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Vol 4 Issue 12 Jan 2015 ISSN No : 2230-7850
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Indian Streams Research Journal is a multidisciplinary research journal, published monthly in English, Hindi & Marathi Language. All research papers submitted to the journal will be double - blind peer reviewed referred by members of the editorial board.Readers will include investigator in universities, research institutes government and industry with research interest in the general subjects.
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Abstract:-This paper is an attempt to understand the Internal migration and family life : a sociological inquiry People migrate from one place to another for the development of their overall living standard and to enhance their social position. Migration is considered to be one of the important strategies for the progress and development of rural poor. internal migration assumes special importance in any state in the process of development. By its very nature internal migration, that is the movement of people across smaller units within the state, is related to a process of change occurring within the social system The study reveals that, people were pushed in the city because of their poor socio-economic conditions, mainly poverty condition.
Besides, many pull factors also attract them to migrate in this city. It is found from the study that, internal migration is positively contributed to the development of poor people. There social and economic condition as household income, saving,land possession, expenditure, non-productive assets, housing status, water & sanitation facilities, treatment aptitudes, social participation etc.
Internal migration redistributes population and workforce from rural to urban areas.. Migration is an important feature of human civilization. It reflects, human endeavor to survive in the most testing conditions both natural and man-made Keywords: Internal Migration,Trends, and Patterns,Attitudes,awareness, Human Development, Gender,
INTRODUCTIONMigration is one of the most important phenomena affecting the economy and social composition of cities;
their geographical organization and politic. Migration is a broad term which incorporates all kinds of the movement of people from one place to another (Haider 2010, p. 309). Migration is a permanent or semi-permanent change of the place of origin to the place of destination. It incorporates allkinds of permanent or temporary movement of the mentioned that, better job opportunity, better educational and health care faculties and other social amenities are responsible for better living conditions which attract the migrants towards the city life. Migration is a natural process and practice of humankind.
It is an important factor in the advancement of progressive livelihood and overall development of the society (Raj, 1998, p. 215). People migrate from one area to other for their self need and to protect their existence since the ancient period.
It is such a process, in which leaving permanent area people shift another place for long time (Chakravarty & Chakravarty 2012 p.14; Singh et al. 2001 cited in Singh, et al., 2007, p. 57). Movement of people from one location to another is a common phenomenon in both developed and developing nations (Oyeniyi, 2013). The idea that one making up his choice and move to a location that promises better opportunities has long been an important
part of human race. As such, population movement is usually deliberate. That makes the presence (or absence) of the movers in a place a matter of choice, not chance. The voluntary movement of people however, selects districts types of individuals from their origins (Morrison, Bryan and Swanson, 2004). Internal migration plays an important role in the workings of the labor market, acting as an equilibriating mechanism between rural and urban sectors especially in developing economies. Moreover, the welfare improving effects of migration as a result of a transfer of labor from low productive to high productive areas has also been previously demonstrated in the literature(Ghatak, 1991).
OBJECTIVES OF THE PAPER:
* To study the Socio-economic status of internal migrants workers.
* To find out the Impact of Migration on internal Migrants.
This research paper focus on Internal migration and family life : a sociological inquiry This research paper is based on secondary source. data are drawn classified from the Publications of books, monthly journals, article, magazines, produced by the State Government, comprising literature review, and population census.
Migration: Rural-urban migration is one of the causes attributed to the formation and expansion of slums. Since 1950, world population has increased at a far greater rate than the total amount of arable land, even as agriculture contributes a much smaller percentage of the total economy. For example, in India, agriculture accounted for 52% of its GDP in 1954 and only 19% in 2004; in Brazil, the 2005 GDP contribution of agriculture is one-fifth of its contribution in 1951. Agriculture, meanwhile, has also become higher yielding, less disease prone, less physically harsh and more efficient with tractors and other equipment. The proportion of people working in agriculture has declined by 30% over the last 50 years, while global population has increased by 250%. Many people move to urban areas primarily because cities promise more jobs, better schools for poor's children, and diverse income opportunities than subsistence farming in rural areas. However, some rural migrants may not find jobs immediately because of their lack of skills and the increasingly competitive job markets, which leads to their financial shortage. Many cities, on the other hand, do not provide enough low-cost housing for a large number of rural-urban migrant workers. Some rural-urban migrant workers cannot afford housing in cities and eventually settle down in only affordable slums. Further, rural migrants, mainly lured by higher incomes, continue to flood into cities. They thus expand the existing urban slums.According to Ali and Toran, social networks might also explain rural-urban migration and people's ultimate settlement in slums. In addition to migration for jobs, a portion of people migrate to cities because of their connection with relatives or families. Once their family support in urban areas is in slums, those rural migrants intend to live with them in slums.
Trends and Patterns of Internal Migration in India :migrants are mostly young, unmarried, and have higher final education levels than non-migrants. Of the three cohorts considered (born in 1976, 1972, and 1968), the youngest presents the highest level of mobility.The decennial population Census and the quinquennial rounds of the National Sample Surveys (NSS) provide macro-data on internal migration, in India. Both these sources report data on population mobility and not worker mobility and the trends on the latter have to be disentangled carefully from population characteristics. It also needs to be noted that both due to the conceptual framework adopted in these surveys, and due to empirical difficulties, the Census and the NSS mainly identify long duration migration, chiefly covering permanent or long duration circular migrants. These surveys fail to adequately capture seasonal migration, the magnitude of which is both large and growing (Srivastava and Sasikumar 2005, Srivastava 2005a) and also probably underestimate circular migration. Data available up to 1999-00 has been analysed in detail earlier in several studies (Srivastava 1998, Srivastava and Bhattacharya 2003, Srivastava and Sasikumar 2005). This paper will dwell here more on the recent trends in population and worker mobility as revealed by the 2001 Census and the 2007-08 NSS. According to the Census, about 309.5 million persons or 30.1 percent of the Indian population could be described as internal migrants in 2001 using the change in Usual Place of Residence (UPR) definition. The National Sample Survey estimates that in 2007-08, 326 m people or 28.6 % of people were migrants by the UPR definition However, the bulk of the migrants in India are women who migrate out of their villages due to exogamous marriages. According to the 64 th Round of the NSS, of the total of
326.1 m migrants by change in UPR status, 67.6 m were male migrants and 258.4 m (79.3 %) were female migrants (census adjusted figures). Of these female migrants, 82.8 % migrated due to marriage.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITION OF LAMBANI COMMUNITY: India is a union of welfare states. It becomes the duty of government to uplift thee needy, downtrodden and exploited sections of the community.
Banjaras are aboriginals of this land. Hence should they be uplifted, protected and removed from the present distress.
As per the 1991 census7, Karnataka state has a population of 4,49,77,201. Out of which, 73,79,279 are scheduled caste (16.38%). And 8,23,505 people are Lambanis/Banjaras representing at 11.17% of SC/ST. But it is roughly estimated that we may be more than 25 lakhs in the state. Because our community is nomadic, working and young people move in search of jobs from place to place. Only age-old parents are available in tandas at the time census.
Hence there is no proper assessment either by 2001 census or from the Justice Sadashiva committee report. In almost all districts of Karnataka, Lambanis have settled down in tandas isolated from towns and villages. It is ethnic nomadic sect which has rich and cultural heritage, eternal traditions, unbreakable emotional attachments amongst the community people, but lacking economic empowerment. However, due to migrations from place to place, region to region, they have lost their origin. As riddle goes, as “Rolling stones gathers no mass” They could not create wealth; they could not hold land and properties and so on. Anyhow, some governments have recognized their contribution in per-independence and post-independence of India, and offered constitutional relieves in the form of reservation in certain states. However, it is yet to reach the needy people.
Living Condition of Migrant Workers: The workers, whether in agricultural or non-agricultural activity, live in unsatisfactory conditions. There is no provision of safe drinking water facility, the sanitary condition are unhygienic and most live in open spaces or makeshifts shelters (NCRL 1991, GVT 2002, Rani and Shylendra 2001).
In spite of the Contract Labour Act which stipulates that the contractor or employer should provide suitable accommodation to the labourers, they still continue to live in sub-human conditions. Apart from the seasonal workers, workers who migrate to the cities for job live in parks and pavements, and the slum dwellers, who are mostly migrants, stay in deplorable conditions, with inadequate supply of water and bad drainage facilities. Food expenses are higher for migrant workers, as they can not avail of the PDS since they are not provided with temporary ration card as they are not legally registered. Working conditions of seasonally migrant labourers are seriously inadequate. Wages, working hours, safety standards do not conform to any minimum norm and where advances have been given, there is no notion of a standard wage. Existing labour laws, including those specifically meant for them, are observed generally in their breach. Working conditions of seasonally migrant labourers are seriously inadequate. Wages, working hours, safety standards do not conform to any minimum norm and where advances have been given, there is no notion of a standard wage. Existing labour laws, including those specifically meant for them, are observed generally in their breach.
Changes in Attitudes and awareness :The non-economic impact of outmigration on local areas is more difficult to assess. As mentioned earlier, migration has double sided impacts on women’s work and autonomy. It also has impact on local power relations and politics as migrants who acquire wealth and consequent social status are keen to reflect this through participation in local politics. Deshingkar and Start (2003) mention how outmigration enables individuals and households to overcome restrictive caste barriers and increase livelihood options, Exposure to a different environment and the resulting emotional stress, affect the attitudes,habits and awareness levels of migrant workers, depending on the duration of migration and the destination. Such changes are more dramatic in the case of urban migrants, in whom migration develops a greater awareness regarding the conditions of work, reduces personalized dependence, and inculcates a change in their attitude towards personalized labour relations (Srivastava 1999). Such modified life styles and changes in personal awareness may affect other family members in a variety of ways, some of them being positive. For instance, the increased awareness which migrants gain, especially in urban areas, can help them realize the importance of their children’s education.