«Congressional Research Service 7-5700 R43139 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Federal Disaster ...»
Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes
Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike
Bruce R. Lindsay, Coordinator
Analyst in American National Government
Jared Conrad Nagel, Coordinator
Information Research Specialist
July 5, 2013
Congressional Research Service
CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike
This report provides information on federal financial assistance provided to the Gulf States after major disasters were declared in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in response to the widespread destruction that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008.
Congressional interest in Gulf Coast assistance has increased in recent years because of the significant amount of assistance provided to the region. Congress has also been interested in how the money has been spent, what resources have been provided to the region, and whether the money has reached the people and entities intended to receive the funds. The financial information is also useful for congressional oversight of the funds to identify the entities that have received the funds and to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the assistance. In addition, the information can help frame the congressional debate concerning federal assistance for current and future disasters.
The financial information for the 2005 and 2008 Gulf Coast storms is provided in two sections of
1. Table 1 of Section I summarizes disaster assistance supplemental appropriations enacted into public law primarily for the needs associated with the five hurricanes, with the information categorized by federal department and agency; and
2. Section II contains information on the federal assistance provided to the five Gulf Coast states through the most significant federal programs, or categories of programs.
The financial findings in this report include:
• Congress has appropriated roughly $120.5 billion in hurricane relief for the 2005 and 2008 hurricanes in 10 supplemental appropriations statutes.
• The appropriated funds have been distributed among 11 departments, 3 independent agencies/entities, numerous sub-entities, and the federal judiciary.
• Congress appropriated almost half of the funds ($53 billion, or 44% of the total) to the Department of Homeland Security, most of which went to the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).
• Congress targeted roughly 22% of the total appropriations (almost $27 billion) to the Department of Housing and Urban Development for community development and housing programs.
• Almost $25 billion was appropriated to Department of Defense entities: $15.6 billion for civil construction and engineering activities undertaken by the Army Corps of Engineers and $9.2 billion for military personnel, operations, and construction costs.
• FEMA has reported that roughly $5.9 billion has been obligated from the DRF after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma to save lives and property through mission assignments made to over 50 federal entities and the American Red Cross (see Table 19), $160.4 million after Hurricane Gustav through 32 federal entities (see Table 20), and $441 million after Hurricane Ike through 30 federal entities (see Table 21). In total, federal agencies obligated roughly $6.5 billion for mission assignments after the five hurricanes.
Congressional Research Service Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike
• The Small Business Administration approved almost 177,000 applications in the region for business, home, and economic injury loans, with a total loan value of almost $12 billion (Table 31 and Table 32).
• The Department of Education obligated roughly $1.8 billion to the five states for elementary, secondary, and higher education assistance (Table 12).
This report also includes a brief summary of each hurricane and a discussion concerning federal to state cost-shares. Federal assistance to states is triggered when the President issues a major disaster declaration. In general, once declared the federal share for disaster recovery is 75% while the state pays for 25% of recovery costs. However, in some cases the federal share can be adjusted upward when a sufficient amount of damage has occurred, or when altered by Congress (or both). In addition, how much federal assistance is provided to states for major disasters is influenced not only by the declaration, but also by the percentage the federal government pays for the assistance. This report includes a cost-share discussion because some of these incidents received adjusted cost-shares in certain areas.
Since 2005 Congress has been interested in not only the amount of funding that has been directed to the Gulf Coast after the 2005 and 2008 hurricanes, but also in the wide range of activities and programs brought to bear to help the Gulf Coast states recover and prepare for future storms. This report summarizes the funds Congress directed to the area as well as the federal activities and programs that were put to use in response to the 2005 and 2008 hurricanes.
Congressional Research Service Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike Contents Introduction
Hurricanes Rita and Wilma
Hurricanes Gustav and Ike
Information Categories and Data Collection Methods
Caveats and Limitations
Section I: Summary of Gulf Coast Disaster Supplemental Appropriations
Section II. Agency-Specific Information on Gulf Coast Hurricane Federal Assistance................ 11 Department of Agriculture
Agricultural Research Service
Farm Service Agency
Food and Nutrition Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Rural Housing Service
Rural Utilities Service
Department of Commerce
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Economic Development Administration Economic Adjustment Assistance
Department of Defense (Civil)
Army Corps of Engineers
Department of Defense (Military)
Operations and Maintenance
Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation
Military Construction (MILCON) and Family Housing
Other Department of Defense Programs
Department of Education
Elementary and Secondary Education
Department of Health and Human Services
Administration for Children and Families
Public Health and Medical Assistance
Public Health Emergency Fund
Department of Homeland Security
Federal Emergency Management Agency
FEMA Mission Assignments by Federal Entity
Community Disaster Loan Program
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
Community Development Block Grants
Rental Assistance/Section 8 Vouchers
Congressional Research Service Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike Supportive Housing
Public Housing Repair
Department of Justice
United States Marshals Service
Federal Bureau of Investigation
Drug Enforcement Administration
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives
Federal Prison System (Bureau of Prisons)
Office of Justice Programs
Department of Labor
Workforce Investment Act (WIA) Dislocated Worker Program
Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration: Emergency Relief Program (ER)
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)
Federal Transit Administration (FTA)
Department of Veterans Affairs
Medical Center in New Orleans
Armed Forces Retirement Homes
Corporation for National and Community Service
Environmental Protection Agency
Hurricane Emergency Response Authorities
EPA Hurricane Response
EPA Regular Appropriations
The Federal Judiciary
Small Business Administration
Disaster Assistance Program
Cost-Shares and Programmatic Considerations: Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, Dennis, and Rita
Administrative and Congressional Waivers of Cost-Shares
Concluding Observations and Policy Questions
Potential Methods for Controlling Costs Associated with Major Disasters
Rationale for Keeping the Disaster Assistance the Same
Offsetting the Costs of Disasters
Limiting the Number of Major Disaster Declarations Being Issued
The Use of State Capacity Indicators
Changes to the Stafford Act
Reducing the Amount of Assistance Provided through Declarations
Figures Figure 1. Examples of Most Expensive U.S. Disasters, 1871 to 2012
Figure 2. Major Disaster Declarations
Congressional Research Service Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike Tables Table 1. Estimated Gulf Coast Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike
Table 2. Disaster Relief Funding by the U.
S. Department of Agriculture for 2005 Gulf Coast Hurricanes
Table 3. 2005 Hurricane Disaster Relief Payments for Crops and Livestock by State.
................. 14 Table 4. 2008 Agricultural Disaster Relief Program Payments by State
Table 5. Disaster Relief Funding through the Emergency Watershed Protection Program.
.......... 16 Table 6. Forest Service Programs Used to Grant Assistance after Hurricanes in 2005 and 2008
Table 7. Forest Service 2005 and 2008 Hurricane Recovery Funding
Table 8. Disaster Relief Funding for Commercial Fisheries
Table 9. Distribution of EAA Disaster Recovery Grants for Selected States by Hurricane Event
Table 10. Disaster Relief Funding Appropriations for the Army Corps of Engineers
Table 11. Disaster Relief Funding by the Department of Defense (Military)
Table 12. Disaster Relief Funding Administered by the Department of Education Provided in Response to Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Gustav, and Ike
Table 13. Disaster Relief Funding for Programs at the HHS Administration for Children and Families
Table 14. Disaster Relief Funding for Crisis Counseling, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Services
Table 15. Disaster Relief Funding for Health Care Costs and Infrastructure
Table 16. Disaster Relief Funding for Communications Equipment and Mosquito Abatement
Table 17. Disaster Relief Funding by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike
Table 18. Mission Assignments by Agency: Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Rita
Table 19. Mission Assignments by Agency: Hurricane Gustav
Table 20. Mission Assignments by Agency: Hurricane Ike
Table 21. Appropriations to the DALDP account for Community Disaster Loans, 2006Table 22.
FEMA: Community Disaster Loan Program Borrowed Loan Amounts
Table 23. Distribution of CDBG Disaster Recovery Funds for Selected States, by Disaster Declaration
Table 24. Disaster Relief Funding by the Department of Housing and Urban Development
Table 25. Disaster Relief Funding for the Department of Justice
Table 26. Disaster Relief Funding by the Department of Labor
Table 27. Emergency Relief Obligations for Gulf Coast Hurricanes
Table 28. Disaster Relief Funding by Modal Administration/Program
Table 29. Disaster Relief Supplemental Appropriations for the U.
S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): P.L. 109-148 and P.L. 109-234
Congressional Research Service Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike Table 30. Disaster Relief Funding by the Federal Judiciary
Table 31. Small Business Administration: Number of Approved Disaster Assistance Loans For the Five Hurricanes
Table 32. Small Business Administration: Approved Disaster Loan Applications by Amount
Table 33. Disaster Relief Fund Annual Appropriations FY2004-FY2012
Table 34. Major Disasters and Supplemental Appropriations
Table A-1. Contributing Authors and Contact Information
AppendixesAppendix A. Contributing Authors
Contacts Author Contact Information
Congressional Research Service Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike Introduction This report provides a comprehensive summary of the federal financial assistance provided to the Gulf Coast states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in response to the widespread destruction that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008.
The damages caused by the hurricanes are some of the worst in the history of the United States in terms of lives lost and property damaged and destroyed. The federal government played a significant role in the response to the hurricanes and Congress appropriated funds for a wide range of activities and efforts to help the Gulf Coast states recover and rebuild from the storms. In addition, Congress appropriated a significant amount of funds to reduce or eliminate the impacts of future storms.