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«Media and Trust Theoretical, Research and Practical Contexts Szczecin 2014 Edit Maria Czerepaniak-Walczak, Elżbieta Perzycka MEDIA AND TRUST ...»

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Maria Czerepaniak-Walczak Elżbieta Perzycka

Media and Trust

Theoretical, Research and Practical Contexts

Szczecin 2014

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Maria Czerepaniak-Walczak, Elżbieta Perzycka

MEDIA AND TRUST

THEORETICAL, RESEARCH AND PRACTICAL CONTEXTS

SZCZECIN 2014

Reviewer

Prof. Dr. Anna Zembala

Publication funded by the University of Szczecin

Under the Project 7 Framework Programme Marie Curie, Actions, People nr 318759 Title: Stimulators and Inhibitors of Culture of Trust in Educational Interactions Assisted by Modern Information and Cmmunication Technology ISBN 978-83-7241-984-2 Printed by Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego Wydanie I. Ark. wyd. 20,5. Ark. druk. 22,2. Format B5.

Contents Introduction 7 Part I. Theoretical Contexts Chapter 1 Give-Take Trust Model (Fazl Illahi, India) 15 Chapter 2 Epistemology And Ontology Of (Mis) Trust: Exploring Alternative Paradigms (Muhammad Maroof Shah, India) 27 Chapter 3 Trust As A Systemic Problem (Stefano Polenta, Italy) 59 Chapter 4 Trust In The Scientific Method From The Perspective Of Philosophy Of Science By Karl Popper (Maciej Sokołowski-Zgid, Poland) 75 Chapter 5 The Potential Of A Culture Of Trust In Ict-Aided Educational Interactions From The Critical And Emancipatory Perspective (Elżbieta Perzycka, Poland) 85 Chapter 6 Trust In Social Media. Sources Of Naivety And Criticality In The Mediascape; Educational Contexts (Maria Czerepaniak-Walczak, Poland) 97 Chapter 7 ICT And Value Education (Parveen Pandit, India) 111 Part II. From The Research Fields Chapter 1 Trust In Schools In Kaliningrad? Background – Observation – Interpretation (Harald Nilsen, Norway) 121 Chapter 2 School Of Trust, Trust Of School: From Past, In Present, To Future. A First Pedagogical Reflection About Experience Of Visits To Schools In Russian Federation (Kaliningrad And Chernyakhovsk – Kaliningrad Oblast) (Luca Girotti, Italy) 135 4 Chapter 3 Trust Games. The School Social Games And Their Potential In Building A Culture Of Trust (Aneta Makowska, Poland) 145 Chapter 4 Elements Of A Culture Of Trust In The Use Of Information And Communication Technology In Schools Of The Kaliningrad Region In Russia – Research Report (Jowita Krajewska, Poland) 155 Chapter 5 Digital Natives From The Point Of Media And Information Literacy (Svetlana Konyushenko, Russia) 165 Chapter 6 Study Of Personal And Professional Qualities Of The Organization’s Employees As A

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We are presenting the next volume of dissertations and essays regarding the issue of what we call the binder of social tissue - the trust. We are looking for those elements of the world of everyday life that strengthen this binder and give it a special power to shape and develop social ties. Moreover, we discover the factors that weaken and pose a threat to the social cohesion. In this volume, the center of our concerns are the media as the center and agent of trust, media as the causative agent, but also inhibitor of a culture of trust in social interactions. This volume includes content that was (and still is) the subject of research of international and interdisciplinary research team implementing the project called Stimulators and Inhibitors of Culture of Trust in Educational Interactions Assisted by Modern Information and Communication Technology FP7-PEOPLE-2012-IRSES-318759.

Taking up this issue in the international and interdisciplinary context enables to perceive and interpret a culture of trust in the conditions of globalization and homogenization of patterns of social interactions with and through digital media, while observing and explaining their heterogenization areas.

Despite many high-flown information accompanying launching of new inventions in the group of digital media and the race of inventors offering unprecedented features in using devices and applications, reflection on the meaning of these inventions for everyday social life is only its narrow part. In spite of the increasing knowledge and skills, there is an increase in the uncertainty and risks in handling and using them. Although the research on the potential of the media in the improvement of the conditions of learning, management, logistics is being carried out, however, still little is known about the scale of the impact of digital media on the lives of people and communities. This applies in particular to the relationship of trust and security. From time to time we learn about the hacker attack on major national and international institutions, about the “leak” of sensitive information (for example, Wikileaks. Snowden scandal), as well as about Media and Trust...

8 desperate decisions, which are made as a result of personal humiliation through the media (including the traditional ones like press and television). The space of uncertainty and insecurity arising from the information is constantly growing.

Harmful gossip and malicious information cost not only millions lost by large companies and small savers, but it also affects human lives. However, we also learn about relevant decisions giving a sense of accomplishment, which are based on the knowledge acquired through the media. Both of these situations are happening due to the release of information. And they are the results of manipulation, intentional misleading and actions taken in the name of good intentions.





The processes of globalization have triggered mechanisms specific to the rustic environment, especially those, which involve sharing news and goods, and respond to the observed events. However, not always the “global village” means meeting familiar and domesticated phenomena and processes. In this extraordinary, unprecedented environment, we come across so many new situations that it is not hard to get lost, experience disappointment and even harm.

People can experience the fraud, but they can also risk to behave disloyally (lie, steal) themselves. They can experience distrust and suspicion, but also disappoint the trust of others, or at least raise their distrust. New cultural patterns of interpersonal relationships and social issues emerge in an uncontrolled and even unaware manner. There arises and develops a specific form of culture in which digital media are the intermediaries between people. In this context, our search for stimulators and inhibitors of a culture of trust is directed towards the potential of these devices and applications that take up more and more place and time in the interpersonal space.

Nowadays, social relationships through digital media have become part of the processes of socialization and education. In these relationships there can be seen intellectual and moral tensions. Media and their participation in everyday life, work, school, family and social interactions are a dynamic source of challenges for the social sciences and humanities. They constitute the specific subject of reflection of education sciences. In a world of dynamic technological development of devices and applications and, consequently, widening access to information, trust in their content, resources, and potential becomes of unprecedented importance. “Is there anything you can tell me that I would not find on the Internet?” says the daughter to her father in one of Polish films (“Pogoda na jutro” directed by J. Stuhr, 2003). It can be said that our daily lives take place in the new space, which can be called, using the phrase by Arjun Appadurai, mediascape. This scape is the reference point of many human choices, but it is their source as well.

Introduction 9 And this also applies to trust as it is filled with both kindness and support, but also traps. You can become a victim of a naive, uncritical trust in the least foreseeable circumstances. In this case, the tasks undertaken as part of our research project include searching for the potential of critical trust in the rapidly changing mediascape. And it varies in different countries - partners in the research project. According to OECD data (http://www.internetlivestats.com/internet-users/ (accessed on 09/15/2014) in the years 2000 -2012 the number of Internet users has increased in each of these countries, respectively (in percent): India from

0.5 to 19, Russia from 2 to 53, Poland from 7 to 65, Italy from 23 to 58 and leading the forefront Norway from 52 to 95. It should be added that the Internet is indeed a multifunctional, but only one of the elements of the mediascape. This scape is also saturated with other technical devices and dynamically appearing applications. Digital media and their applications have a stake in the development and implementation of interests; they have ludic features, trigger allocentric attitude and can be a mirror that helps people to define themselves. However, many of them provide features that make the modern world of everyday life a panopticon with much more sophisticated and ruthless opportunities than the original by Jeremy Bentham.

Who, why, under what circumstances and on what basis can be trusted in this scape? What is trust in this scape? What is its function in its existence? Which elements of this scape inspire trust and which suspicion? What is the relationship of this scape with other spaces of personal and collective lives? Whether the experience acquired through operating in the mediascape is reflected in everyday social and political life, in the processes of socialization and education? The following chapters of this volume take the attempts to answer these and more questions. And the subjects of the analysis and interpretation undertaken include theoretical and empirical contexts of trust in the world of digital media.

The book consists of three parts. Each part contains chapters in which the authors discuss the issue of trust in the world of digital media and its use in education, work and play.

The first part consists of seven chapters that present and discuss theoretical contexts using author’s own concepts of trust. The next articles show the trust in an ontological and epistemological perspective and analyze it in general relation to digital media and their application. This part includes multi-layered perspectives of potential and real possibilities of the existence and development of trust. The authors look for the relationship between general trust and specific, interpersonal trust. This is of particular importance in societies with open access Media and Trust...

10 to information and in the context of postmodern perspectives of the contemporary society analysis.

The second part consists of eleven chapters concerning research report carried out in schools and universities in Russia, India and Poland. The authors of the individual chapters, who adopted chosen perspective to describe and interpret indicators of trust in social and educational interactions and used selected research methods, emphasize the importance of reciprocity in direct interpersonal interactions and those, which are carried out through digital media. The authors indicate self-confidence of interaction participants as a special factor supporting trust in these relationships. Media as intermediary, especially in the educational process observed during the research in Russian schools, are indicated as a stimulator of learning due to the rational use of space and time in the classroom. It is worth noting that authors draw attention to the normative elements of a culture of trust governing the relations of participants in social and educational interactions. This is a significant factor in domestication, or rather settlement in the media educational environment and widening of the circle of “digital natives”. And this circle includes not only teenagers but also older generation of teachers. Many of them “immigrated” to the digital society, and then mastered the tools and standards specific to this environment. They mastered digital alphabet and rules for using it in everyday personal and professional life, in both formal and informal interactions. As emphasized by the authors of the chapters, in this situation it is important to acquire skills to deal with information overload and have critical trust enabling rational choice of this information.

The third part of the volume includes reports from practice. It consists of six chapters, in which authors present their own experience in the use of digital media in education. These images of practice not only enrich the research contexts, but also deepen the understanding of their results. This applies in particular to the indication of differences between formal declarations and actual educational practices. From the point of view of understanding the role of media in developing the culture of trust, equally important becomes to share experiences regarding cooperation of interaction participants in the creation of educational information in the publicly available Internet resources and in the process of learning with the use of digital tools and methods constantly updated to use them.

Dissertations and reports from the research and educational practice are a narrow part of the research task aimed at searching for stimulators and inhibitors of the culture of trust in educational interactions with the use of digital media. The analysis of the literature, field research and discussion seminar are Introduction 11 the proof of the importance of the task undertaken. They also confirm the accuracy of the chosen research team, which, in addition to the permanent members, includes persons performing complementary surveys and analysis. This allows to expand the ontological and epistemological perspective view and interpretation of both the trust and the media as agents and the environment of modern education. This environment is subject to dynamic change and becomes an integral part of everyday social, economic, political and educational reality. It is a space of development of individuals and communities and, as such, includes both the potential and risks. Hopes and illusions derived from the theoretical analysis and empirical studies indicate the strengths and limitations of trust in the media.

The use of potential and limitation of the risks indicated by the authors of the individual chapters is, in our opinion, an important voice in the discussion on modern education and changes in the social order.

PART I

THEORETICAL CONTEXTS

Fazl IllahI Govt. College of Education, Srinagar, J&K India

Chapter 1 Give-Take Trust Model



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