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THE CASE OF
BRGY. 176, BAGONG
Marie Danielle V. Guillen
Lorenzo V. Cordova
Conference CODATU XV
The role of urban mobility in (re)shaping cities 22 to 25 October 2012- Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) 2 Conference CODATU XV « The role of urban mobility in (re)shaping cities »
22 to 25 October 2012- Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)
Mapping Informal Public Transport Terminals:
The Case of Tricycles of Brgy. 176, Bagong Silang, Caloocan City M.D.V. Guillen, L.V. Cordova School of Government, Ateneo De Manila University firstname.lastname@example.org ; email@example.com ;
Abstract Transport infrastructure plays a big role in mobility. Many cities in developing countries are rapidly urbanizing, roads are expanding and majority of the people rely on public transportation. However, this public transport system is usually not safe and inefficient.
InMetro Manila’s 11 million population, over a third of which are in poverty. Seventy percent (70%) of the population are highly reliant on public transportation. This segment of the population belongs to the urban poor and middle class.
Just like any city in developing countries, informal public transport modes play a major role in mobility especially of the urban poor and the vulnerable sector of the society. Metro Manila has a peculiar mix of different public transportation services including buses, GT/FX Express, jeepneys, tricycles (motorcycle with sidecabs), and “pedicabs” (bicycles with sidecars). These modes are predominantly operated privately and are poorly regulated by government. Tricycles alone are estimated to be at 104,166 units.
The complex and diverse modes of transport in Metro Manila has spawned informal transport terminals and hubs-- public or privately owned terminals for motorized and non-motorized public transport that have no clear government legal authorization to operate.
Effective management however begins with the identification and inventory of the existing public transportation facilities especially terminals and hubs (both formal and informal).
Locating and mapping these public transport terminals and hubs, and modes are crucial in understanding transport challenges and uncovering opportunities for greater and seamless connectivity in Metro Manila. However, while maps are considered important, Filipinos are unaccustomed to their use. Not many understand transport features in maps and sharing them widely is a crucial step in enabling development actors and the people to plan and implement mobility initiatives.
This study explores the mapping of informal transport terminals and hubs in the smallest political unit called Brgy. 176, Bagong Silang, Caloocan City. The study will demonstrate the use of map-oriented studies in triggering community transport initiatives by barangay leaders, transport managers, and the underserved poor segments of the population.
Keywords: mapping, tricycle, informal public transport terminals
3 1. Introduction
Filipinos are largely reliant on public transportation for employment, mobility and access to services. In the last decade, the World Bank described the Philippines of having attained important improvements in transport infrastructure and services. Transportation determines the level of accessibility of the people and commodities from one place to another. Many of the options presented, however, add to economic burden of working poor, elderly and/ or middle class. The important challenges remain with serious consequences for the country’s competitiveness and for meeting its growth and poverty reduction targets.
In a rapid urbanizing world, transportation systems became more diverse. Metro Manila, as the country’s foremost urban center caters to different public transportation services including buses, jeepneys, tricycles, and taxis. These are predominantly privately owned and operated.
Tricycles (motorcycles with sidecars) and pedicabs (bicycles with sidecars) provide transportation services through narrow streets and routes where jeepneys and buses are not allowed to operate. There are also vans (e.g. GT express) that ply to the major routes and carry more passengers and charge a rate depending on distance.
While the country relies heavily on road network to accommodate the passengers and increasing public transport supply, there is growing demand to improve urban public transportation by making it more efficient, dependable and sustainable. It is believed that an effective management of public transportation may lead to a sound economic growth and development.
Effective management however depends in understanding transport features. One of these is in the identification and inventory of the existing public transportation facilities especially terminals and hubs (both formal and informal). Mapping is very good way to do this.
Locating and mapping these facilities and modes are crucial in order to assess the mobility problems and opportunities in Metro Manila.However, it remains to be expensive and the demand for up to date user-ready and easy access information in transportation is high..
The focus of this study is to identify and map the public transportation terminals (specifically for tricycle) and assess its impact in terms of numbers, facilities/ infrastructure available and how they are being utilized for the transportation needs of the barangay. Tricycle was chosen as a focus of this study since they comprise the majority and the primary mode of transportation within the barangay aside from jeepney, buses, and pedicabs.
This study will explore the use of crowdsourcing as a method of mapping public transport terminal (formal and informal) in the Barangay. Crowdsourcing is essential especially in new forms of mapping, which large group of users come together to create data and to add value by sharing (Smith et al., 2008). The current situation shows the proliferation of public transport terminals (mostly tricycles) in the barangay. It came to a point that there is a need to manage these terminals to lessen traffic in intersections and lessen transport related violence.
However the local government do not have baseline and transport maps to start with where they can base their governance initiatives and policy recommendations.
The capabilities available in the GIS software will be explored to map the location of tricycle terminals and in order to support the analysis with regards to improving the mobility, traffic flow and transportation services within the barangay.
4 GIS generated maps on current transportation system can be used by the local government.
Information generated from the study may open new opportunities for proactive engagement and partnership. Research results and analysis are also envisaged to be useful for planning.
The results obtained can be used by the barangay leaders, transport system managers to identify strategies and policies to better plan the public transportation. Further results can be used in enhancing enforcement of safety, locations to better services, and outreach. The recommendations and strategic actions on the other may be useful for designing new innovative programs1.
2. Brief description of study area
Bagong Silang or Barangay 176 is located at the northern part of Caloocan City (Figure 1). It is bounded in the North and West by the Marilao River, Barangay 175 in the South and Barangay 186 in the East. It has a total land area of 524.68 hectares2 with topography of gently to steeply undulating to rolling topography. It was subdivided into several phases that have been developed into Phase I, II, III, IV, V, VII, VIII, IX and X. The land use is mostly allocated for residential uses with several industrial areas. The barangay have a Type 1 with dry season from October to January and wet season from June to September.
In 1995, Barangay 176 comprised 15% of city’s total population with a total 157,578 persons.
With an average household size of 5, the barangay have 31,523 households. As of 2007, NSCB accounts for a total population is 221,874 or 16.1% share of city’s population.
The barangay was chosen as a study area due to the demand from the local government officials to help them manage their public transportation. Problems related to public transportation have been a perennial problem in the area. Providing the local government with baseline information and maps is already a big leap to start with.
Current State of Public Transportation in Barangay 176 Barangay 176 is accessible through Quirino Highway via Malaria Susano Road via Novaliches town proper and Zabarte – Camarin Road that serves its main thoroughfares.
Transportation supply is not a problem in the barangay. It has ample supply of buses, jeepneys and tricycle. In the recent information acquired from the Tricycle and Pedicab Regulatory Service (TPRS)3, the barangay have a total of 2,558 units of tricycles (Table 1) comprising 4 Tricycle Operators and Drivers Association (TODA).
The Caloocan City Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP) of 2000-2005 already identified that the Bagong Silang Resettlement Project’s intersections poses serious traffic problems and affects transportation efficiency in general. The identified causes of traffic congestion includes narrow right of ways and sidewalks, inefficient public transport terminal facilities, street and market vendor, poor pavement, inadequate Traffic Management System (TMS), and inadequate road geometry.
Moreover, the local barangay officials identified the problem related to public transportation supply as one of the issue in the locality that sometimes are the causes of conflict and violence affecting the peace and order situation. An important factor contributing to public transportation related problems includes illegal terminals of tricylces, conflict among TODA with regards to route assignments, node designated loading and unloading areas, and no central terminal.
3 TPRS is the recommending body to the City Council for the approval of franchise, permits, and assignment of terminals of tricycles and pedicabs.
Source: TPRS (2011) In its MTDP, the City of Caloocan already cited that the expanded public capital investments essential to uplift level and extent of social and economic infrastructure services, and traffic engineering in these northern areas of the city. This includes Barangay 176.
The goal of the study is to identify, map and assess the public transportation supply (with focus on tricycles) with the aide of crowdsourcing technique and GIS. Specifically, the
project would like to:
1. Develop a map of public transportation terminals of Barangay 176;
2. Analyze the current public transportation supply (specifically tricycles) and facilities with the standards and existing policies vis-à-vis identified problems within the barangay.
3. Identify strategic actions that the Barangay can undertake to improve their transport situation vis-à-vis the local government’s plan.
To identify, map and assess the public transportation supply of Barangay 176, the following conceptual framework below (Figure 2) was used. A Pressure-State-Response framework was utilized as a reference in the assessment and getting the feedback from the local stakeholders.
Several methods for data collection were done4
1. Crowdsourcing mapping – technique used to easily pinpoint the location of terminals in the Barangay.
2. Focus Group Discussions – An FGD was conducted with select barangay officials including those involved in policy and program implementation (e.g. traffic).
4 The methodology and activities in this paper is based on the class group exercise (Cordova, LV, Josef, JF and Ong, A.) in Plan 259 AY 2011-2012 School of Urban and Regional Planning, UP Diliman.
Local knowledge is very important. Using crowdsourcing technique, these knowledge can be translated into essential information for mapping public transport terminals. Through this method, everyone contributes.. Crowdsourcing was done by utilizing a big barangay map.
Key questions were asked to the local stakeholders in order to identify and pinpoint the locations and what mode is in the specific locations. The method generated lots of information in less than an hour at the least cost. Then the data information will be validated through ground verification.
A separate shape file (polyline) for baranggay boundary and road network was added, and the barangay boundary and roads were traced onto the respective layers. Segments were then labelled as major and minor roads. These were identified and validated through a consulstation by key barangay officials. This serves as an additional field in the attributes table of the road network shape file that was us d to generate base maps.
To analyze the maps generated for the barangay, planning theories and concepts, HLURB guidelines and standards (Table 2) were used as references. This also served as the basis of recommended strategic actions vis-a-vis existing national and local policies.
There are 3 traffic prone areas identified. These are located in the rotonda (Phase 9) that serve as terminal of jeepney taking kaliwa route and tricycles. Second is located in the intersection of Camarin and Ligaya Roads near the Phase 1 and Phase 4 market, parish church, and barangay hall. The other traffic prone area is in the intersection located at Phase 5. Rows of commercial establishments are located in this area of the barangay. Many of the jeepneys are taking time to load and wait for passengers that causes traffic. Other factors that cause traffic are vendors along the streets and on Sundays in churches.
5.2 Location of Terminals