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«IDEA Consult in consortium with: NIFU STEP - WIFO - LOGOTECH - The University of Manchester - and its subcontractors: - Management Center Innsbruck ...»

-- [ Page 1 ] --

Study on mobility patterns

and career paths of

EU researchers

FINAL REPORT (deliverable 7)

Prepared for:

European Commission

Research Directorate-General

Directorate C – European Research Area

Universities and Researchers

IDEA Consult

in consortium with:

NIFU STEP

-

WIFO

-

LOGOTECH

-

The University of Manchester

-

and its subcontractors:

- Management Center Innsbruck (MCI)

- MRB Hellas Brussels, June 2010 Mobility Patterns and Career Paths of EU Researchers

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 6

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 7

PART 1 CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT 12

1 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT 13

1.1 Context of the project __________________________________ 13

1.2 Objectives and deliverables of the MORE study _______________ 14

1.3 Objectives and outline of the present report _________________ 15 1.3.1 Objectives of the MORE Final Report

1.3.2 Outline of the report

2 METHODOLOGY AND OUTPUTS OF THE PROJECT 17

2.1 Introduction __________________________________________ 17

2.2 The four MORE surveys _________________________________ 17 2.2.1 Definitions

2.2.2 Sampling methods and representativeness of the four MORE surveys.................. 21

2.3 The IISER-indicator update ______________________________ 28

2.4 Additional information and analysis provided by MORE _________ 29 2.4.1 The European Labour Force Survey

2.4.2 The National Survey of College Graduates in the US

PART 2 THE MORE SET OF INDICATORS 31

3 MORE 33

THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND ADDED-VALUE OF

3.1 Introduction __________________________________________ 33

3.2 MORE conceptual framework _____________________________ 33

3.3 Building beyond the IISER indicators ______________________ 35 4 MORE-INDICATORS: THE COMPLETE SET 38

5 THE MAIN RESEARCH QUESTIONS OF MORE 44

–  –  –

7 HUMAN RESOURCES OF RESEARCHERS 48

7.1 ‘Stocks’ of researchers __________________________________ 48 7.1.1 Stocks researchers in employment phase

7.1.2 Number of graduates

7.1.3 Number of researchers in training phase

June 2010 3 Mobility Patterns and Career Paths of EU Researchers

7.2 Employment situation of researchers_______________________ 62 7.2.1 Employment of researchers across different sectors

7.2.2 Characteristics of employment contract

7.3 Main findings _________________________________________ 69

8 STOCKS AND FLOWS OF MOBILITY 72

8.1 Stocks of mobility ______________________________________ 72 8.1.1 Geographical mobility

8.1.2 Job Mobility

8.2 Flows of mobility ______________________________________ 84 8.2.1 Sectoral mobility

8.2.2 Formal collaboration among researchers

8.3 Main findings _________________________________________ 89 8.3.1 Stocks of mobility

8.3.2 Sectoral flows of mobility and international collaboration

9 INFLUENCING FACTORS AND MOTIVATIONS FOR MOBILITY 92

9.1 Influencing factors of mobility ____________________________ 92 9.1.1 Geographical mobility

9.1.2 Job mobility

9.2 Motivations for mobility ________________________________ 102 9.2.1 Geographical mobility

9.2.2 Job mobility

9.3 Main findings ________________________________________ 112 9.3.1 Influencing factors of mobility

9.3.2 Motivations for mobility

10 EFFECTS OF MOBILITY 114

10.1 Effects of geographical mobility __________________________ 114 10.1.1 Overall effects (MOB-EFF1 - MOB-EFF2)

10.1.2 Output effects (MOB-EFF3 - MOB-EFF6)

10.1.3 Network effects (MOB-EFF7 - MOB-EFF10)

10.2 Effects of job mobility _________________________________ 119 10.2.1 Output effects (MOB-EFF11, MOB-EFF12)

10.2.2 Network effects (MOB-EFF13 - MOB-EFF15)

10.3 Main findings ________________________________________ 122

–  –  –

11.1.2 Employment situation of researchers

11.2 Mobility of researchers (job and geographical) ______________ 130 11.2.1 Stocks of mobility

11.2.2 Sectoral mobility and international collaboration of researchers

11.2.3 Influencing factors of mobility

11.2.4 Motivations for mobility

11.2.5 Effects of mobility

12 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 141

12.1 Methodological recommendations ________________________ 141 12.1.1 Building upon existing indicators

12.1.2 Definitions for survey-based data collection

12.1.3 Sample design

12.1.4 Questionnaire: design and content

12.2 Policy-relevant observations and recommendations __________ 147 12.2.1 “Stocks” of researchers





12.2.2 Mobility of researchers

–  –  –

The report is accompanied by the MORE set of indicators in an excel file which summarises the main data provided by the MORE project. The data collected for this set of indicators is largely based on the four surveys designed, implemented and analysed by different teams within the MORE consortium. The present report refers to these four surveys where relevant data have been used.

Comments on a draft version of this report have been received from Yiannis Bassiakos, Bernd Ebersberger, Sharon Levin and Philippe Moguérou (members of the Quality Assessment Team). We thank them all for their valuable input and recommendations for this report.

The report is based on information collected for the IISER update and through the four MORE surveys. This information collection has been the result of coordinated work of the partners within the MORE consortium IDEA Consult, Univ. of Manchester, Logotech, WIFO, Nifu Step) and its subcontractors (MRB Hellas, Management Center Innsbruck).

–  –  –

Comments received from Peter Whitten (EC, DG RTD) with respect to this report but also during the whole project are gratefully acknowledged.

∗ Corresponding author.

–  –  –

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The overall goal of the MORE project (Mobility and Career Paths of EU Researchers) was to provide a study on the mobility patterns and career paths of EU researchers.

At an operational level, the study has had two main sub-objectives, namely:

1. to update the existing IISER indicators, and

2. to develop surveys and studies on the mobility of researchers supplementing the existing information collected through the IISER project.

The IISER update has resulted in the collection of indicators on the stocks of researchers and researcher mobility: the former focusing on the update of indicators on the number of researchers in the EU, with the latter providing information on the circulation of researchers (mainly doctoral candidates and scholars) within the EU countries and between the EU and the US.

In parallel, three EU-wide and one extra-EU survey were launched to collect information on researchers’ characteristics, employment situation, mobility and the factors influencing and motivating mobility, as well as the perceived effects of mobility. They have targeted four different sub-groups of researchers both in

terms of sector of employment and in terms of geographical location, namely:

researchers working in the Higher-education institutes, researchers working in public (non-university institutes), researchers working in the industry sector and researchers who have moved between EU and non-EU countries, in particular EU-US mobility.

The following provides a summary of the main conclusions from the present Final Report. While this includes many of the main findings of the MORE project, more detailed information on the project and the conclusions of the different reports is found in the separate deliverables.

How many researchers are there in the EU?

Based on official Eurostat data, in 2007 there were 2.2 million researchers (in head counts) in EU27 or 1.4 million researchers (full-time equivalents).

In general, we see a steady increase in the number of researchers; between • 2000 and 2007, the number of researchers grew by nearly 31%, or 4% per year.

The annual growth rate of the number of researchers in FTEs in 2000-2007 • is 3.9% p.a. for the EU27 compared to 1.3% p.a. for the USA, 11.8% for China and 1.3% for Japan. Among the EU27 two of the new Member States report the highest annual growth rates, Cyprus and the Czech Republic with

14.9 and 10.5% p.a. respectively.

In relative terms, there were on average 6 researcher FTEs per 1,000 active • population in the EU27 in 2007. This compares to 9 FTEs in the US, 11 in Japan and 2 in China.

At country level, Finland has the highest penetration of researchers in the • workforce with 15 researchers per 1,000 active population.

Other Scandinavian countries (Denmark and Sweden with around 10 re searchers per 1,000 labour force) are in the top-5 countries for this indicator together with Luxembourg and the UK.

–  –  –

The most recent Member States, Romania and Bulgaria as well as the Medi terranean islands, report the lowest number with 3 or fewer researchers per 1,000 active population.

Who are the respondents to the MORE surveys?

The MORE surveys indicate on average that around two out of three respondents in the surveys are male, with the exception being in the industry survey, where more than four out of five respondents are male.

The respondents in the industry survey graduate, on average, at a younger age (28 years old) than the ‘academic’ researchers (32 years old for the HEI researchers). This relates strongly to the distribution of PhD recipients among the different surveys; the share is much lower in the sample of industry researchers (50%) than in the other three surveys (ranging from 76% to 85%).

Mobility as a student seems to have been more ‘popular’ among respondents of the Extra-EU survey (32% in comparison to 20-23% for the other surveys).

Compared with academic researchers, industrial researchers are more likely to be male, older and a graduate in Natural sciences or engineering and technology. They are also more likely to have worked in industry as a student (52% in comparison to 24-28% for the other surveys) but are less likely to have obtained a postgraduate degree (PhD or equivalent).

How many mobile researchers are there and who are they?

For the purposes of the MORE project, mobile researchers are defined as those who have moved from the country of their highest graduation to work as a researcher for at least 3 months in another country.

More than half (56%) of the researchers working in the higher-education-institute (HEI) sector have been (or are currently) internationally mobile. Two out of three (67%) of the mobile researchers are male and 91% have a PhD, 6 percentage points higher than the share of PhD holders in the overall sample (HEI survey).

30% of the mobile researchers in the HEI sector had been mobile as a student compared to just 22% in the overall sample, indicating that student-mobility increases the probability of becoming mobile as a researcher later in one’s career.

By comparison, industrial researchers are less likely to be mobile (41%) although, as with "academic" researchers, PhD holders and those who have been mobile as a student are more likely to have been mobile.

How do the characteristics of recent-mobile researchers compare with those who have been mobile at least once during their career?

Recent-mobile researchers are defined as those who have been internationally mobile at least once during the last three years. Among the HEI researchers 29%

had been recently mobile:

Recent-mobile researchers have a younger profile (in terms of age, years • since graduation and family attributes).

Student mobility among the recent-mobile sub-group is higher than in the • entire sample and also higher than in those mobile at least once in their career.

<

–  –  –

Recent-mobile researchers had a larger share of those that worked in indus try as a student than those mobile at least once in their career.

How many researchers have moved between sectors and what are their characteristics?

Within the HEI sample, 17% of the researchers have moved between the public and the private sector.

A higher share of males, holders of a postgraduate degree and graduates in • the Natural science or engineering and technology field are present within the sectorally-mobile compared to the whole sample of the HEI survey.

47% of the HEI sectorally-mobile had worked in industry as a student com pared to 28% in the entire HEI full sample.

Industrial researchers have a much higher probability of sectoral mobility • than “academic” researchers: 42% of the industrial researcher sample have moved between the public and the private sectors at least once. Furthermore, there seems to be a positive correlation between geographical and sector mobility among this group.

What are the most important influencing factors of geographical mobility? Which of these are considered as barriers to mobility?

Practical influencing factors (administrative and non-career/profession related

factors such as the social security system, administrative barriers, language issues, child care, etc.) do not seem to play an "important" role in the mobility decision of "academic" researchers. However:

female researchers assign higher importance than males to child-care ar rangements;

child-care arrangements are considerably more important for the non-mobile • researchers indicating that it is a potential barrier to mobility.



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