Conference of the Parties PAGRN: Project of Support for Natural Resources Management CP: Running Committee CVD: Village Development Committee ENDA-TM: Environmental Development Action in the third world GEF: Global Environment Facility FLCDRPS: Fund to Combat Desertification and for the Reduction of Poverty in the Sahel IHD: Index of Human Development IEC: Information/ Education/ Communication INS/MF/E: National Institute of Statitistics / Ministry of Finance and Economy LEG: Least Developed Countries’ Experts Group MAGICC/SCENGEN : Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse-gas Induced Climate Change/ SCENario GENerator NGO: Non-Governmental Organization PABC: Community-Based Adaptation Project NAPA: National Adaptation Programmes of Action PAN/LCD-GRN: National Programme of Action to combat Desertification and for Natural Resources Management GDP: Gross Domestic Product PNEDD: National Environmental Plan for a Sustainable Development UNDP: United Nations Development Programme PIP2: Private Irrigation Project PPEAP: Agro-pastoral Products Promotion and Export Project 6 RGPH: Population and Housing General Census SAP/GC: Early Alert System and Crises Management SDR: Rural Development Strategy SE/CNEDD: CNEDD Executive Secretariat SNIS: National Health Information System SNPA/CVC: National Strategy and Action Plan for Climate Changes and Variability SNPA/DB: National Strategy and Action Plan for Biological Diversity SP: Permanent Secretariat PRS: Poverty Reduction Strategy SVS: Vulnerability Oversight in the Sahel UNITAR: United Nations Institute for Training and Research ZARESE: Zones with high Environmental and Social Risks 7 Executive Summary The climate in Niger is of the Sahelian type characterized by a great interannual rainfall, which has been expressed by multi-year droughts since 1968 (diagram2). This situation, linked to the climate nature and changes, through the adverse effects of extreme weather events, constitutes a great disadvantage for the development of the country. In fact, the ecosystems frailty makes the country very vulnerable to these events and the difficult socio-economic situation weakens its adaptability. In this regards, adaptation measures are necessary, in order to achieve a sustainable development.

In view of identifying and adopting these measures, Niger government created a technical Committee for Climate Changes and Variability (CNCVC) in July 1997. The said Committee elaborated its Initial National Communication (CNI) that was presented at the sixth Conference of the Parties in November 2000 at the Hague (Netherlands).

Afterwards, it elaborated its National Strategy and Action Plan for Climate Changes and Variability (SNA/CVC) in April 2003. After this step, it undertook the NAPA elaboration process for climate changes with the financial support of the Global Environment fund (GEF) through the United Nations Development programme (UNDP).

The overall objective of the NAPA is to contribute to the alleviation of the adverse effects of climate variability and changes on the most vulnerable populations with the prospect of a sustainable development. In this area, some adaptation measures, consistent with the orientations of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) contained in the Rural Development Strategy (SDR), were identified. These adaptation measures are all in synergy with the measures of the Post-Rio convention adopted by Niger, especially the United Nations Framework on Climate Changes (UNFCCC), Convention to Combat Desertification (CCD), and the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD).

The NAPA process started in 2005. Its implementation was carried out within strict respect of the different steps indicated by the LEG guidelines and by focusing on three

approaches:

• A consultative and participatory approach involving all the parties, particularly the regions, local authorities, local communities, representatives of the private sector, NGOs and Civil Social organizations....;

• A multi-disciplinary and transparent approach based on the participation of all the specialists (as indicated in the list of the NAPA experts) on climate variability and changes;

• A complementary approach in which synergy with the existing National Plans and Programmes and Multilateral Environmental Agreements is taken into account.

–  –  –

1. Introducing fodder crop species in pastoral areas;

2. Creating Livestock Food Banks;

3. Restoring basins for crop irrigation;

4. Diversifying and Intensifying crop irrigation;

5. Promoting peri-urban market gardening and livestock farming;

6. Promoting income-generating activities and developing mutual benefit societies;

7. Water control;

8. Producing and disseminating meteorological data;

9. Creating Food Banks;

10. Contributing to fight against climate-related diseases;

Improving erosion control, water harvesting and conservation measures for agricultural,

11. forestry and pastoral purpose;

12. Dissemination of animal and crop species that are most adapted to climatic conditions;

13. Watershed protection and rehabilitation of dum_off ponds;

14. Building of material, technical and organizational capacities of rural producers.

All these activities were translated into project identification sheets.



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