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«Topic: Norms of Translating Taboo Words and Concepts from English into Persian after the Islamic Revolution in Iran Advisor: P. Birjandi, Ph.D. ...»

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Islamic Azad University

Science and Research Branch

MA Thesis on Translation Studies (MA)

Topic:

Norms of Translating Taboo Words and Concepts from English into

Persian after the Islamic Revolution in Iran

Advisor:

P. Birjandi, Ph.D.

Reader:

H. Vosoughi, Ph.D.

Author:

Zohre Etemad Hosseini

Semester

2009-2010

  2 Table of contents Page Contents Abstract……………………………………………………………….……...1 Chapter I: Introduction ………………………………………………..…..2

1.1 Background of the problem……………………………………...………3

1.2 Statement of the problem……………………………………...…………5

1.3 Significance and the purpose of the study……………………………….5

1.4 Research question……………………………………………..…………6

1.5 Theoretical framework………………………………………..………….6

1.6 Definition of the key term ……………………………………..……….. 7

1.7 Limitation and delimitation of the Study…………………………..…....9 Chapter II: Review of the related literature……………………………..11

2.1 Overview………………………………………………………….…....12

2.2 Norms…………………………………………………………………..12 2.2.1 Toury’s view on translation norms…………………………………...12 2.2.2 Snell-Hornby’s view on translation norms…………………………...16 2.2.3 Anthony Pym’s view on translation norms…………………………...19 2.2.4 Herman’s view on translation norms…………………………………19 2.2.5 Holm’s view on translation norms……………………………………20   3 2.2.6 Nord’s view on translation norms…………………………………….21 2.2.7 Reiss and Vermeer’s Views on translation norms……………………21 2.2.8 Chester man’s view on translation norms…………………………….22 2.2.9 Honig and Kubmaul’s views on translation norms…………………...23 2.2.10 Schaffner’s view on translation norms……………………………...24

2.3 Censorship……………………………………………………………..24 2.3.1 Annete Kuhn’s view on censorship………………………………….24 2.3.2 Butler’s view on censorship……………………………………….….24 2.3.3 Focault’s view on censorship…………………………………………25 2.3.4 Konwicki’s view on censorship………………………………………25 2.3.5 Jansen’s view on censorship………………………………………….25 2.3.6 Holquist’s view on censorship………………………………………..26 2.3.7 Pauvert’s view on censorship………………………………………....26 2.3.8 Burt’s view on censorship…………………………………………….26 2.3.9 Harison’s view on censorship………………………………………...27 2.3.10 Aulich’s view on censorship………………………………….……..27 2.3.11 Post’s view on censorship…………………………………….……..27 2.3.12 Rosenfeld’s view on censorship………………………………….….27 2.3.13 Cronin’s view on censorship…………………………………..…….28 2.3.14 Muller’s view on censorship……………………………………..….28 2.3.15 Tisnade’s view on censorship…………………………………….…29 2.3.16 Drewetl’s ’s view on censorship……………………………….……30 2.3.17 Gere’s view on censorship…………………………………….…….30 2.3.18 Freshwater’s view on censorship……………………………………31 2.3.19 Billiani’s view on censorship…………………………………….….31 2.3.20 Faber’s view on censorship……………………………………….…32   4 2.3.21 Kreb’s view on censorship…………………………………………..32

2.4 Semi-censorship……………………………………………………...…33 2.4.1 Self-censorship………………………………………………………..34 2.4.1.1 Focault ’s view on self censorship………………………………….34 2.4.1.2 Fairclough’s view on self censorship……………………………….34 2.4.1.3 Brownlie’s view on self censorship…………………………….…..34 2.4.1.4 Stephenson’s view on self censorship………………………………35 2.4.1.5 Philpotts’s view on self censorship…………………………………35

2.5 Ideology………………………………………………………………...36 2.5.1 Simpson’s view on ideology………………………………………….36 2.5.2 Van Dijk’s view on ideology…………………………………………36 2.5.3 Verschueren’s view on ideology……………………………….……..37 2.5.4 Englten’s view on ideology…………………………………….…….37 2.5.5 Calzada Prez’s view on ideology…………………………….……….38





2.6 Ideology in Translation………………………………………………....38 2.6.1 May’s view on Ideology in translation……………………………….38 2.6.2 Venuti’s view on Ideology in translation…………………….…….…38 2.6.3 Andre Lefevere’s view on Ideology in translation…………………...40 2.6.4 Herman’s view on Ideology in translation……………………….…...42 2.6.5 Toury’s view on Ideology in translation…………………….…....…..42 2.6.6 Van Den Broeck’s view on Ideology in translation………….….....…42 2.6.7 Hatim and Mason’s views on Ideology in translation…………......…42 2.6.8 Van Dijk’s view on Ideology in translation………………….….…....43 2.6.9 Apfer’s view on Ideology in translation…………………….………..43 2.6.10 Schaffner’s view on Ideology in translation……………….………..44 2.6.11 Harvey’s view on Ideology in translation……………………….…..44   5 2.6.12 Africa vidal Claramonte’s view on Ideology in translation…………44 2.6.13 Nord’s view on Ideology in translation……………………………..45 2.6.14 Tahir-Gurcaglar’s view on Ideology in translation………………….46 2.6.15 Katan and Straniere’s views on Ideology in translation…………….47 2.6.16 Rosmary Arrojo’s view on Ideology in translation…………………47

2.7 Taboo…………………………………………………………………..47 2.7.1 Wundts’ view on taboo………………………………………………47 2.7.2 Freude’s view on taboo………………………………………………48 2.7.3 Robinson’s view on taboo…………………………………………….49

2.8 Euphemism…………………………………………….…….………....50 2.8.1 Hatzfeld ’s view on euphemism……………………………..………..50 2.8.2 Kronaser’s view on euphemism………………………………………51 2.8.3 Beekman and Callow’s views on euphemism………………………..51 2.8.4 Larson’s view on euphemism……………………………………...…51 2.8.5 Wardaugh’s view on euphemism……………………………………..51 2.8.6 Burridge and Allan’s views on euphemism………………………......52 2.8.7 Redfern’s view on euphemism………………………………………..52 2.8.8 Alcaraz Varo and Martinez Linares’s views on euphemism……...….52 2.8.9 Lechade’s view on euphemism………………………………….……53 2.8.10 Formkin’s view on euphemism………………………………….…..53 2.8.11 Rahimi and Sahragard’s views on euphemism…………………..….53 2.8.12 Crespo Fernandez’s view on euphemism…………………...………54 2.8.13 Keith Allan’s view on euphemism…………………………………..54 2.8.14 Burridge and Allan’s views on euphemism…………………..……..54 2.8.15 Chamizo Dominguez’ s views on euphemism………………………55   6 Chapter III: Methodology………………………………………………..56

3.1 Overview…………………………………………….…………………57

3.2 Type of Research……………………………………….……………....58

3.3 Research design………………………..……………….………………58

3.4 Methodology and theoretical framework……………………………….59

3.5 Corpus of the study…………………………………………………….60 3.5.1 Elements of the corpus………………………………………………..61 3.5.2 Type of the corpus……………………………………………………64 3.5.3 Size of the corpus…………………………………………………….64

3.6 Procedures ……………………………….…………………………….64 3.6.1 Unit of analysis…………………….…………………………………65

3.7 data collection and recording……….…………………………………..65

3.8 data processing and analysis……………………………………………65

Chapter IV: Data Analysis and Results…………………………………73

4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………….74

4.2 Data processing…………………………………………………………76 4.2.1 Preliminary Norms……………………………………………………76 4.2.1.1 Translation Policy…………………………………………………..77 4.2.1.2 Directness of Translation…………………………..……………….78 4.2.2 Operational Norms…………………………………….……….……..79 4.2.2.1 Matricial Norms………………………………………….................79 4.2.2.1.1 Omissions…………………………………………………..…..…80 4.2.2.1.1.2 Manipulations of Segmentation ………………………..….......87 4.2.2.2 Textual-Linguistic norms ……………………….…….…...............94   7 4.2.2.2.1 Euphemisms………………………………………………….…..94 4.2.3 Initial Norms…………………………………………….…………..109

4.3 Findings and results………………………………………….………..109

4.4 Discussion on findings……………………………………….……….111 Chapter V: Conclusions and implications……………………..……….113.

5.1 Introduction…………………………………………………….……114

5.2. Conclusions……………………………………………………….….114

5.3 Implications…………………………………………………….……..117

5.4 Suggestions for Further Research…………………………………….118 References……………………………………….………………..………119 Appendix …………………………………………………………………..A Persian abstract…………………………………………………………..134

List of Figures

Figure 4.1 Toury’s initial norm……………………………………………75 Figure 4.

2 Toury’s preliminary norms……………………………………...75 Figure 4.3 Toury’s operational norms…………………………………….76 Figure 4.4 Pie graph of data………..……………………………………110

  8 List of Tables

3.1 The English corpus used in the research………………………………..62

3.2 The Persian corpus used in the research………………………………..63

3.3 Frequency of omissions……………………………………………..….68

3.4 Frequency of manipulation of segmentation……………………….…..69

3.5 Frequency of euphemisms…………………………………………..….70

3.6 The overall data gathered from the corpus……………………………..71

3.7 The final results of the analysis of the corpus………………………….72

4.1 Frequency of omissions………………………………………………...86

4.2 Frequency of manipulation of segmentation……………………………93

4.3 Frequency of euphemisms………………………………………….…105

4.4 The overall data gathered from the corpus………………………...….106

4.5 The final results of the analysis of the corpus…………………..…….107

–  –  –

The research attempted to discover the norms of translating taboo words and concepts after the Islamic Revolution in Iran using Toury’s (1995) framework for classification of norms. The corpus of the study composed of Coelho’s novels between 1990 and 2005 and their Persian translations which were prepared and analyzed manually to discover the norms. It was found that the norms were at work during both the selection of novels for translation and the process of translating by translators. It was also discovered that the translators of the novels complied with the target language norms, i.e. the translators had attempted to produce acceptable translations. Regarding preliminary norms, the research suggested that the translation policy was based on popularity of the author that could guarantee the salability of translations. The frequency of the norms suggested that euphemism with 37.87 percent was the dominant norm in translating taboo words and concept in Iran. The frequency of the norms in each of the books, as well as their frequency in the entire corpus was measured and presented in tables and discussed. Finally, it was found out that the dominant ideology in Iran was a determining factor in the process of decision making by the translators.

–  –  –



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