«James Shambaugh Judy Oglethorpe Rebecca Ham with contributions from Sylvia Tognetti Biodiversity Support Program The Trampled Grass Mitigating the ...»
THE TRAMPLED GRASS
Mitigating the impacts
of armed conflict on
with contributions from Sylvia Tognetti
Biodiversity Support Program
The Trampled Grass
Mitigating the impacts of armed
conflict on the environment
With contributions from Sylvia Tognetti
James Shambaugh, Judy Oglethorpe, and Rebecca Ham, Authors with contributions from Sylvia Tognetti Grammarians, Inc.
Publication Services Kate Sullivan Publication Manager Kate Sullivan Copyediting/Production Editing Grammarians, Inc.
Proofreading Laura Hurst and Steve Hall Illustrations and Design WWF-US (Maps 1-3); WWF-US, Conservation Maps International, and BirdLife International (Map 4) Martin Leuders (left image), Michael Fay (right image, Cover Photos top), UNHCR (right image, middle), UNHCR (right image, bottom) Steve Hall Cover Design Mike Alwan Desktop Publishing S&S Graphics Printing James Shambaugh BSP Armed Conflict and the Environment Project Director Sheila Donoghue BSP Director of Communications Judy Oglethorpe Director of BSP’s Africa and Madagascar Program and BSP Executive Director Please cite this publication as: Shambaugh, J., J. Oglethorpe, and R. Ham (with contributions from Sylvia Tognetti). 2001. The Trampled Grass: Mitigating the impacts of armed conflict on the environment.
Washington, DC, USA.: Biodiversity Support Program.
ii The Trampled Grass: Mitigating the impacts of armed conflict on the environment About the Biodiversity Support Program The Biodiversity Support Program (BSP) is a consortium of World Wildlife Fund, The Nature Conservancy, and World Resources Institute, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). BSP’s mission is to promote conservation of the world’s biological diversity. We believe that a healthy and secure living resource base is essential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations. BSP began in 1988 and will close down in December 2001.
A Commitment to Learning Our communications activities are designed to share what we are learning through our field and research activities. To accomplish this, we try to analyze both our successes and our failures. We hope our work will serve conservation practitioners as a catalyst for further discussion, learning, and action so that more biodiversity is conserved. Our communications programs include print publications, Web sites, presentations, and workshops.
BSP Web Sites and Publications We invite you to visit our Web sites.
*Biodiversity Support Program: www.BSPonline.org *Biodiversity Conservation Network: www.BCNet.org CARPE: Central African Regional Program for the Environment: http://carpe.umd.edu *Until the end of 2006, these two sites will be available at the addresses above. WWF-US will be hosting these sites on its Web site. BSP thanks WWF for providing this service.
Many of our publications are available online at www.BSPonline.org. On our home page, click on publications. You can view publications online until the end of 2006. You may contact us by mail, e-mail, phone, or fax until December 2001.
Biodiversity Support Program c/o World Wildlife Fund 1250 24th St. NW Washington, DC 20037 USA Phone: 202-861-8347; Fax: 202-861-8324; E-mail: BSP@wwfus.org Web Site: www.BSPonline.org Printed on recycled paper.
© 2001 by World Wildlife Fund, Inc., Washington, D.C. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this publication for educational and other noncommercial purposes is authorized without prior permission of the copyright holder. However, WWF, Inc. does request advance written notification and appropriate acknowledgment. WWF, Inc. does not require payment for the noncommercial use of its published works and in no way intends to diminish use of WWF research and findings by means of copyright.
This publication was made possible through support provided to the Biodiversity Support Program by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development, under the terms of Cooperative Agreement Number AOT-A-00-99-00228-00.
Armed Conflict and the Environment Project ACE African Centre for Technology Studies ACTS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS African Wildlife Foundation AWF Biodiversity Support Program BSP Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources CAMPFIRE (Zimbabwe) Central African Republic CAR Central African Regional Program for the Environment CARPE Community-based natural resource management CBNRM Community-based organization CBO Conservation International CI Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species CITES Conflict Prevention, Mitigation, Resolution/Reconciliation Division (USAID) CMR Comité de Coordination de Site CoCoSi Democratic Republic of Congo DRC Environmental impact assessment EIA Environmental Systems Research Institute ESRI Ethiopian Wildlife Conservation Organization EWCO Fauna and Flora International FFI Frente de Libertação de Moçambique (Mozambique Liberation Front) FRELIMO Global Environment Facility GEF Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (German GTZ Development Aid) Headquarters HQ Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature (Congolese Institute for ICCN the Conservation of Nature) Internally displaced person IDP International Gorilla Conservation Programme IGCP Integrated Rural Development and Nature Conservation IRDNC World Conservation Union IUCN Memorandum of understanding MOU Netherlands Committee–IUCN NC–IUCN Non-governmental organization NGO
xii The Trampled Grass: Mitigating the impacts of armed conflict on the environment Acknowledgments e would like to thank all the people and organizations who have contributed in so many W ways to BSP’s Armed Conflict and the Environment project and this publication.
Throughout the project we have encountered tremendous support, interest, and commitment in mitigating the impacts of armed conflict on the environment, which is reflected in the wealth of practical experience, advice, and ideas people have generously shared with us. Without their valuable help, this publication would not have been possible.
We acknowledge with gratitude the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)’s Bureau for Africa, Office of Sustainable Development for funding the major part of the project. Special thanks go to Tim Resch, Jon Anderson, and Greg Booth for their support, interest, and contributions. USAID’s Mission in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) provided funding for the DRC Preparing for Peace workshop in 2001, as well as other DRC activities, and we would like to recognize the contributions of Diane Russell, Nick Hobgood, and Alex Deprez.
USAID’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) arranged for funding by the US Department of Agriculture for some of the case study and publication costs. Marion Pratt, Social Science Advisor and Environment Point of Contact in OFDA, provided invaluable advice and collaboration throughout the life of the project. Mary Rowen of USAID’s Global Bureau, and Ajit Joshi at the Conflict Prevention, Mitigation, Resolution/Reconciliation (CMR) Unit in the Africa Bureau also provided valuable help.
We are very grateful to the authors of the BSP case studies who provided a critical body of knowledge from numerous areas of conflict and post-conflict across sub-Saharan Africa. Their work contributed greatly to the project’s analysis of impacts and mitigation, and to this publication. The case study authors are Allard Blom and Jean Yamindou (Central African Republic);
John Hatton, Mia Couto, and Judy Oglethorpe (Mozambique); Terese Hart and Robert Mwinyihali (Democratic Republic of Congo); José Kalpers (Virungas); Andrew Plumptre, Michel Masozera, and Amy Vedder (Rwanda); Michael Jacobs and Cathy Schloeder (Ethiopia); and Chris Squire (Sierra Leone).
Many people participated in the pan-African Workshop on Armed Conflict and the Environment at Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe in April 2001. That workshop generated numerous insightful discussions and ideas, and we are grateful to the participants for taking time out of their busy schedules to share their expertise. Attending the workshop were Marcellin Agnagna, Patrick Alley, Jon Anderson, Jay Austin, Vitalis Chadenga, James Coleman, Sam Doe, Georg Döerken, Pauline Acknowledgments xiii Dolan, Jean-Gael Emptaz-Collomb, Tommy Garnett, Terese Hart, Jean-Pierre d’Huart, Michael Jacobs, Margaret Jacobson, José Kalpers, André Kamdem Toham, Oliver Karkoschka, Almaz Tadesse Kebede, Girineza Mafuko, Erin McCandless, Bihini Won wa Musiti, Robert Mwinyihali, Andrew Plumptre, Louis Putzel, Karine Rousset, Mary Rowen, Ladislaus Rutaihwa, Cathy Schloeder, Kes Hillman Smith, Laurent Somé, Chris Squire, Sylvia Tognetti, Theodore Trefon, Happy James Tumwebaze, Harry van der Linde, and Sylvie Wabbes Candotti. We would especially like to thank the Honorable Edward Chindori-Chininga, Deputy Minister of Environment and Tourism in Zimbabwe, for his inspiring address at the workshop.
Zimbabwe Trust provided valuable and efficient administrative, logistical, and technical support to the pan-African workshop. We give deep thanks to Champion Chinhoyi, Emmanuel Koro, Petronella Pasipamire, and Anne Gova. And a special thank you to Angela Reading for her superb job coordinating the logistics for this workshop.
Another workshop was held in June 2001 in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), on Preparing for Peace. This workshop brought together Congolese non-governmental organizations, government representatives, and donor agencies to raise the profile of the environment on the national agenda as DRC emerges from years of armed conflict. We would especially like to thank those who gave presentations at the workshop, including Laurent Somé, Theodore Trefon, Muembo Kabemba, Paulin Mbalanda, Kalasi Ngay Guy, Evelyne Samu, Walter Mbayirindi, Richard Tshombe, Raymond Lumbuenamo, J. Robert Bwangoy Bankanja, Annie Nzolani Usongadio Luyinduladio Nzinga, Alphonse Batalou Mbetani, Yobwa Ipalaka, Zasy Ngisako Germain, Shimbi Luketa, Mwanda Kizito, Eulalie Bashige Baliruhya, Henri Paul Eloma Ikoleki, Zépherin Mogba, Tinzana Coulibaly, Diane Russell, Melissa Moye, Brigitte Carr, Claudine Andre, and Nina Landu.
We also acknowledge the contributions of the many Congolese NGOs, CARPE grantees, and other partners who participated in the Preparing for Peace workshop. In addition, we would like to thank the members of the DRC Government who attended, including Tshikez Diemu, Vice Minister of the Interior; Salomon Banamuhere Baliene, Minister of the Environment; Musimwa Bisharhwa, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation; Jean Marc Sombo, Commandant from the DRC Armed Forces; Malembe Mbo, ICCN President; other ICCN staff;
and many others. We also extend our thanks to Ambassador Lacy William Swing, U.S.
Ambassador to DRC, for his contributions to the workshop, and to the USAID Mission in Kinshasa. We would also like to thank the workshop moderators, Télésphore Tsakala Munikengi and Jean Christophe Elembo, and the rapporteur, Mobula Meta Lidoga Victor. Lastly, we would like to express our appreciation to Evelyne Samu, Michel Kibanda, and Emmanuel Pulupulu of the CARPE program for their tireless efforts to organize this workshop.
We would also like to thank the participants at other workshops and meetings, including the initial project workshop in Washington, D.C. in 1998; the conflict group in the West Africa Priority Setting Workshop in Ghana in 1999; and in 2001, the armed conflict meeting organized by the African Biodiversity Collaborative Group; and the project analysis meeting in Washington, D.C.
xiv The Trampled Grass: Mitigating the impacts of armed conflict on the environment These participants and many other people from across sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere provided support, knowledge, and personal experiences of impacts of armed conflict on the environment and ways to mitigate their effects. They include: Simon Anstey, Deborah Avant, Brent Bailey, Mohamed Bakarr, Timothy Bishop, Esther Blom, Dirck Byler, Carl Bruch, Ben Campbell, Scott Campbell, Brigitte Carr, Sally Chin, Kristin Clay, Sally Coxe, Guy Debonnet, Nancy Diamond, Patrick Diskin, Georg Doërken, Jonathan Dworken, Paul Elkan, Sarah Elkan, Katie Frohardt, Tommy Garnett, Nancy Gelman, Ken Giunta, Steve Hansch, John Hart, Terese Hart, Jeremy Heep, Shamil Idriss, Sousthène Issenghe, José Kalpers, Sam Kanyamibwa, Callixte Kayijuka, Charles Kelly, Edward Keturakis, Ed Kiely, Alexander Kulue, Norwood Langley, Annette Lanjouw, Enrico Leonardi, John Mitchell, Melissa Moye, Kate Newman, Thierry Nlandu, Sylvio Oliviera, Mari Omland, Mario Pareja, Seema Paul, Alexander Peale, Morten Petersen, Steven Price, Ian Redmond, William Reno, Dilys Roe, Eugene Rutagarama, Satenin Sagnah, Deborah Singiser, Steve Smith, Deborah Snelson, Barry Spergel, Jamison Suter, Fred Swartzendruber, Efas Sylla, Christopher Talbot, Chet Tchozewski, Jo Thompson, Tidaine Traore, Amy Vedder, Kelly West, David Wilkie, Liz Williamson, and Philip Winter. Others also contributed—we thank you all.
We would like to also thank the many organizations affiliated with the study, including the African Biodiversity Collaborative Group, African Wildlife Foundation, CARE, Center for the Study of Societies in Crisis, Conservation International, Fauna and Flora International, government departments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in DRC and government departments elsewhere in Africa, International Gorilla Conservation Programme, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Wildlife Conservation Society, and World Wildlife Fund.
For producing the maps in this guide, we give thanks to David Olson and Tim Green of WWF–US, Thomas Brooks and Penny Langhammer of Conservation International, and Carol Levie of Grammarians, Inc.